Julia Margaret Cameron

Julia Margaret Cameron (née Pattle; 11 June 1815 – 26 January 1879) was a British photographer[1] known for her portraits of celebrities and for images with Arthurian and other legendary or heroic themes.

Cameron's photographic career was short, spanning eleven years of her life (1864–1875). She took up photography at the relatively late age of 48, when she was given a camera as a present.[2]

Her style was not widely appreciated in her own day. Her choice to use soft focus and to treat photography as an art as well as a science caused her works to be viewed as "slovenly", marred by "mistakes". She found more acceptance among pre-Raphaelite artists than among photographers.[3]

Her work, especially her closely cropped portraits, has influenced modern photographers.[4] Dimbola Lodge, her house on the Isle of Wight, is open to the public.

Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron MET DP114480 - Restoration
Portrait of Julia Margaret Cameron by Henry Herschel Hay Cameron, her son, in 1870
Born
Julia Margaret Pattle

11 June 1815
Died26 January 1879 (aged 63)
NationalityBritish
Known forPhotography

Biography

Early life and education

On 11 June 1815, Julia Margaret Cameron was born Julia Margaret Pattle at Garden Reach, Calcutta, India,[5] to Adeline Marie de l'Etang and James Peter Pattle. Her father was a British official from England, in India while working for the East India Company.[5][6] Her mother was a French aristocrat—the daughter of Chevalier Ambrose Pierre Antoine de l'Etang, who had been a page of Marie Antoinette and an officer in the Garde du Corps of King Louis XVI.[7] Julia was the fourth of ten children,[5] and one of seven to survive to adulthood; three of her siblings died as infants.[8]

Her father's family had been involved with the East India Company for many years, though he traced his line to a 17th century ancestor living in Chancery Lane, London.[9]At age 14, James joined the Indian Civil Service and, over time, rose to a high rank.[10]:12 A memorable story about her parents' end recounts her father succumbing to alcoholism in 1854, his body then shipped to England in a cask of rum, but the cask then exploding, causing his window to literally be scared to death and causing the ship to be destroyed after the rum caught fire.[9]

The seven Prattle sisters—known for their closeness, proud dispositions, unusual behaviour and dress, as well as their "charm, wit and beauty"[11]—were all sent to France as children to be educated (all of the sisters spoke Hindustani and French[10]:12). Julia lived there with her maternal grandmother from 1818 to 1834,[5][6][8] after which she returned to India.[12]

Marriage and social life

South Africa and Calcutta

In 1835, after suffering several illnesses, Julia visited the Cape of Good Hope[6] in South Africa with her parents to recover.[5] It was common for Europeans living in India to visit South Africa to convalesce after an illness.[8] While there, she met British astronomer and photo chemist Sir John Herschel, who was observing the southern celestial hemisphere.[12] She also met Charles Hay Cameron, twenty years her senior, an Indian law and education reformer who later invested in coffee plantations in what is now Sri Lanka.[12] Charles Hay was also there to convalesce, likely from a particularly virulent malarial fever which often spread during the Indian monsoon season. This illness caused recurring kidney trouble and diarrhea for the rest of his life.[10]:14

Two years after meeting,[8] on 1 February 1838, they were married in Calcutta.[5] In December of that same year, they gave birth to their first child; John Herschel was the godfather.[10]:15 Between 1839 and 1852,[13] they had six children, one of whom was adopted.[6] In all, the Cameron raised 11 children, five of her own, five orphaned children of relatives, and an Irish girl named Mary Ryan whom they found begging on Putney Heath and whom Cameron used as a model in her photographs.[14][11] Their son, Henry Herschel Hay Cameron, would also become a photographer.[5]

Julia Margaret Cameron, by James Prinsep
A drawing of Julia Margaret Cameron by James Prinsep.

Through the early 1840s, as organiser of the social engagements of governor-general Lord Henry Hardinge, Cameron became a prominent hostess in Anglo-Indian society.[5] During this time she also corresponded with Herschel about the latest developments in photographic technology. In 1939, Herschel was the first to inform Cameron about the invention of photography.[a][10]:14 In 1842, Herschel sent her two dozen calotypes and daguerrotypes, the first photographs she encountered.[10]:42

England

Perhaps to be closer to their two children,[10]:15 the Camerons retired to England in 1845, where they took part in London's artistic and cultural scene.[15] Julia often visited her sister, Sara Prinsep, who oversaw a literary and artistic salon "of Pre-Raphaelite painters, poets, and aristocrats with artistic pretensions"[14] at Little Holland House, Kensington, London.[13] It was here that she met many of the well-known subjects of her later portraits, including Henry Taylor and Alfred Tennyson.[8]

Daphne Du Maurier describes the scene:

The nobilitee, the gentree, the litherathure, polithics and art of the counthree, by jasus! It's a nest of proraphaelites, where Hunt, Millais, Rossetti, Watts, Leighton etc, Tennyson, the Brownings and Thackeray etc and tutti quanti receive dinners and incense, and cups of tea handed to them by these women almost kneeling.[16]

Benjamin Jowett echoed this when describing Cameron's reverence to these creative personalities after a later visit to the same salon-like atmosphere at Freshwater:

She is a sort of hero-worshipper, and the hero is not Mr Tennyson—he only occupies second place—but Henry Taylor.[10]:27

In 1847, she was writing poetry, started a novel, and published a translation of Gottfried August Bürger’s Leonora.[5][13] In 1848, Charles Cameron retired fully and invested in coffee and rubber plantations in Ceylon, becoming one of the island's largest landowners.[10]:483 The Camerons then settled down in England, first to Tunbridge Wells in Kent,[17] where she was neighbors with Sir Henry Taylor,[10]:16 then to East Sheen, London in 1850.[10]:7[6][5]

Julia Margaret Cameron by George Frederic Watts
Julia Margaret Cameron by George Frederic Watts. Oil on canvas, 1850-1852, 24 in. x 20 in. (610 mm x 508 mm).[18]

During this time, Cameron became a member of a society for art education and appreciation and George Frederic Watts starts working on a painting of Cameron.[10]:7

In 1860, after an extended visit with Alfred Tennyson at the seaside village of Freshwater, Isle of Wight, Julia hastily purchased a property next door to Tennyson and the family moved there, naming the property "Dimbola" after one of the coffee plantations in Ceylon.[5][14] A private gate connected the residences, and the two families soon began entertaining well-known personalities with music, poetry readings, and amateur plays, creating an artistic scene much as what was previously found at Little Holland House.[8] She lived there until 1875.[19]

Photography career

Early career

Cameron showed an interest in photography in the late 1850s[8] and there are indications that she experimented with making photographs in the early 1860s.[15]

Around 1863, her daughter Julia and her son-in-law gave her her first camera (a sliding-box camera) as a Christmas present.[6] The gift was meant to provide a diversion while her husband was away in Ceylon tending to his coffee plantations.[15] Of the gift, her daughter stated "It may amuse you, Mother, to try to photograph during your solitude at Freshwater."[20]

After receiving the camera, she cleared out a chicken coop and converted it into studio space.[21] In an unfinished autobiographical manuscript titled Annals of my Glasshouse, Cameron wrote:

I turned my coal-house into my dark room, and a glazed fowl house I had given my children became my glass house. The hens were liberated, I hope and believe not eaten. The profit of my boys upon new laid eggs was stopped, and all hands and hearts sympathised in my new labour, since the society of hens and chickens was soon changed for that of poets, prophets, painters and lovely maidens, who all in turn have immortalized the humble little farm erection.[8]

She also wrote:

I began with no knowledge of the art... I did not know where to place my dark box, how to focus my sitter, and my first picture I effaced to my consternation by rubbing my hand over the filmy side of the glass.[20]

Annie my first success, by Julia Margaret Cameron (restored)
Cameron called this 29 January 1864 portrait of Annie Philpot her "first success."

On 29 January 1864 she captured the photo of a 9‐year‐old Annie Philpot.[8] She dubbed the image her "first success". She sent the photograph to the subject's father with the note:

My first perfect success in the complete Photograph owing greatly to the docility & sweetness of my best & fairest sitter. This Photograph was taken by me at 1 p.m. Friday Jan. 29th. Printed—Toned—fixed and framed all by me I given as it is now by 8 p.m. this same day.[8]

That same year, she compiled albums of her images for Watts and Herschel, registered her work and prepared it for exhibition and sale,[10]:7–8 and was elected to the Photographic Society of London (remaining a member until her death),[22] where she displayed work at their yearly exhibitions.[5]

Though Cameron took up photography as an amateur and considered herself an artist, and despite never making commissioned portraits nor establishing a commercial studio, she thought of her photographic activity as a professional endeavor, actively copyrighting, publishing, and marketing her work.[20] Her family did not see substantial profits from their coffee plantations in Ceylon and Cameron may have seen photography as a medium through which to make some income. Her seeking to create portraits of celebrities, the copyrighting of her images, and the high volume of her photographic output may indicate commercial aspirations.[10]:25,41–42,496

Mid-career

In 1865, she became a member of the Photographic Society of Scotland and arranged to have her prints sold through the London dealers P. & D. Colnaghi.[23] She presented a series of photographs, The Fruits of the Spirit, to the British Museum,[10]:8 and held her first solo exhibition in November 1865.[5] Her prints generated robust demand and she showed her work throughout Europe,[6] securing awards in Berlin in 1865 and 1866[5], and honourable mention in Dublin.[10]:8

Her photographic activity was supported by her husband; Cameron wrote in the later unpublished manuscript Annals of my Glass House:

My husband from first to last has watched every picture with delight, and it is my daily habit to run to him with every glass upon which a fresh glory is newly stamped, and to listen to his enthusiastic applause.[9]

In August 1865, the South Kensington Museum, now the Victoria and Albert Museum, purchased 80 of her photographs.[10]:8 Three years later, the museum offered her two rooms to use as a portrait studio, essentially making her the museum's first artist-in-residence.[12]

Images of Thomas Carlyle and John Herschel were produced in 1867.[5]

By 1868, she was generating sales through P. & D. Colnaghi and a second London agent, William Spooner.

In 1869, she produces The Kiss of Peace, which she considers her finest work.[10]:8

The Kiss of Peace, by Julia Margaret Cameron, M197101590002
The Kiss of Peace, by Julia Margaret Cameron.

In the early 1870s, Cameron's work matured.[6] Her elaborate illustrative tableaus involving religious, literary, and classical figures peaked in a series of images for Tennyson's Idylles of the King, published in 1874 and 1875, evidently at her expense.[15][17] During this time, she also writes Annals of my Glass House, the memoir recounting her photographic career.[10]:9

Later life

In October 1873, during childbirth, her daughter died. Two years later,[5] because of her husband's ill health[17], because of the lower cost of living,[10]:483 and to be nearer to their sons who managed the family coffee plantations[12] (which had been badly harmed by a fungus),[10]:35 Cameron and her husband left Freshwater for Ceylon with "a cow, Cameron’s photographic equipment, and two coffins, in case such items should not be available in the East".[24][21]

Henry Taylor recounts the departure:

Mr. and Mrs. Cameron have taken their departure for Ceylon, there to live and die. He had bought an estate there some thirty years ago when he was serving the Crown there and elsewhere in the East, and he had a passionate love for the island, to which he had rendered an important service in providing it with a code of procedure . . . he never ceased to yearn after the island as his place of abode, and thither in his eighty-first year he has betaken himself, with a strange joy. The design was kept secret, — I believe even from their dearest relatives.[10]:36

V.C. Scott O'Connor later wrote about the absence at their vacated home in Freshwater:

The house is silent now and tenantless. All its old feverish life and bustle are stilled as is the heart which beat here in true sympathy with every living creature that came within its reach needing such succor. Her pretty maids, her scholars, her poets, her philosophers, astronomers, and divines, all those men of genius who came and sat willingly to her while in a fever of artistic emotion she plied the instruments of her art, — they have all gone, and silence is the only tenant left at Dimbola.[10]:37

The move effectively marked the end of Cameron's photography career;[5] she took few photographs afterwards,[17] mostly of Tamil servants and workers.[b][10]:9 Fewer than 30 images survive from this period. Cameron's output may have dropped in part because of the difficulty working with collodion in the insect-friendly heat where fresh water was less available for washing prints.[10]:483 The botanical painter and biologist Marianne North recounted her time visiting Cameron In Ceylon:

The walls of the room were covered with magnificent photographs; others were tumbling about the tables, chairs, and floors with quantities of damp books, all untidy and picturesque; the lady herself with a lace veil on her head and flowing draperies. Her oddities were most refreshing . . . She also made some studies of natives while I was there, and took such a fancy to the back of one of them (which she said was absolutely superb) that she insisted on her son retaining him as her gardener, though she had no garden and he did not know even the meaning of the word.[14][10]:483

In February 1876, Macmillan's Magazine publishes her poem, On a Portrait. The following year, her image The Parting of Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere appears on the cover Harper's Weekly as a wood engraving.[10]:9

After a short visit to England six months earlier, Cameron falls ill with a dangerous chill[6] and dies on 26 January 1879[12] at the Glencairn estate in Ceylon.[5] It is often reported that her last word was "Beauty"[15][24] or "Beautiful".[21]

In her 12-year career, Cameron produced around 900 photographs.[20]

Style, technique, and reception

In her photography, Cameron strove to capture beauty. She wrote, "I longed to arrest all the beauty that came before me and at length the longing has been satisfied."[10]:175[25]

In 1869 she collated and gave what is now known as The Norman Album to her daughter and son-in-law in gratitude for having introduced her to photography.[26] The album was later deemed by the Reviewing Committee on the Export of Works of Art to be of "outstanding aesthetic importance and significance to the study of the history of photography and, in particular, the work of Julia Margaret Cameron—one of the most significant photographers of the 19th century."[27]

The basic techniques of soft-focus "fancy portraits", which she later developed, were taught to her by David Wilkie Wynfield. She later wrote that "to my feeling about his beautiful photography I owed all my attempts and indeed consequently all my success".[28]

Many of Cameron's portraits are significant in part because they are the only existing photograph of historical figures.

The bulk of Cameron's photographs fit into two categories: closely framed portraits and illustrative allegories based on religious and literary works. In the allegorical works in particular, her artistic influence was clearly Pre-Raphaelite, with far-away looks, limp poses, and soft lighting.[29]

Her images were unconventional in their intimacy and their use of blur created both through long exposures and by leaving the lens intentionally out of focus. This led some of her contemporaries to complain and even ridicule her work, but friends and family were supportive.

Portraits

Among Cameron's lesser-known models was Mary Emily ('May') Prinsep, wife of Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, a British colonial administrator and the elder son of Alfred Tennyson. Cameron's portraits of May Prinsep, taken on the Isle of Wight, include both more conventional portraits and images of the sitter as allegorical subjects drawn from Romantic poetry.[30]

Tennyson asked Cameron to photograph illustrations for his Idylls of the King. These photographs are designed to resemble oil paintings from the same time period, including rich details such as historical costumes and intricate draperies.

Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron

Sir Henry Taylor as King David 1866

Julia Margaret Cameron (British, born India - Parting of Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere - Google Art Project

Parting of Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere 1874

Legacy

Cameron julia jackson
Julia Prinsep Jackson, later Julia Stephen, Cameron's niece, favourite subject, and the mother of Virginia Woolf

Cameron's niece Julia Prinsep Stephen (née Jackson; 1846–1895) wrote the biography of Cameron that appeared in the first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1886.[31] Julia Stephen, the mother of Virginia Woolf, wrote a comic portrayal of the "Freshwater circle" in her only play Freshwater. Woolf, in collaboration with Roger Fry, edited a collection of Cameron's photographs that was published in 1926.[32]

It was not until 1948, however, that Cameron's photography became more widely known, when Helmut Gernsheim wrote a book on her work.[33]He later noted that although a great photographer, Cameron had "left no mark" on the aesthetic history of photography because her work was not appreciated by her fellow photographers and thus not imitated.[34]

Her standing has since changed; in 1975, Imogen Cunningham commented "I'd like to see portrait photography go right back to Julia Margaret Cameron. I don't think there's anyone better." Cunningham went on to say her own work had not been influenced by Cameron as she had not been aware of it when she was starting out.[34]

Alethea, by Julia Margaret Cameron
Alice Liddell as Alethea

In 2003, the J. Paul Getty Museum published a complete catalogue of Cameron's known and surviving photographs. One caption of a portrait of Alice Liddell (whom Cameron photographed as Alethea, Pomona, Ceres, and St. Agnes in 1872) claims that "Cameron's photographic portraits are considered among the finest in the early history of photography".[35]

In 2013, the Metropolitan Museum of Art curated an exhibition of Cameron's work, which garnered significant reviews.[36]

In 2015 the Victoria and Albert Museum in London drew on their extensive collection of her work for a 200th anniversary retrospective of Cameron's career that also travelled to Sydney, Australia. Another exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery in London in March 2018 placed her work in relationship to the work of her Victorian contemporaries, Lady Clementina Hawarden, Oscar Rejlander, and Lewis Carroll.[37]

Portraits of Julia Margaret Cameron

There are seven known portraits of Julia Margaret Cameron. Many are held by the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Julia Margaret Cameron, by Henry Herschel Hay Cameron

Henry Herschel Hay Cameron, 1870

Julia Margaret Cameron

Henry Herschel Hay Cameron, 1870

Retrospectives

The following retrospective exhibitions have focused on Cameron's oeuvre.

Title Dates Institution Country
Julia Margaret Cameron 16 December, 1960 – 31 January, 1961 Limelight Gallery United States
Mrs. Cameron's photographs from the life[38] 22 January 1974 – 10 March 1974 Stanford University Museum of Art United States
Whisper of the Muse[39] 10 September 1986 – 16 November 1986 Getty Villa United States
Whisper of the Muse at Loyola Marymount University[40] 12 September 1986 – 25 October 1986 Laband Gallery United States
Portrait Photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron[40] 25 November 1987 – 14 February 1988 National Portrait Gallery United States
Julia Margaret Cameron: The Creative Process[40] 15 October 1996 – 5 January 1997 Getty Villa United States
4 February 1998 – 3 May 1998 Art Gallery of Ontario Canada
Julia Margaret Cameron: Nineteenth Century Photographic Genius[40] 6 February 2003 – 26 May 2003 National Portrait Gallery, London United Kingdom
5 June 2003 – 30 August 2003 National Media Museum United Kingdom
Julia Margaret Cameron, Photographer[41] 21 October 2003 – 11 January 2004 Getty Center United States
Julia Margaret Cameron[42] 19 August 2013 – 5 January 2014 Metropolitan Museum of Art United States
Julia Margaret Cameron[43] 15 August 2015 – 25 October 2015 Art Gallery of New South Wales Australia
Julia Margaret Cameron: Influence and Intimacy[44] 24 September 2015 – 28 March 2016 Science Museum, London United Kingdom
Julia Margaret Cameron[45] 28 November 2015 – 21 February 2016 Victoria and Albert Museum United Kingdom
Julia Margaret Cameron: A Woman who Breathed Life into Photographs[46] 2 July 2016 – 19 September 2016 Mitsubishi Ichigokan Museum Japan

List of selected publications

Footnotes

  1. ^ Herschel coined the terms "photography," "snapshot," and "negative."[14]
  2. ^ Cameron described these subjects as "natives", much as she referred to the residents of the Isle of Wight as "peasants".[8]

References

  1. ^ Crompton, Sarah (6 May 2016). "She takes a good picture: six forgotten female pioneers of photography". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  2. ^ J. Paul Getty Museum. Julia Margaret Cameron. Archived 10 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  3. ^ Ruggeri, Amanda (12 January 2016). "When mistakes make the art". BBC. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  4. ^ Nan Goldin (2016). Nan Goldin on Julia Margaret Cameron (Audio file). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Artist Project).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Barlow, Helen (2017). "Cameron [née Pattle], Julia Margaret (1815–1879), photographer". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Art Story Contributors; Baillie, Rebecca (7 August 2018). "Julia Margaret Cameron". The Art Story. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  7. ^ The Intersecting Realities and Fictions of Virginia Woolf and Colette – Helen Southworth – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ford, Colin (2008). "Cameron, Julia Margaret, 1815–1879". In Hannavy, John (ed.). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. London, UK: Routledge. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Malcolm, Janet (4 February 1999). "The Genius of the Glass House". The New York Review of Books. ISSN 0028-7504. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Cox, Julian; Ford, Colin (2003). Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Publications. ISBN 0-89236-681-8.
  11. ^ a b Higgins, Charlotte (22 September 2015). "Julia Margaret Cameron: soft-focus photographer with an iron will". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Weiss, Marta. "Julia Margaret Cameron – an introduction". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  13. ^ a b c Lukitsh, Joanne. "Cameron [Pattle], Julia Margaret". Grove Art Online.
  14. ^ a b c d e Thurman, Judith (10 February 2003). "Angels and Instincts". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d e Ford, Colin (2005). "Cameron, Julia Margaret". The Oxford Companion to the Photograph. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866271-6. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  16. ^ Daphne Du Maurier, ed., The Young George Du Maurier: A Selection of His Letters, 1860–67 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1952), p. 112, quoted in Leonee Ormond, George Du Maurier (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969), p. 103, quoted in Cox, Julian; Ford, Colin (2003). Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Publications. ISBN 0-89236-681-8.
  17. ^ "NPG 5046; Julia Margaret Cameron - Portrait Extended". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  18. ^ Birch, Dinah BirchDinah (1 January 2009). "Cameron, Julia Margaret". In Dinah Birch (ed.) (eds.). The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280687-1. Retrieved 28 April 2019.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  19. ^ a b c d Daniel, Malcolm. "Julia Margaret Cameron (1815–1879)". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  20. ^ a b c "Julia Margaret Cameron". Britannica Academic. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  21. ^ "Members of the Royal Photographic Society, 1853–1901". The Royal Photographic Society. 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  22. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron". International Center of Photography. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  23. ^ a b Ford, Colin (2008). "Cameron, Julia Margaret, 1815–1879". In Hannavy, John (ed.). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. London, UK: Routledge. Retrieved 28 April 2019.}
  24. ^ AskOxford: The Cod and the Camera Quote is taken from her unpublished autobiography, "Annals of My Glass House."
  25. ^ "The Norman Album". | Charles | Saumarez | Smith |. 22 May 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  26. ^ "Famed photography album at risk of leaving the UK – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  27. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron: Related Photographers". Victoria and Albert Museum. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  28. ^ Rosenblum, Naomi. A History of Women Photographers. Third ed. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2010. p. 52.
  29. ^ 'Christabel' Mary Prinsep images at the National Portrait Gallery, London.
  30. ^ Stephen, L. (1886). Dictionary of national biography: vol. VIII. Burton – Cantwell. London: Smith, Elder, & Co.
  31. ^ Woolf, V., & Fry, R. E. (1926). Victorian photographs of famous men & women. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
  32. ^ Gernsheim, H. (1948). Julia Margaret Cameron; her life and photographic work. Famous photographers. London: Fountain Press; distributed in the USA by Transatlantic Arts, New York.
  33. ^ a b Dialogue With Photography by Paul Hill & Thomas Cooper, Thames & Hudson 1979
  34. ^ "Photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron of Alice Liddell: Getty Images #90762993". Getty Images. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  35. ^ Lane, Anthony, Names and Faces, the portraits of Julia Margaret Cameron, The New Yorker, 2 September 2013, pages 69–73.
  36. ^ "Victorian Giants: The Birth of Art Photography 1 March – 20 May 2018" (Museum exhibition). National Portrait Gallery, London. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  37. ^ Mozley, Anita Ventura (1974). "Mrs. Cameron's photographs from the life" : [exhibition] 22 January-10 March 1974. Palo Alto, California: Department of Art, Stanford University. OCLC 33005764.
  38. ^ Cameron, Julia Margaret; Howard, Jeremy (1990). Whisper of the muse : the world of Julia Margaret Cameron. London: Colnaghi. ISBN 978-0-89236-088-8.
  39. ^ a b c d "The Whisper of the Muse / Portrait of G.F. Watts". The J. Paul Getty Museum. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  40. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron, Photographer". The J. Paul Getty Museum. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  41. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  42. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron". Art Gallery of New South Wales. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  43. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron: Influence and Intimacy". Science Museum. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  44. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  45. ^ "Julia Margaret Cameron: A Woman who Breathed Life into Photographs". Mitsubishi Ichigokan Museum. Retrieved 25 March 2018.

Further reading

External links

1864 in art

Events from the year 1864 in art.

Amanda Hopkinson

Amanda Hopkinson (born 1948) is a British scholar and literary translator. She was born in London to the British journalist and magazine editor Sir Tom Hopkinson and photographer Gerti Deutsch. She gained a BA from University of Warwick in 1970 and has a PhD from Oxford University.During her academic career, Hopkinson has taught at City University, Manchester University, the University of East Anglia, the University of East London, Westminster University and Cardiff University. As a translator, she is best known for her English versions of contemporary Latin American literature. She has also translated several works by the French crime writer Dominique Manotti. In this work, she frequently collaborates with fellow translators Nick Caistor and Ros Schwartz.

Hopkinson is additionally a writer on photography. She has published monographs on Julia Margaret Cameron, Martin Chambi and Manuel Alvarez Bravo, and she has further written or edited a number of books on photography and photojournalism. She has also written the obituaries of numerous photographers for The Guardian newspaper. Hopkinson lives in Norwich, and is married to fellow translator Nick Caistor.

Andrea Hamilton

Andrea Jarvis Hamilton (born in 1968) is a fine-art photographer known for her monumental lightboxes of natural phenomena like icebergs and for her candid portraits of London's creative personalities. Her work encompasses several photographic genres including portraiture, street photography and landscape, and questions subjects as varied as climate change, identity or place as they relate to other creative disciplines.

Hamilton has been short-listed for several notable photography prizes including the 7th Julia Margaret Cameron Award for Women Photographers, Chantel Paul’s Honorable Mention at The Centre for Fine Art Photography in Colorado, the 9th Arte Laguna Prize and the Judges Choice at the AOP Open Awards 2013.

Charles Hay Cameron

Charles Hay Cameron (11 February 1795 - 8 May 1880 Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), was a jurist. He was married to the photographer Julia Margaret Cameron.

Colin Ford (curator)

Colin John Ford (born 1934) is a British photographic curator, historian of photography, and former museum director.

Ford has written a number of books on the history of photography.

David Wilkie Wynfield

David Wilkie Wynfield (1837 – 26 May 1887) was a British painter and photographer.

Wynfield was distantly related to the Scottish artist David Wilkie, after whom he was named. Born in India, he was originally intended by his family for the priesthood, but instead chose art as a profession. He studied at Leigh's art school in the 1850s and his first painting was accepted for the Royal Academy summer exhibition in 1859.

Wynfield associated with a group of other artists who became known as the St. John's Wood Clique. Their work typically took the form of anecdotal historical narratives. Wynfield himself painted many works set in Medieval or Renaissance Europe, concentrating on romantic problems of couples.In the 1860s Wynfield became interested in photography. He developed a technique of shallow-focus portrait photography which he passed on to Julia Margaret Cameron, who later acknowledged him as the main influence on her own work, writing that "to my feeling about his beautiful photography I owed all my attempts and indeed consequently all my success".Many of Wynfield's photographs portrayed members of the St. John's Wood Clique and their friends in fancy dress. The combination of soft focus, close-up, large-format print and historical costumes produced a photographic style that was completely original at the time. Wynfield was attempting to imitate the painterly effects of old master artists such as Titian, using the new medium. A selection of the photographs was published in 1864 as a book entitled The Studio: A Collection of Photographic Portraits of Living Artists, Taken in the Style of Old Masters, by an Amateur.

As with many of the subjects of his photographs Wynfield served in The Artists' Rifles. He reached the rank of Captain and was commanding 'H' Company in 1880.

In his autobiography his friend Henry Stacy Marks said that Wynfield died of consumption.

Dimbola Lodge

Dimbola Lodge was the Isle of Wight home of the Victorian pioneer photographer Julia Margaret Cameron from 1860 to 1875. It is now owned by the Julia Margaret Cameron Trust, which runs the Dimbola Museum and Galleries.

Florence Henrietta Darwin

Florence Henrietta Darwin, Lady Darwin (née Fisher, previously Maitland; 31 January 1864 – 5 March 1920), was an English playwright.

Freshwater (play)

Freshwater: A comedy is a play written and produced by Virginia Woolf in 1935, and the only play she wrote. Although only performed once in her lifetime, it has been translated into many languages and produced in many countries since.

Julia Stephen

Julia Prinsep Stephen (née Jackson; 7 February 1846 – 5 May 1895) was a celebrated Englishwoman, noted for her beauty as a Pre-Raphaelite model and philanthropist. She was the wife of the biographer Leslie Stephen and mother of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell, members of the Bloomsbury Group.

Julia Jackson was born in Calcutta to an Anglo-Indian family, and when she was two her mother and her two sisters moved back to England. She became the favourite model of her aunt, the celebrated photographer Julia Margaret Cameron, who made more than 50 portraits of her. Through another maternal aunt, she became a frequent visitor at Little Holland House, then home to an important literary and artistic circle, and came to the attention of a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters who portrayed her in their work. Married to Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, in 1867 she was soon widowed with three infant children. Devastated, she turned to nursing, philanthropy and agnosticism, and found herself attracted to the writing and life of Leslie Stephen, with whom she shared a mutual friend in Anny Thackeray, his sister-in-law.

After Leslie Stephen's wife died in 1875 he became close friends with Julia and they married in 1878. Julia and Leslie Stephen had four further children, living at 22 Hyde Park Gate, South Kensington, together with his seven year old handicapped daughter. Many of her seven children and their descendants became notable. In addition to her family duties and modelling, she wrote a book based on her nursing experiences, Notes from Sick Rooms, in 1883. She also wrote children's stories for her family, eventually published posthumously as Stories for Children and became involved in social justice advocacy. Julia Stephens had firm views on the role of women, namely that their work was of equal value to that of men, but in different spheres, and she opposed the suffrage movement for votes for women. The Stephens entertained many visitors at their London home and their summer residence at St Ives, Cornwall. Eventually the demands on her both at home and outside the home started to take their toll. Julia Stephen died at her home following an episode of influenza in 1895, at the age of 49, when her youngest child was only 11. The writer, Virginia Woolf, provides a number of insights into the domestic life of the Stephens in both her autobiographical and fictional work.

Koo Stark

Kathleen Norris Stark (born April 26, 1956), better known as Koo Stark, is an American photographer and actress, known for her relationship with Prince Andrew.

As a photographer, she continues to hold solo exhibitions. She is also a patron of the Julia Margaret Cameron Trust.

Margaret Cameron

Margaret Cameron may refer to:

Margaret Cameron (jurist), Canadian jurist

Margaret Cameron (librarian) (born 1937), Australian librarian, administrator and ornithologist

Julia Margaret Cameron (1815–1879), British photographer

Media Space

Media Space is a 642-square-metre (6,910 sq ft) exhibition space at the London Science Museum, developed in association with the National Media Museum.

Opened in September 2013, the space comprises an extensive gallery surrounded by cultural spaces for display and participation, for mixing across the arts, sciences and creative industries. It also intended to be a showcase for the National Media Museum collections in photography, as well as cinematography and broadcast technology, and an arena where audiences will engage with how new technologies have impacted on today’s creative industries. It is intended for adult audiences.

Meg Griffiths

Meg Griffiths is a photographer based in Denton, Texas.

Griffiths studied photography at Savannah College of Art and Design, completing a master's in fine arts in 2012. The following year she was named on PDN's 30 New and Emerging Photographers to Watch 2013 list.Griffiths is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Photography in the Department of Visual Art at Texas Woman's University. Her work has been exhibited publicly across the United States. Her work has also been published in several magazines and newspapers including Oxford American, Aint Bad Magazine, Boston Globe, Photo District News, South X Southeast Magazine, Lenscratch, Le Journal de la Photographie, and Fraction Magazine. In 2017, she received the Julia Margaret Cameron Award for Best Fine Art Series.

Portraits of Charles Darwin

There are many known portraits of Charles Darwin. Darwin came from a wealthy family and became a well-known naturalist and author, and portraits were made of him in childhood, adulthood and old age. Darwin's life (1809–1882) spanned the development of photography, and early portraits of Darwin are drawn or painted, while many later portraits are monochrome photographs. After the publication and dissemination of the controversial On the Origin of Species in 1859, Darwin was also the subject of numerous caricatures.

Darwin's visage, particularly his iconic beard, continues to be culturally significant and widely recognisable into the 21st century. According to historian Janet Browne, Darwin's capacity to commission photographs of himself—and their widespread reproduction as carte de visite and cabinet card photographs—helped to cement the lasting connection between Darwin and the theory of evolution in popular thought (largely to the exclusion of the many others who also contributed to the development of evolutionary theory), especially as these portraits were reinterpreted in caricature. At that time few could afford to commission portrait photographs, and this gave Darwin an advantage in gaining public recognition.Especially in his last decades as his illness progressed, Darwin expressed frustration about sitting for photographs. He turned down an opportunity in 1869 to sit for a portrait with Alfred Russel Wallace, explaining that sitting for photographs "is what I hate doing & wastes a whole day owing to my weak health; and to sit with another person would cause still more trouble & delay." Nevertheless, there are at least 53 known photographs of Darwin, according to Gene Kritsky, a scholar of Darwin photos.

Prinsep

Prinsep may mean any of several notable members of the British Prinsep family.

The family descended from John Prinsep, an 18th-century merchant who was the son of Rev. John Prinsep, rector of Saundby, Nottinghamshire, and Bicester, Oxfordshire. John Prinsep, his son, founded indigo production in India as well as the making of cotton fabrics in Bengal, opened a copper mint in India and was a founder of the Westminster Life Insurance Society in London, where he later served as Alderman and in Parliament. Prinsep arrived in India as a soldier in the army of the East India Company but became a merchant soon afterwards. During his 16 years in India, John Prinsep amassed a £40,000 fortune, which he used to set himself up as a London businessman and get himself elected to Parliament. Prinsep made two large fortunes and lost both. He was the first of three succeeding generations of Prinseps in India, all of whom were known for their artistic abilities. Among his descendants are the artist Valentine Cameron Prinsep, the Anglo-Indian antiquarian, scholar and architect James Prinsep and others.

A partial listing of Prinsep family members:

Augustus Prinsep (1803–1830), eighth and youngest son of John Prinsep, sketcher, writer, civil servant, born in London, attended Haileybury College, then clerk with East India Company, Calcutta, attempted to settle in Australia but unsuccessful, died aboard ship

Charles Robert Prinsep (1789–1864), Lincoln's Inn barrister and economist, graduate of St John's College, Cambridge, Judge Advocate General of Bengal, resided at Belvedere Estate, Calcutta, son of patriarch John Prinsep

Charles Robert Prinsep, Singapore merchant for whom Singapore's Prinsep Street and Prinsep Place are named, owner of the Prinsep nutmeg plantation, 6,700 nutmeg shrubs covering much of what is now downtown Singapore

Edward Augustus Prinsep, (1828-1900), Calcutta merchant, son of William Prinsep of Calcutta

Lieut. Frederick Bruce Prinsep (d. 1879), soldier, 21st Hussars, 3rd European Light Cavalry, decorated for his role in the Indian Mutiny campaign of 1858

George Augustus Prinsep Esq., (d. 1839) prominent Anglo-Indian journalist, cotton merchant, salt manufacturer, shipping owner, Calcutta, member, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, assumed editorship of The Courier newspaper of Calcutta after failure of early business venture, publisher Calcutta Gazette, regained fortune through salt interests, son of merchant John Prinsep

George Levett-Prinsep, Norfolk Crescent, London

Henry Charles Prinsep (1844–1922), manager of family estates in Western Australia, civil servant, Chief Protector of Aborigines, artist, son of Charles Robert Prinsep, and brother of 'May' Prinsep (who married Hallam Tennyson, elder son of Alfred, Lord Tennyson), born in Calcutta, died in Busselton, Western Australia, home of his wife Josephine Bussell's family

Henry Thoby Prinsep (1793–1878), merchant and civil servant, Bengal Civil Service, named director of East India Company 1849, served on the Council of India 1858–74, son of patriarch John Prinsep, lived at Little Holland House, Kensington, London, one of London's sought-after salons of the age, and The Briary, Isle of Wight, amateur oil painter, married in 1835 to Sarah Monckton Pattle (Calcutta, 1816-Brighton, 1887), and brother-in-law of photographer Julia Margaret Cameron

Lt. Col. Henry Auriol Prinsep (1836–1914), soldier, Bengal Staff Corps, his daughter Mary married Hon. William Fitzwilliam James Dundas

James Prinsep (1799–1840), numismatist, linguist, artist, scholar, Secretary of the Asiatic Society, son of John Prinsep, brother of Henry Thoby Prinsep and William Prinsep (executor of his estate), died at sea returning to England, 1840

John Prinsep, vicar's son, patriarch of the Prinsep family in India, indigo planter, entrepreneur, arrived in India a few weeks after Warren Hastings became Governor General in 1773, amassed a large fortune in indigo production, retired to frescoed mansion on London's Leadenhall Street later occupied by the India Office, London alderman, Member of Parliament

James Hunter Prinsep, Bengal Civil Service

James F. M. Prinsep (1861–95), footballer, was the grandson of Henry's brother, William.

Thomas Prinsep (1800–30), engineer, amateur artist, Calcutta, India

Thomas Prinsep of Croxall Hall, Derbyshire, High Sheriff of Derbyshire 1802, former India merchant, artist, cattle breeder, son of patriarch John

Thomas Levett-Prinsep, heir to his uncle Thomas Prinsep and son of Theophilus Levett of Wychnor Park Derbyshire. On the early death of Prinsep, his seat at Croxall Hall, Derbyshire, devolved onto his nephew Levett, who took the name Levett-Prinsep, resided at Croxall Hall, Derbyshire, Justice of the Peace and landowner

Valentine Cameron Prinsep (1838–1904), painter, son of Henry Thoby Prinsep, trained to become an Indian merchant but turned to art instead, author of Imperial India, a book of travel writing

William H. Prinsep (1794–1874), merchant, Palmer & Co., Carr, Tagore and Company, founder, Union Bank (failed), founder, Bengal Tea Association, founder, Bengal Coal Company, owner, Bengal Salt Company (inherited from his brother George), Sheriff, Fort William, Calcutta, amateur artist (studied under George Chinnery), retired to Hyde Park Place, London, secretary, Great Western Railway, South Devon Railway, one of seven sons of patriarch John Prinsep. Appointed secretary of the Oswestry & Newtown Railway in September 1855 but appointment rescinded in October 1855 because shareholders thought that he would be biased in favour of the Great Western Railway.

The tree Prinsepia that grows in India, China and Bangladesh, is named for James Prinsep, secretary of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta.

The Norman Album

Mrs. Cameron's Photographs from the Life, commonly known as The Norman Album, is a photograph album of portraits compiled between 1864 and 1869 by British photographer Julia Margaret Cameron. Comprising 74 albumen prints it was presented as a gift to her daughter Julia Hay Norman, and son-in-law Charles Norman in gratitude at their having introduced her to photography by giving her her first camera. The dedication reads:

To the givers of my camera I dedicate /give these works of this camera, with all gratitude for the inexhaustible pleasure to me, & to hundreds, which has resulted from the gift.

Described as a "complete record of the intellectual aristocracy of the 1860s" notable portraits included are John Herschel, Alfred Tennyson, Charles Darwin, Henry Taylor, Benjamin Jowett, Prince Alemayehu of Ethiopia, and Julia Jackson (who was also Cameron's niece). Other portraits included photographs of the Cameron and Norman families, allegorical poses, and imagined historical scenes such as "Queen Esther fainting after begging King Ahasuerus to spare the Jews he has sentenced to death".The Reviewing Committee on the Export of Works of Art and Objects of Cultural Interest (RCEWA) reviewed the album in 2013 when an application to export for sale at the Maastricht book fair had been made. The committee concluded that the album meet all three Waverley Criteria and the application was withdrawn. In 2016 it was consigned for sale by the lineal descendants of Julia Margaret Cameron’s daughter at the PhotoLondon photography fair. In February 2018, with the album being offered for purchase at a price of £3.7m, the UK Arts Minister Michael Ellis placed a temporary export ban, in the hope that it would be purchased by a UK public institution. The decision was taken on the basis of a new review by the RCEWA, which declared "...the album’s outstanding aesthetic importance and significance to the study of the history of photography and, in particular, the work of Julia Margaret Cameron – one of the most significant photographers of the 19th century."The album was the subject of an exhibition at the Stanford University Museum of Art in 1974.

Tilted plane focus

"Tilted plane photography" is a method of employing focus as a descriptive, narrative or symbolic artistic device. It is distinct from the more simple uses of selective focus which highlight or emphasise a single point in an image, create an atmospheric bokeh, or miniaturise an obliquely-viewed landscape. In this method the photographer is consciously using the camera to focus on several points in the image at once while de-focussing others, thus making conceptual connections between these points.

Violet Hamilton

Violet Hamilton (née Diane Oakley, February 1949 – July 2014) was a photographer who lived and worked in Australia, the US and the UK.

Her photographic career, which spanned some 45 years (1970–2014), covered artistic, commercial and curatorial work.

Violet was one of the students in the first Photography course at Sydney's National Art School (then East Sydney Technical College). From 1973 onwards, Violet worked as a freelance photographer, documenting the contemporary culture of a rapidly changing world – Sydney's Darlinghurst - which incubated the emerging gay, lesbian, transsexual and feminist cultures.

Post-graduate studies in Los Angeles culminated in a curatorial role with the Wilson Centre for Photography - one of the largest private collections of photographs in the world, spanning the early nineteenth century to contemporary artists.

19th-century English photographers
Artists
Writers
Educators
Literature about
the New Woman

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.