Jules Verreaux

Jules Pierre Verreaux (24 August 1807 – 7 September 1873) was a French botanist and ornithologist and a professional collector of and trader in natural history specimens. He was the brother of Edouard Verreaux and nephew of Pierre Antoine Delalande.

Jules Verreaux
Portrait from the 1860s


Lion Attacking a Dromedary full
Lion Attacking a Dromedary is a taxidermy diorama by the Verreaux brothers. It was acquired by the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh in 1898, and the mannequin called the "Arab courier" was later found to include human remains, namely a skull with teeth. The stuffed animals are a dromedary, and male and female lions.[1]

Verreaux worked for the family business, Maison Verreaux, established in 1803 by his father, Jacques Philippe Verreaux, at Place des Vosges in Paris, which was the earliest known company that dealt in objects of natural history. The company funded collection expeditions to various parts of the world.[2][3] Maison Verreaux sold many specimens to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle to add to its collections.

In 1830, while travelling in modern-day Botswana, Verreaux witnessed the burial of a Tswana warrior. Verreaux returned to the burial site under cover of night to dig up the African's body where he retrieved the skin, the skull and a few bones. Verreaux intended to ship the body back to France and so prepared and preserved the African warrior's corpse by using metal wire as a spine, wooden boards as shoulder blades and newspaper as a stuffing material. Then he shipped the body to Paris along with a batch of stuffed animals in crates. In 1831, the African’s body appeared in a showroom at No. 3, Rue Saint Fiacre. He was later known as Negro of Banyoles, and was returned and buried in Botswana.[4]

Verreaux travelled to Australia in 1842 to collect plants. He returned to France in 1851 with a natural history collection reported to contain 15,000 items. In 1864 he took over from Florent Prévost as assistant naturalist at the Paris Museum.

Verreaux also worked in China and South Africa, where he helped Andrew Smith found the South African Museum in Cape Town in 1825.


He is commemorated in the names of Verreaux's eagle (Aquila verreauxii ), Verreaux's coua (Coua verreauxi ), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi ), the white-tipped dove (Leptotila verreauxi ), the golden parrotbill (Paradoxornis verreauxi ),[5] Verreaux's skink (Anomalopus verreauxii ),[6] and the Andaman giant gecko (Gekko verreauxi ).[7]. (Gekko verreauxi, new species, p. 546).


  1. ^ Chambers, Delaney (29 January 2017). "150-year-old Diorama Surprises Scientists With Human Remains". news.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  2. ^ Molina, Miquel (2002). "More notes on the Verreaux brothers" (PDF). Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies. 16 (1): 30–36.
  3. ^ South Pacific Taxidermy: The Verreaux brothers of France Archived 2007-08-17 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "The man stuffed and displayed like a wild animal". BBC News. 2016-09-16. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  5. ^ Mearns, Barbara; Mearns, Richard (1988). Biographies for Birdwatchers. The lives of those commemorated in Western Palaearctic bird names. London: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-487422-3.
  6. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. JHU Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5.
  7. ^ Tytler, R.C. (1865). "Observations on a few species of geckos alive in the possession of the author". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 33: 535–548.

External links

Biography of Jules Verreaux at the S2A3 Biographical Database of Southern African Science

1807 in France

Events from the year 1807 in France.

1842 in birding and ornithology

John MacGillivray sails as naturalist on board HMS Fly, despatched to survey the Torres Strait, New Guinea.

Lovell Augustus Reeve begins trading as a natural history dealer

Little owl introduced to Great Britain

Christian Ludwig Brehm begins Monographie der Papageien oder vollständige Naturgeschichte aller bis jetzt bekannten Papageien mit getreuen und ausgemalten Abbildungen, im Vereine mit anderen Naturforscher herausgegeben von C.L. Brehm. - Jena & Paris 1842-1855

Death of Robert Mudie

Jules Verreaux travels to Australia to collect for the dealership "Maison Verreaux"

Martin Lichtenstein describes the southern yellow-billed hornbill in a sale catalogue Verzeichnis einer Sammlung von Saugethieren und Vogeln aus dem Kaffernland

Florent Prévost and Marc Athanese Parfait Oeillet Des Murs describe the undulated antpitta

Hugh Edwin Strickland draws up the report of a committee appointed by the British Association to consider the rules of zoological nomenclature. This establishes the Principle of Priority

Gaetano Cara publishes Elenco degli uccelli che trovansi nell'isola di Sardegna, od ornitologia sarda

Johann Jakob Kaup Die Gavial-artigen Reste aus dem Lias (1842–1844).

John Cassin becomes curator of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences

Hummingbird specialist Jules Bourcier formally describes the white-bellied woodstar.Ongoing events

The Birds of Australia birds first described in this work in 1842 include the green pygmy goose, the painted firetail, the torrent duck, the letter-winged kite and the welcome swallow .

William Jardine and Prideaux John Selby with the co-operation of James Ebenezer Bicheno Illustrations of ornithology various publishers (Four volumes) 1825 and [1836–43]. Although issued partly in connection with the volume of plates, under the same title (at the time of issue), text and plates were purchasable separately and the publishers ... express the hope, also voiced by the author in his preface to the present work, that the text will constitute an independent work of reference. Vol. I was issued originally in 1825 [by A. Constable, Edinburgh], with nomenclature according to Temminck

1850 in birding and ornithology

Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft founded

Charles Lucien Bonaparte publishes Conspectus Generum Avium (Leyden) ; Revue critique de l'ornithologie Européenne (Brussels) and Monographie des loxiens (crossbills, grosbeaks, and allied species) (Leyden)

Edward Smith-Stanley obtains a grey trembler specimen from the bird collector Jules Verreaux

John Gould commences The Birds of Asia (1850–83)

Francis Orpen Morris begins A History of British Birds (1850–1857)

Extinction of the spectacled cormorant

The Berlin Museum has a total of 13,760 bird specimens.Ongoing events

Fauna Japonica

1873 in France

Events from the year 1873 in France.

Blue quail

The blue quail or African blue quail (Excalfactoria adansonii) is a species of bird in the family Phasianidae. It is found in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Crow honeyeater

The crow honeyeater (Gymnomyza aubryana) is a very large honeyeater endemic to humid forests in New Caledonia in the South Pacific.The species measures 35 to 42.5 cm (13.8–16.7 in). It has orange facial wattles. It superficially resembles a crow with its glossy black plumage and a curved beak. Crow honeyeaters have long rounded wings and a long tail and neck. Their bill is long and bicolored – yellow below, black above. It has a loud, ringing sound which is predominantly in the early mornings.

It is relatively inconspicuous, and lives either in pairs or alone. It forages for invertebrates and nectar in the canopy and midstorey.

This bird is critically endangered due to introduced rats. Extensive surveys have only found it in the Parc de la Rivière Bleue area, the slopes of the Kouakoué, Pourina and Ouiné valleys, Rivière Blanche and Mont Pouédihi slopes and Mt Panie. It is spread throughout the island, though mostly in the south. It is estimated that there are between 50 and 249 birds left.

Gabon batis

The Gabon batis or Verreaux's batis (Batis minima) is a species of small bird in the family Platysteiridae. It occurs in the humid forests of western Central Africa.

Golden parrotbill

The golden parrotbill (Suthora verreauxi) is a species of parrotbill in the family Sylviidae. It is found in China, Laos, Myanmar, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Its scientific name commemorates French ornithologist and collector Jules Verreaux.

Grey trembler

The grey trembler (Cinclocerthia gutturalis) is a songbird species in the family Mimidae. It is found only in Martinique and Saint Lucia, the Martinique trembler (C. g. gutturalis) on the former island, the Saint Lucia trembler (C. g. macrorhyncha) – which might be a distinct species – on the latter.

In 1898 a unique skin was discovered in the World Museum Liverpool. This specimen was obtained by Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby from bird collector Jules Verreaux in 1850 and was on display in the Liverpool Museum since then. It was believed to be an extinct starling from the Mascarenes, described by Henry Ogg Forbes under the name Necropsar leguati and sketched by bird illustrator John Gerrard Keulemans. It was supposed to be a close relative of the Rodrigues starling. A vernacular name for this supposed species was "white Mascarene starling".

However, in April 2000 ancient DNA analysis of that skin in the Smithsonian Institution led by Storrs Olson had shown that the Liverpool specimen was nothing more than a misidentified and mislabeled albinistic specimen of C. g. gutturalis.

Jules Bourcier

Jules Bourcier (1797, Cuisery – 9 March 1873, Batignolles) was a French naturalist.Bourcier was an expert on hummingbirds, and named a number of new species, either alone or with other ornithologists; such as Adolphe Delattre and Martial Etienne Mulsant.

The following hummingbird species bear his name:

Colibri de Bourcier (Polyonymus caroli ), described by Bourcier in 1847;

Phaethornis bourcieri, described by René Primevère Lesson in 1832.A species of South American snake, Saphenophis boursieri, was named in his honor by Giorgio Jan in 1867.Bourcier was the French consul to Ecuador from 1849 to 1850. In 1857 he became a corresponding member of the Société linnéenne de Lyon.

List of natural history dealers

Natural history specimen dealers had an important role in the development of science in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. They supplied the rapidly growing, both in size and number, museums and educational establishments and private collectors whose collections, either in entirety or parts finally entered museums.

Most sold not just zoological, botanical and geological specimens but also

equipment and books. Many also sold archaeological and ethnographic items.They purchased

specimens from professional and amateur collectors, sometimes collected themselves as well as acting as agents for the sale of

collections. Many were based in mercantile centres notably Amsterdam, Hamburg, and London or

in major cities. Some were specialists and some were taxonomic authorities who wrote scientific works and manuals, some functioned as trading museums or institutes.

This is a list of natural history dealers from the 16th to the 19th century: here are names that are frequently encountered in museum collections.

Johan Hans Abegg (fl. 1882-1885) Mineral collector and dealer in Zurich.

Augustus Theodore Abel (?1802-1882); German Mineral dealer resident in Ballarat.

Anton Franz Abraham Preparator and dealer in educational materials at " "Naturhistorisches Institut" on Beatrixgasse, Vienna, 1896, on Ungargasse, Vienna in 1903-1906.Supplied specimens to Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Ludwig Anker (1822, Budapest -1887) Insektenhändler

Mary Anning

Bernardino Astfäller (1879–1964) Insektenhändler in Meran

Andreas Bang-Haas

Otto Bang-Haas

Max Bartel (1879–1914) Berlin

Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka

Julius Böhm (c. 1850?-1925) Vienna mineral dealers as "Österr.-ungar. Mineralien-Comptoir" or Austro-Hungarian Mineral Dealership.

Edward Percy Bottley Gregory, Bottley & Lloyd geology and mineral dealership

Ernst August Böttcher, born 14 June 1870 Naturalien und Lehrmittel-Anstalt Berlin C. 2, Brüderstrasse 15.

August Friedrich Böttcher

Brazenor Bros Dealers in zoological specimens in Brighton from 1858-1937.

Nérée Boubée Paris

Adolphe Boucard

Braun; Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1800–1864) Fossil and mineral dealer in Regensburg de:Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Braun

Brendel and Sohn Botanical modelmakers in Breslau and Berlin.

Jean Baptiste Lucien Buquet (Paris)

Emile Clement Australia

Giuseppe De Cristoforis (Milan)

Eduard Dämle Insect dealer in Hamburg.

Robert Damon Natural history dealer in Weymouth

Émile Deyrolle (1838–1917) French naturalist and natural history dealer in Paris. The business was originally owned by his naturalist grandfather, Jean-Baptiste Deyrolle who opened his shop in 1831 at 23, Rue de la Monnaie. Émile’s father Achille Deyrolle ran the business for many years. It is now at 46, rue du Bac, Paris

Henri Donckier de Donceel Paris insect dealer

Alfred William Ecutt (1879-) Newport, Wales.

Entomologisch Institut Hamburg (E. M. Schulz) Hamburg 22, Hamburgerstrasse 45.

Josef Erber(c. 1830 – c. 1918) Mineral and natural history dealer in Vienna St. Ullrich, Siebensterngasse No. 29.

Anton Hermann Fassl Naturhistorisches-Institut, 948 Zeidlerstrasse, Teplitz, Bohemia, Germany (now the Czech Republic)

Adolarius Jacob Forster (1739-1806).Leading mineral dealer of the 18th century with premises in London, Paris and St. Petersburg.

R. Fuess Berlin - Steglitz mineral and petrographic specimens an instruments Heinrich Ludwig Rudolf Fuess (1838–1917)de:Rudolf Fuess.

Gustav Adolph Frank (1809–1880) Natural history dealer in Amsterdam who had worldwide trade connections.

Václav Frič (1839–1916) Prague

Hans Fruhstorfer

Alfred George Gabriel (1884–1968) English butterfly dealer who also worked for the British Museum.

Karl Ludwig Giesecke Mineral dealer in Copenhagen.

Johann Cesar VI. Godeffroy The Godeffroy Museum and dealership.

Richard Haensch Berlin

Johann Wilhelm Adolf Hansemann (1784–1862) German insect dealer

Thomas Hawkins

Henry Heuland (1778-1856) London Mineral collector and dealer

Alexander Heyne Berlin

George Humphrey London dealer in shells and ‘curiosities’ in the 18th century.

Charles Jamrach

Charles Georges Javet

Edward Wesley Janson London

E. Kieinel, München, Augustenstrasse 41 Insect dealer

Kny-Scheerer Company, 404 West Twenty- seventh street, New York. Agency for German dealers - specimens, equipment. Active 1900- 1930s?

Friedrich Kohl (1839–1907) Fossil and mineral dealer

Adam August Krantz (1809–1872); Natural history dealer in Berlin after 1850 in Bonn.

Frank H. Lattin & Co. Albion, New York

Benjamin Leadbeater (1760–1837) Dealer in ornithological specimens.

Charles Johnson Maynard (1845-1929) Natural history dealer in Boston and Newton, Massachusetts.

Friedrich Christian Meuschen

Heinrich Benno Möschler

Eugène Le Moult

Ida Laura Pfeiffer

Maison Azoux

Maison Tramond Established by the mid-19th century at 9 Rue de l' Ecole de Medicine in Paris.Later "Maison Tramond - N. Rouppert successeur".Models of human and comparative anatomy and osteological preparations.

Albert Stewart Meek

Wilhelm Neuburger Berlin (between 1900 and 1910) Insect dealer

Heinrich Michael Neustetter Insect dealer, Vienna

Friedrich Wilhelm Niepelt

Gustav Paganetti-Hummler as Zoologische Institut für Balkanforschung des Gust. Paganetti-Hummler

Ludwig Parreys (1796–1879) Parreys lived in Vienna, where he was dealer in natural history objects.Trading as Ludwig and Joseph Mann, he supplied zoological specimens to many leading taxonomists whose collections are now conserved by natural history museums.

Andrew Pritchard London

Max Quedenfeldt Berlin insect dealer.

Orazio Querci (and family). Butterfly dealer in Florence, Italy - collected extensively in Spain and Portugal also Cuba. Supplied butterflies to Roger Verity and European butterflies to R.C. Williams, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.

Lovell Augustus Reeve

Edmund Reitter "Natural History Institute" 1879 -1880 Vienna, 1881-1891 Mödling, after 1891 Paskau and Munich (extant).

Carl Ribbe

Heinrich Ribbe (1832–1898) Entomologist and dealer in Berlin

Hermann Rolle Berlin

William Frederick Henry Rosenberg (1868–1957) 57 Haverstock Hill, London fl. 1920s. Claimed to hold 5,000 bird species as scientific skins (and to be the largest bird skin dealership in the world). Supplier to museums and private collectors. Traveller.

Emil Adolf Rossmässler Natural History dealer

Karl Rost

Fritz Rühl

Auguste Sallé

L.W. Schaufuß else E. Klocke, Dresden

Christian Julius Wilhelm Schiede

Wilhelm Schlüter

Gustav Schneider (1867–1958) Basel

Gustav Schrader

Wilhelm Schlüter

Southwick & Jencks’ Natural History Store Providence, Rhode Island

Otto Staudinger

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Marine specimens.

Wilh. Steeg "Dr. Steeg & Reuter" after 1879. Crystallographic microscope slides.

Alexandre Stuer(fl. 1890s-1920?) Paris mineral dealer. Owner of Comptoir Géologique et Minéralogique, 40, rue de Mathurins and at 4, rue de Castellane.

John Crace Stevens Covent Gardens auctioneer.

Emanuel Sweerts (1552–1612) Dutch merchant and natural history dealer.

Rudolf Tancré (1842–1934) Anklam, Pomerania Dealer in Lepidoptera mainly of Central Asia and Siberia.

Georg Thorey - Hamburg pharmacist and beetle collector. Also sold beetles to other natural history collectors.

Johann Gustav Friedrich Umlauff (1833–1889) Proprietor of prominent Hamburg-based natural history and ethnographic dealership and associated museum.

Unio Itineraria a German Scientific Society based in Esslingen am Neckar sold specimens as a dealership.

Van Ingen & Van Ingen

Jules Verreaux Owner of Maison Verreaux, established in 1803 by his father, Jacques Philippe Verreaux, at Place des Vosges in Paris, which was the earliest known company that dealt with objects of natural history.

Jean Villet Cape Town

Voigt & Hochgesang Göttingen

Józef Warszewicz Guatemala 1844-1850

Henry Augustus Ward Founder of Ward's Natural History Establishment in Rochester, New York.

Rowland Ward London

White Watson

William Watkins Began trading in 1874 in Eastbourne. In 1879 the address was 36 The Strand, London. In 1907 the dealership became Watkins & Doncaster (1907). In 1937 ownership passed to Frederick Metté an expert on bird eggs.

Frank Blake Webster's Naturalists Supply Depot 409 Washington Street, Hyde Park, Massachusetts

Walter Freeman Webb (1869–1957) Shell dealer St. Petersburg, Florida

Bryce McMurdo Wright father (1814-1875) or son (1850-1895), both with same name and both dealers at 90 Great Russell Street, London. They dealt in minerals and fossils, ethnographic and archaeological objects.

Bohuslav Železný Prague 1890-? Lepidoptera.

Emil Weiske Saalfeld Insect and bird collector and dealer.

Rudolf Zimmermann (1878–1943) mineralogist and dealer in natural history specimens for schools based in Chemnitz, Saxony. Author of Die Mineralien. Eine Anleitung zum Sammeln und Bestimmen derselben nebst einer Beschreibung der wichtigsten Arten

Pierre Antoine Delalande

Pierre Antoine Delalande (27 March 1787 – 27 June 1823) was a French naturalist and explorer.


Pyrgilauda is a genus of passerine birds in the sparrow family Passeridae. They are found in the Himalayas, Tibet and western China.

The genus was introduced by the French naturalist Jules Verreaux in 1871 with Père David's snowfinch as the type species. The name is a portmanteau of the genera Pyrgita Cuvier 1817, "sparrow", and Alauda Linnaeus, 1758, "lark".The genus contains four species:

These species are sometimes included in the genus Montifringilla.

Robert Christopher Tytler

Robert Christopher Tytler (25 September 1818 – 10 September 1872) was a British soldier, naturalist and photographer. His second wife Harriet C. Tytler is well known for her work in photographing and documenting the monuments of Delhi and for her notes at the time of the 1857 revolt in India. Mt. Harriet in the Andamans is named after her. A species of bird, Tytler's leaf warbler, is named after him.

Verreaux's coua

Verreaux's coua (Coua verreauxi) is a species of cuckoo in the family Cuculidae. It is endemic to Madagascar. According to a BBC documentary, it is found only near a salt lake in the southern part of the island. The lake is 16 km long but only a couple of metres deep. The area has been drying out for the last 40,000 years and the organisms living here have become adapted to conserve water.The bird's name commemorates French ornithologist and collector Jules Verreaux.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry shrubland. The birds are found in southern part of the spiny forest zone. They live in coastal euphorbia scrub, and are most active at dawn and dusk. Birders listen for its descending series of loud contact calls, "corick-corick-corick-corick". A sympatric species is the crested coua, C. cristata.

Verreaux's monal-partridge

The Verreaux's monal-partridge or chestnut-throated partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus) is a species of bird in the Phasianidae family. It is found only in central China. Its natural habitat is boreal forests.

The common name commemorate the French naturalist Jules Verreaux.

Édouard Verreaux

Jean Baptiste Édouard Verreaux (16 September 1810 – 14 March 1868) was a French naturalist, collector and dealer. He was the brother of Jules Verreaux (1807-1873).In 1830 Verreaux travelled to South Africa to help his brother pack up a large consignment of specimens. He returned in 1832 before continuing to Sumatra, Java, the Philippines and Indo-China. In 1834 he took control of the family's natural history business in Paris.

Émile Deplanche

Émile Deplanche (22 June 1824 in Argentan – 30 March 1874) was a French physician and naturalist.

He studied medicine and zoology in Caen. In 1854 he served as a surgeon in the Crimean War, and later the same year travelled as a surgeon to Cayenne, Guyane. Here he distinguished himself as a physician, dealing with a yellow fever epidemic that had ravaged the colony (1855). While in Guyane, he collected numerous zoological and botanical specimens. After spending a period of recovery time in France, he embarked on a ship to Tahiti, where he collected malacological and ornithological specimens.In 1858 he travelled to New Caledonia, where with botanist Eugène Vieillard, he explored little-known regions of the island. The following year, he departed the colony with a large collection of natural history specimens — birds from the expedition were later studied by ornithologists Jules Verreaux and Marc Athanase Parfait Oeillet Des Murs. After his return to France, he worked on "Essais sur la Nouvelle Caledonie", a book co-authored with Vieillard, and first published in 1863. Subsequently, he returned to New Caledonia with Vieillard, where in Noumea, the pair spit company, with Deplanche journeying to Lifou in the Loyalty Islands. Because of sickness, he returned to France in March 1867.Deplanche was a chevalier in the Legion d'honneur and a correspondent-member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences. With phycologist Sébastien René Lenormand, he was co-author of "Catalogue des plantes recueillies à Cayenne" (Catalog of plants collected in Cayenne, 1858).

Émile Oustalet

Jean-Frédéric Émile Oustalet (24 August 1844 – 23 October 1905 Saint-Cast) was a French zoologist.

Oustalet was born at Montbéliard, in the department of Doubs. He studied at the Ecole des Hautes-Etudes and his first scientific work was on the respiratory organs of dragonfly larvae. He was employed at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, where he succeeded Jules Verreaux as assistant-naturalist in 1873. In 1900 he succeeded Alphonse Milne-Edwards as Professor of Mammalogy.French ornithologist Émile Oustalet described a specimen from Branco as a separate species Passer brancoensis in 1883, which was recognised as the subspecies Passer iagoensis brancoensis by W. R. P. Bourne, who claimed to observe differences between Iago sparrows from different islands.He co-authored Les Oiseaux de la Chine (1877) with Armand David, and also wrote Les Oiseaux du Cambodge (1899).Oustalet was president of the third International Ornithological Congress held in Paris in 1900.

A species of Malagasy chameleon, Furcifer oustaleti, was named in his honor by François Mocquard in 1894.


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