Judge

A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might also be an examining magistrate.

Judge
ICJ-CJI hearing 1
Occupation
NamesJudge, freedom, justice, and magistrate
Occupation type
Profession
Activity sectors
Law, Justice
Description
Education required
University degree in law and experience as a lawyer
Fields of
employment
Courts
Related jobs
Barrister, prosecutor

Functions

The ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, and thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power. They can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, arrests, imprisonments, garnishments, distrainments, seizures, deportations and similar actions. However, judges also supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as appeals courts and supreme courts.

Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators. The court usually has three main legally trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system (common law), as in effect in the U.S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee, mainly ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury, often selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, and the judge will then finalize sentencing. Nevertheless, in smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system (civil law), as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding, judging and sentencing on his own. As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi ("The judge is the mouth of the law"). Furthermore, in some system even investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate.

Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal, family and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not legally trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are usually volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are often assisted by law clerks, referendaries and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security.

Requirements and appointment

There are both volunteer and professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be legally educated; in the U.S., this generally requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is often required; for example, in the U.S., judges are often appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are often appointed by the head of state. In some U.S. jurisdictions, however, judges are elected in a political election.

Impartiality is often considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be highly politicized and they often receive instructions on how to judge, and may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership.

Judge as an occupation

Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents and other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning, analysis and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are also a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time; by the nature of the job, good dispute resolution and interpersonal skills are a necessity.[1] Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges often enjoy a high salary, in the U.S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum,[1] and federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.[2]

Symbols of office

Don Diego del Corral y Arellano, por Diego Velázquez
17th century Spanish judge in full gowns, by Velázquez.

A variety of traditions have become associated with the rank or occupation. Gavels (a ceremonial hammer) are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges wear long robes (often in black or red) and sit on an elevated platform during trials (known as the bench).

American judges frequently wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes.

In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs. The long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a barrister's wig (a Bench Wig) would be worn in court. This tradition, however, is being phased out in Britain in non-criminal courts.[3]

In Oman, the judge wears a long stripe (red, green white), while the attorneys wear the black gown.

In Portugal and in the former Portuguese Empire, the judges used to carry a staff that was red for ordinary judges and white for the judges from the outside.

Titles and forms of address

Asia

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, court proceedings are conducted in either English or Hong Kong Cantonese (a dialect of Yue Chinese). Judges of Hong Kong retain many of the English traditions such as wearing wigs and robes in trials.

In the lower courts, magistrates are addressed as Your worship, and district court judges as Your Honour.

In the superior courts of record, namely the Court of Final Appeal and the High Court (which consists of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance), judges are addressed as My Lord or My Lady and referred to as Your Lordship or Your Ladyship, following the English tradition.

In writing, the post-nominal letters PJ is used to refer to a permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal and NPJ to a non-permanent judge. In the High Court, the abbreviation JA is used to denote a justice of appeal, and the letter J refers to a judge of the Court of First Instance.

Masters of the High Court are addressed as Master.

When trials are conducted in Chinese, judges were addressed, in Cantonese, as Fat Goon Dai Yan (Hong Kong Cantonese: 法官大人, translit. Fǎguān dàrén, lit. 'Judge, your lordship') before the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China, and as Fat Goon Gok Ha (Hong Kong Cantonese: 法官閣下, translit. Fǎguān géxià, lit. 'Judge, your honour') since 1997. Fat Goon (Hong Kong Cantonese: 法官, translit. Fǎguān, lit. 'Judge') means "judge".

India

The Native Judges
These drawings were taken from life in 1758. From left to right, top row: 1. Interpreter, Rhowangee Sewagee. 2. Judge of the Hindoo Law, Antoba Crustnagee Pundit. 3. Hindoo Officer, Lellather Chatta Bhutt. From left to right, bottom row: 4. Officer to the Mooremen, Mahmoud Ackram of the Codjee order or priesthood of the cast of Moormens. 5. Judge of the Mohomedan Law, Cajee Husson. 6. Haveldar, or summoning Officer, Mahmound Ismael'.

In India, judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts were addressed as Your Lordship or My Lord and Your Ladyship or My Lady, a tradition directly attributable to England. The Bar Council of India had adopted a resolution in April 2006 and added a new Rule 49(1)(j) in the Advocates Act. As per the rule, lawyers can address the court as Your Honour and refer to it as Honourable Court. If it is a subordinate court, lawyers can use terms such as sir or any equivalent phrase in the regional language concerned. Explaining the rationale behind the move, the Bar Council had held that the words such as My Lord and Your Lordship were "relics of the colonial past". The resolution has since been circulated to all state councils and the Supreme Court for adoption but over five years now, the resolution largely remained on paper.

However, in an unprecedented move in October 2009, one of the judges of Madras HC, Justice K Chandru had banned lawyers from addressing his court as My Lord and Your Lordship.

Israel

In Israel, the judges (Hebrew: שופט‬‎, translit. shofét, lit. 'judge') of all courts are addressed as Sir, Madam (Hebrew: אדוני‬‎/גבירתי‬‎, translit. ado'nai/geberet) or Your Honor (Hebrew: כבודו‬‎/כבודה‬‎, translit. kabowd/). Typically after every naming you will hear haShofét, meaning "the judge" after the respective address. For example, Your Honor the Judge would be כבוד השופט‬‎ (kabowd haShofét).

Malaysia

In Malaysia, judges of the subordinate courts are addressed as Tuan or Puan ("Sir", "Madam"), or Your Honour. Judges of the superior courts are addressed as Yang Arif (lit. "Learned One") or My Lord, My Lady, etc.; and Your Lordship or My Ladyship if the proceedings, as they generally are in the superior courts, are in English.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, judges of the Supreme Court and the high courts are addressed as Your Lordship or My Lord or Lordship and Your Ladyship or My Lady, a tradition directly attributable to England. There is some resistance to this on religious grounds but more or less continues till this day. In lower courts, judges are addressed as sir, madam or the Urdu equivalent Janab or Judge Sahab.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, judges of most courts are addressed as Your Honour, however the Chief Justice is addressed as Your Lordship. Judges of the Supreme Court and the Appeal Court receives the title The Honourable.

Vietnam

Judges in Vietnam are addressed as Quý tòa (literally the "Honorable Court").

Europe

Bulgaria

In Bulgaria before 1989 during the communist regime, judges were addressed as drugarju (Bulgarian: другарю, lit. 'comrade').[4] After 1989, gospodín sŭdiya (Bulgarian: господин съдия, lit. 'mister judge') or gospožo sŭdiya (Bulgarian: госпожо съдия, lit. 'madam judge').

Finland

There is no special form of address; ordinary politeness is sufficient and the procedure lacks arcane rituals. Accordingly, the chairman of the panel is addressed as herra/rouva puheenjohtaja ("Mr./Ms. Chairman"). Finnish judges use gavels, but there are no robes or cloaks used in any Finnish courts.[5]

In a district court (käräjäoikeus), ordinary judges work with the title käräjätuomari and the chairman is laamanni (lawspeaker). They are assisted by notaries (notaari), assessors (asessori) and referendaries (viskaali) who may sometimes even chair sessions. In appeals courts (hovioikeus) an ordinary judge has the title hovioikeudenneuvos, the chairman of a section is hovioikeudenlaamanni and the court is led by a presidentti. In the Supreme Court, judges are titled oikeusneuvos and the court is led by a presidentti.

France

In France, the presiding judge of a court is addressed as Monsieur le président or Madame le président, whilst associated judges are addressed as Monsieur l'Assesseur or Madame l'Assesseur. Out of the courtroom, judges are referred to as Monsieur le juge or Madame le juge.

Germany

In Germany, judges are addressed as Herr Vorsitzender or Frau Vorsitzende, which translate as "Mister Chairman" and "Madam Chairwoman", or as Hohes Gericht, which translates as "High Court".

Hungary

The male presiding judge of a court is addressed as tisztelt bíró úr, which means "Honourable Mister Judge" and a female presiding judge is addressed as tisztelt bírónő, which means "Honourable Madam Judge". The court as a body can be addressed as tisztelt bíróság, which means "Honourable Court".

Ireland

Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, or High Court are officially titled The Honourable Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss Justice Surname (Irish: An Breitheamh Onórach Uasal [surname]), and informally referred to for short as Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss Justice Surname. In court, they are addressed either by their respective titles or styles, as The Court (An Chúirt), or simply Judge (A Bhreithimh).[6] In law reports, the Chief Justice of Ireland has the postnominal CJ, the Presidents of the other Courts have the postnominal P, and all other judges J, e.g. Smith J.

Judges of the Circuit Court are titled His/Her Honour Judge Surname and are addressed in Court as Judge. Before 2006, they were addressed as My Lord (A thiarna) .

Judges of the District Court are titled Judge Surname and addressed in Court as Judge. Before 1991 these judges were known as District Justices and addressed as Your Worship (d'Onóra).

Italy

In Italy, the presiding judge of a court is addressed as Signor presidente della corte.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, presiding judges of either sex are, in writing only, addressed edelachtbare ("Your Honour") for judges in the Court of First Instance, edelgrootachtbare ("Your Great Honour") for justices in the Court of Appeal and edelhoogachtbare ("Your High Honour") for justices in the High Council of the Netherlands (Supreme Court).

Poland

In Poland, presiding judges of either sex during trial are addressed Wysoki Sądzie ("High Court").

Portugal

In Portugal, presiding judges during trial are addressed as Meretíssimo Juiz when a man or Meretíssima Juíza when a woman (meaning "Most Worthy Judge") or as Vossa Excelência ("Your Excellency") when not specifying gender.

Russia

In Russia, Vasha Chest (Russian: Ваша Честь, lit. 'Your Honour') is used for criminal cases only with the one judge presiding.[7] For civil, commercial and criminal cases presided over by a panel of judges the right address is Honorable Court.[7][8][9]

Spain

In Spain, magistrates of the Supreme Court, magistrates and judges are addressed to as "Your Lordship" (Su Señoría); however, in formal occasions, magistrates of the Supreme Court are addressed to as "Your Right Honorable Lordship" (Vuestra Señoría Excelentísima or Excelentísimo Señor/Excelentísima Señora); in those solemn occasions, magistrates of lower Courts are addressed as "Your Honorable Lordship" (Vuestra Señoría Ilustrísima or Ilustrísimo Señor/Ilustrísima Señora); simple judges are always called "Your Lordship".

Sweden

In Sweden, the presiding judge of a court is normally addressed as Herr Ordförande or Fru Ordförande, which translate as "Mister Chairman" and "Madam Chairwoman".

United Kingdom

In the Courts of England and Wales, Supreme Court judges are called Justices of the Supreme Court. Justices of the Supreme Court who do not hold life peerages are now given the courtesy style "Lord" or "Lady."[10] Justices of the Supreme Court are addressed as "My Lord/Lady" in court. In the law reports, the Justices of the Supreme Court are usually referred to as "Lord/Lady N", although the Weekly Law Reports appends the post-nominal letters "JSC" (e.g. "Lady Smith JSC"). The President and Deputy President of the Court are afforded the post-nominal letters PSC and DPSC respectively. Only experienced barristers or solicitors are usually appointed as judges.

Judges of the High Court and Court of Appeal are addressed (when sitting in those courts) as "My Lord" or "My Lady" and referred to as "Your Lordship" or "Your Ladyship".

Judges of the Court of Appeal, also called Lords Justice of Appeal, are referred to as "Lord Justice N" or "Lady Justice N." In legal writing, Lords Justices of Appeal are afforded the post nominal letters "LJ:" for example, Smith LJ.

When a Justice of the High Court who is not present is being referred to they are described as "Mr./Mrs./Ms. Justice N." In legal writing, the post-nominal letter "J" is used to denote a Justice (male or female) of the High Court: for example, Smith J. Masters of the High Court are addressed as "Master".

Circuit Judges and Recorders are addressed as "Your Honour". Circuit judges are referred to as "His/Her Honour Judge N." In writing, this title is occasionally abbreviated as "HHJ" or "HH Judge N", but not in legal writing. district judges and tribunal judges are addressed as "Sir/Madam".

Lay magistrates are sometimes still addressed as "Your Worship" in much of England, although in northern England "Your Honour" is more usually used by advocates before the court. Lay magistrates are also addressed as "Sir/Madam."

In the Courts of Scotland judges in the Court of Session, High Court of Justiciary and Sheriff Courts are all addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady" and referred to as "Your Lordship" or "Your Ladyship".

Justices of the Peace in Justice of the Peace Courts are addressed and referred to as "Your Honour".

The judicial system of Northern Ireland is very similar to that of England and Wales, and superior court judges are addressed the same way as those in England and Wales. However, there are a few differences at the lower levels.

In Northern Ireland, the equivalent to a Circuit Judge is a County Court Judge, and they are addressed and titled the same way as a Circuit Judge is in England and Wales. The senior County Court Judges assigned to the County Court Divisions of Belfast and Derry have the titles of Recorder of Belfast and Recorder of Londonderry (or Derry) respectively, but are addressed the same as other County Court Judges. A district judge sitting in the County Court is addressed as "Your Honour".

A District Judge (Magistrates' Court) is addressed as "Your Worship". A Lay Magistrate, in cases where they are present, is also addressed as "Your Worship", and may use the post nominals "LM", e.g. "John Smith LM".[11]

North America

Canada

In general, Canadian judges may be addressed directly, depending on the province, as "My Lord", "My Lady", "Your Honour" or "Justice" and are formally referred to in the third person as "The Honourable Mr. (or Madam) Justice 'Forename Surname'". Less formally, judges of a Superior Court are referred to as "Justice 'Surname'", not as "Judge 'Surname.'" When referred to in a decision of a court, judges' titles are often abbreviated to the suffix "J.", so that Justice Smith will be referred to as Smith J. Judges in some superior courts are addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady".[12] In Ontario, judges are never referred to as "My Lord" or "My Lady," but only as "Your Honour" at the Ontario Superior Court of Justice.[13] Formerly, translations of these titles such as Votre Honneur ("your honour") or Votre Seigneurie ("your lordship") were used in French; today, only Monsieur le juge and Madame la juge are officially used. Both the titles "judge" and "justice" are translated juge.

Generally, it is only appropriate to use the term "judge" when speaking of an anonymous or general position, such as "the trial judge," or when referring to a member of an inferior or provincial court such as the Ontario Court of Justice. The exception is Citizenship Judges who are referred to only as "Judge 'Surname.'" in accordance with their appointment as independent decision makers of the Citizenship Commission.

Like other members of the Commonwealth, a justice of the peace is addressed as "Your Worship," and a Master of a Superior Court is both addressed and referred to as "Master."

United States

In many states throughout the United States, a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court. "Judge" may be more commonly used by attorneys and staff, while either may be commonly used by the plaintiff or defendant. Notably, the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, the largest unified trial court in the United States, has a rule that the judge shall be addressed only as "Your Honor" while in court, and never as "Judge," "Judge (name)," "ma'am," or "sir."[14] This is somewhat unusual as "Judge" and "Judge (name)" or similar forms of address are considered appropriate and respectful in many other courts.

The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the judges of the supreme courts of several US states and other countries are called "justices". Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States and Justices of other courts are addressed as "Justice (name)." The Chief Justice of the United States is formally addressed as "Mr. Chief Justice" but also may be identified and addressed as "Chief Justice (name)".

The justices of the supreme courts usually hold higher offices than any other judges in a jurisdiction, including a justice of the peace, a judge who holds police court in some jurisdictions and who may also try small claims and misdemeanors. However, the State of New York inverts this usual order. The initial trial court in this state is called the Supreme Court of New York, and its judges are called "justices". The next highest appellate court is the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, whose judges are also called "justices". However, the highest court in New York is called the New York Court of Appeals, whose members are called "judges".

Judges in certain jurisdictions, such as New York and New Jersey, who deal with guardianships, trusts and estates are known as "surrogates."

A senior judge, in US practice, is a retired judge who handles selected cases for a governmental entity while in retirement, on a part-time basis.

Subordinate or inferior jurisdiction judges in US legal practice are sometimes called magistrates, although in the federal court of the United States, they are called magistrate judges. Subordinate judges in US legal practice who are appointed on a case-by-case basis, particularly in cases where a great deal of detailed and tedious evidence must be reviewed, are often called "masters" or "special masters" and have authority in a particular case often determined on a case by case basis.

Judges of courts of specialized jurisdiction (such as bankruptcy courts or juvenile courts) were sometimes known officially as "referees," but the use of this title is in decline. Judges sitting in courts of equity in common law systems (such as judges in the equity courts of Delaware) are called "chancellors."

Individuals with judicial responsibilities who report to an executive branch official, rather than being a part of the judiciary, are often called "administrative law judges" in US practice. They were previously known as hearing examiners. They commonly make initial determinations regarding matters such as workers' compensation, eligibility for government benefits, regulatory matters, and immigration determinations.

Judges who derive their authority from a contractual agreement of the parties to a dispute, rather than a governmental body, are called arbitrators. They typically do not receive the honorific forms of address nor do they bear the symbolic trappings of a publicly appointed judge. However, it is now common for many retired judges to serve as arbitrators, and they will often write their names as if they were still judges, with the parenthetical "(Ret.)" for "Retired."

Unlike many civil law countries; which have some courts on which panels of judges with nearly equal status composed of both legally trained professional judges and lay judges who lack legal training and are not career judges, the United States legal system (like most Anglo-American legal systems) makes a clear distinction between professional judges and laypeople involved in deciding a case who are jurors who are part of a jury. Most but not all US judges have professional credentials as lawyers. Non-lawyer judges in the United States are often elected, and are typically either justices of the peace or part-time judges in rural limited jurisdiction courts. A non-lawyer judge typically has the same rights and responsibilities as a lawyer who is a judge holding the same office and is addressed in the same manner.

Oceania

Australia

Susan Kiefel 2011
Susan Kiefel, Chief Justice of Australia

In Australia judges and, since 2007, magistrates, of all jurisdictions including the High Court of Australia are now addressed as "Your Honour". In legal contexts, they are referred to as "His/Her Honour" and "the Honourable Justice Surname" (for judges of superior courts) or "his/her Honour Judge Surname" (for inferior courts). Outside legal contexts, the formal terms of address are "Judge" (for puisne justices) or "Chief Justice" (for chief justices).

The title for most puisne judges is "Justice", which is abbreviated in law reports to a postnominal "J", in the form "Surname J". Chief Justices of the High Court and of state Supreme Courts are titled "Chief Justice", which is abbreviated in law reports to a postnomial "CJ". Judges in State Supreme Courts with a separate Court of Appeal division (New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia) are referred to as Justices/Judges of the Appeal (abbreviated "Surname JA"), while the President of the Court of Appeal is referred to as "President" (abbreviated "Surname P").[15]

New Zealand

In New Zealand, judges of the District Court of New Zealand generally referred to as "His/Her Honour" or "Sir/Madame." Judges from the High Court, Appeals Court, and Supreme Court are referred to as "Justice [Surname]." In social settings, it is appropriate to use "Judge" in all cases.[16]

South America

Brazil

Cms BANCOIMAGEMFOTOMINISTRO bancoImagemFotoMinistro AP 88800
Judges of the Supreme Federal Court of Brazil.

In Brazil, judges are simply called "Juiz" or "Juíza" (male and female forms of "judge") and traditionally addressed to as "Vossa Excelência" (lit. "Your Excellency", translated as "Your Honor") or "Meritíssimo" (lit. "Honorable", but it is used as a pronoun also translated as "Your Honor"). Judges that are part of a panel in a State Court, or Federal Court are called "desembargadores". Judges sitting in the higher courts (Supremo Tribunal Federal, Superior Tribunal de Justiça, Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, Superior Tribunal Militar and Tribunal Superior Eleitoral) are called "ministro" or "ministra" (male and female forms of "minister") and also referred to as "Vossa Excelência".

International courts

At the International Court of Justice, judges may be addressed by the titles they received in their countries of origin.

Judges of the International Criminal Court are referred to as "judge."

Biblical and Israeli judges

The Biblical Book of Judges revolves around a succession of leaders who were known as "judges" (Hebrew shoftim שופטים) but who – aside from their judicial function – were also tribal war leaders. The same word is, however, used in contemporary Israel to denote judges whose function and authority is similar to that in other modern countries. The same word is also used in modern Hebrew for referees in any kind of contest and in particular in sport. To distinguish them from judicial judges and from each other, the kind of the contest is added after the word "shofet" in the Construct state (e.g. "shofet kaduregel" שופט כדורגל, litterally "judge of soccer").

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "What Does It Take to Be a Judge? Job Description and Career Profile". thebalance.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Judicial Compensation". United States Courts. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  3. ^ Hosted.ap.org
  4. ^ Корнажер, П. – "Съдебна реторика. Избрани съдебни речи", ИК Софи-Р, С., 2000, с. 77
  5. ^ "Oikeustiede:oikeudenkäyntirituaalit/laajempi kuvaus – Tieteen termipankki". tieteentermipankki.fi. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  6. ^ Ireland, Courts Service of. "Rules and Fees: Mode of address : Court Rules : Courts Service of Ireland". www.courts.ie.
  7. ^ a b "Criminal Procedure Code of Russia, Article 257. Regulations of the court session". Consultant.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-01-26. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  8. ^ "Civil Procedure Code of Russia, Article 158. Procedure of the court session". Consultant.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-07-08. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  9. ^ "Arbitral Procedure Code of Russia, Article 154. Procedure of the court session". Consultant.ru. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-02-07. Retrieved 2010-12-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ http://www.law.qub.ac.uk/schools/SchoolofLaw/Education/handbooks/Filetoupload,150353,en.pdf Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Albertacourts.ab.ca". Albertacourts.ab.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  13. ^ "Ontario Justice Education Network Handout: The Jurisdiction of Ontario Courts" (PDF). Ontario Justice Education Network. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-28. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  14. ^ Rule 3.95, Los Angeles Superior Court Rules.
  15. ^ New South Wales Supreme Court, Addressing Judicial Officers Archived 2013-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "New Zealand Law Society". www.lawsociety.org.nz. Archived from the original on 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2017-03-01.

External links

Aaron Judge

Aaron James Judge (born April 26, 1992) is an American professional baseball outfielder for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB). Judge was unanimously selected as the American League (AL) Rookie of the Year in 2017 and finished second, behind José Altuve, for AL Most Valuable Player.Judge, who played college baseball at California State University, Fresno, was selected by the Yankees in the first round of the 2013 MLB draft. After making his major league baseball debut in 2016 and hitting a home run in his first career at bat, Judge went on to have a record-breaking rookie season in 2017. He was named an All-Star and won the Home Run Derby, becoming the first rookie to do so. Judge ended the season with 52 home runs, breaking Mark McGwire's MLB rookie record of 49 and the Yankees' full-season rookie record of 29 (previously held by Joe DiMaggio). He won the American League (AL) Rookie of the Month Awards for April, May, June and September, as well as the AL's Player of the Month Award for June and September.

Judge stands 6 feet 7 inches (2.01 m) tall and weighs 282 pounds (128 kg), which makes him one of the biggest players in the major leagues.

Antonin Scalia

Antonin Gregory Scalia ( (listen); March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing.

Scalia was born in Trenton, New Jersey. He attended Xavier High School in Manhattan and then college at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He obtained his law degree from Harvard Law School and spent six years in a Cleveland law firm before becoming a law school professor at the University of Virginia. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations, eventually as an Assistant Attorney General. He spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society. In 1982, Ronald Reagan appointed him as judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

In 1986, Reagan appointed him to the Supreme Court. Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, becoming the Court's first Italian-American justice. He served on the Court for nearly thirty years until his death on February 13, 2016.

Scalia espoused a conservative jurisprudence and ideology, advocating textualism in statutory interpretation and originalism in constitutional interpretation. He was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, believing presidential power should be paramount in many areas. He believed that the Constitution permitted the death penalty and did not guarantee the right to abortion or same-sex marriage, and that affirmative action and most other policies that afforded special protected status to minority groups were unconstitutional. These positions earned him a reputation as one of the most conservative justices on the Court. He filed separate opinions in many cases, often castigating the Court's majority using scathing language. Scalia's most significant opinions include his lone dissent in Morrison v. Olson (against the constitutionality of an Independent-Counsel law), his majority opinion in Crawford v. Washington (defining a criminal defendant's confrontation right under the 6th Amendment), and his majority opinion in District of Columbia v. Heller (holding that the 2nd Amendment guarantees a right to individual handgun ownership).

Scalia was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2018.

Baylor University

Baylor University (BU) is a private Christian university in Waco, Texas. Chartered in 1845 by the last Congress of the Republic of Texas, it is one of the oldest continuously operating universities in Texas and one of the first educational institutions west of the Mississippi River in the United States. Located on the banks of the Brazos River next to I-35, between the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and Austin, the university's 1,000-acre campus is the largest Baptist university campus in the world. Baylor University's athletic teams, known as the Bears, participate in 19 intercollegiate sports. The university is a member of the Big 12 Conference in the NCAA Division I. It is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.

Beavis and Butt-Head

Beavis and Butt-Head is an American adult animated sitcom created by Mike Judge. The series originated from Frog Baseball, a 1992 short film by Judge originally aired on Liquid Television. After seeing the short, MTV signed Judge to develop the short into a full series. The series originally ran for seven seasons from March 8, 1993 to November 28, 1997.

Fourteen years following the end of the series, the series was revived for an eighth season which aired from October 27 to December 29, 2011. A theatrical feature-length film based on the series titled Beavis and Butt-Head Do America was released in 1996 by Paramount Pictures.

Brett Kavanaugh

Brett Michael Kavanaugh (; born February 12, 1965) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He previously served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and as a staff lawyer for various offices of the federal government.Kavanaugh graduated from Yale University, where he joined Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. After graduating from Yale Law School, he began his career as a law clerk and then a postgraduate fellow working under Judge Ken Starr. After Starr left the D.C. Circuit to take the position as head of the Office of Independent Counsel, Kavanaugh followed and assisted him with various investigations concerning President Bill Clinton, including the drafting of the Starr Report, which urged Clinton's impeachment. After the 2000 U.S. presidential election (in which he worked for the George W. Bush campaign in the Florida recount), he joined the administration as White House Staff Secretary and was a central figure in its efforts to identify and confirm judicial nominees. Kavanaugh was nominated to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit by President Bush in 2003. His confirmation hearings were contentious; they stalled for three years over charges of partisanship. He was ultimately confirmed to the D.C. Circuit in May 2006 after a series of negotiations between Democratic and Republican U.S. Senators. A Washington Post analysis found he had the most or second-most conservative voting record on the D.C. Court in every policy area between 2003 and 2018.President Trump nominated Kavanaugh to the U.S. Supreme Court on July 9, 2018, to fill the position vacated by retiring Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy. When Kavanaugh's name was on the short list of Supreme Court nominees and before his nomination, Palo Alto University Professor of Psychology Christine Blasey Ford contacted a Washington Post tip line with accusations that Kavanaugh had sexually assaulted her in the early 1980s while the two were in high school. Two other women also accused Kavanaugh of sexual misconduct. Kavanaugh denied all three accusations. The Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee held a supplemental hearing over Ford's allegations, after which it voted to advance the confirmation to a full Senate vote. After delaying the vote for an additional FBI investigation, the Senate confirmed Kavanaugh's nomination by a vote of 50–48 on October 6, 2018.

Celestial (comics)

The Celestials are a group of fictional characters appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Immensely powerful and of huge humanoid shape, the Celestials are some of the oldest entities in the Marvel Comics universe. They debuted in the Bronze Age of Comic Books and have appeared in Marvel publications for four decades. They also try to harness the power of the infinity stones.

Jeanine Pirro

Jeanine Ferris Pirro (born June 2, 1951) is an American television host, author, and a former judge, prosecutor, and politician from New York. Pirro is the host of Fox News Channel's Justice with Judge Jeanine. She was a frequent contributor to NBC News, including frequent appearances on The Today Show. A Republican, she was the first female judge elected in Westchester County, New York. She was subsequently elected the first female District Attorney of Westchester County.As District Attorney, Pirro gained visibility in cases of domestic abuse and crimes against the elderly. Pirro briefly sought the Republican nomination for United States Senate against Hillary Clinton in 2006, but dropped out to accept the nomination for New York Attorney General. Pirro lost the general election to Andrew Cuomo by 19%.

Pirro has since become known for her staunchly pro–Donald Trump commentary. In 2018, she authored the book Liars, Leakers, and Liberals: The Case Against the Anti-Trump Conspiracy.

John Roberts

John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States, serving in this role since 2005.

Roberts was born in Buffalo, New York, but grew up in northwest Indiana and was educated in a private school. He then attended Harvard College and Harvard Law School, where he was a managing editor of the Harvard Law Review. After being admitted to the bar, he served as a law clerk for Judge Henry Friendly and then Associate Justice William Rehnquist before taking a position in the Attorney General's office during the Reagan Administration. He went on to serve the Reagan administration and the George H. W. Bush administration in the Department of Justice and the Office of the White House Counsel, before spending 14 years in private law practice. During this time, he argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court. Notably, he represented 19 states in United States v. Microsoft Corp.In 2003, Roberts was appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by George W. Bush. During his two-year tenure on the D.C. Circuit, Roberts authored 49 opinions, eliciting two dissents from other judges, and authoring three dissents of his own. In 2005, Roberts was nominated to be an associate justice of the Supreme Court, initially to succeed the retiring Sandra Day O'Connor. When Rehnquist died before Roberts's confirmation hearings began, Bush instead nominated Roberts to fill the chief justice position.

Roberts has authored the majority opinion in many landmark cases, including Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, Shelby County v. Holder, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, and King v. Burwell. He has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy in his jurisprudence. Even so, Roberts has shown a willingness to work with the Supreme Court's liberal bloc and since the retirement of Anthony Kennedy in 2018, has come to be regarded as a key swing vote on the Court.

Judge Dredd

Judge Joseph Dredd is a fictional character created by writer John Wagner and artist Carlos Ezquerra. He first appeared in the second issue of 2000 AD (1977), which is a British weekly anthology comic. He is the magazine's longest-running character. He also appears in a number of movie and video game adaptations.

Judge Dredd is a law enforcement and judicial officer in the dystopian future city of Mega-City One, which covers most of the east coast of North America. He is a "street judge", empowered to summarily arrest, convict, sentence, and execute criminals.

In Great Britain, the character of Dredd and his name are sometimes invoked in discussions of police states, authoritarianism, and the rule of law.In 2011, IGN ranked Judge Dredd 35th among the top 100 comic book heroes of all time.Judge Dredd made his live action debut in 1995 in Judge Dredd, portrayed by Sylvester Stallone. Later he was portrayed by Karl Urban in the 2012 adaptation Dredd.

Judge Judy

Judge Judy is an American arbitration-based reality court show presided over by Judge Judy Sheindlin, a retired Manhattan family court judge. The show features Sheindlin adjudicating real-life small claim disputes within a simulated courtroom set. Prior to the proceedings, all parties involved must sign arbitration contracts agreeing to Sheindlin's ruling, handling and production staff management. The series is in first-run syndication and distributed by CBS Television Distribution.

The program has won three Emmy awards and has had the highest ratings in courtroom programming in the United States.

The program debuted in 1996 and its 23rd season commenced in September 2018. In March 2015, Sheindlin and CBS Television Distribution extended their contract through the program's 25th season (2020–21).

King of the Hill

King of the Hill is an American animated sitcom created by Mike Judge and Greg Daniels for the Fox Broadcasting Company that ran from January 12, 1997, to May 6, 2010. It centers on the Hills, a middle-class American family in the fictional city of Arlen, Texas. Patriarch and main character Hank Hill, who works as assistant manager at Strickland Propane, is the everyman and general protagonist of the series. His modest conservative views and biases often clash with that of his wife, Peggy; his son, Bobby; his father, Cotton; his niece, Luanne; his boss, Buck Strickland; and his neighbor, Kahn. Hank is friends with other residents on his block, especially Bill Dauterive, Dale Gribble, and Jeff Boomhauer, all of whom he has known since elementary school. It attempts to maintain a realistic approach, seeking humor in the conventional and mundane aspects of everyday life.

Judge began creating King of the Hill during his time making the MTV series Beavis and Butt-Head, which he also created and voiced. After pitching the pilot to Fox, Judge was paired with Greg Daniels, an experienced writer who previously worked on The Simpsons. The series debuted on the Fox network as a mid-season replacement in 1997, quickly becoming a hit. The series' popularity led to worldwide syndication, and reruns aired on Adult Swim from 2009 until 2018. Since July 24, 2018, reruns began airing on Comedy Central. The show became one of Fox's longest-running series (third-longest as an animated series, behind The Simpsons and Family Guy). A total of 259 episodes aired over the course of its 13 seasons. The final episode aired on Fox on September 13, 2009. Four episodes from the final season were to have aired on Fox, but later premiered in nightly syndication from May 3 to 6, 2010.

In 2007, it was named by Time magazine as one of the top 100 greatest television shows of all time. King of the Hill won two Emmy Awards and was nominated for seven. The series' celebrity guest stars include Chuck Mangione (playing a fictionalized version of himself), Tom Petty (playing the recurring character Lucky), and numerous country music artists.

List of federal judges appointed by Donald Trump

This is a comprehensive list of all Article III and Article IV United States federal judges appointed by Donald Trump during his presidency, as well as a partial list of Article I federal judicial appointments, excluding appointments to the District of Columbia judiciary.As of April 10, 2019, the United States Senate has confirmed 97 Article III judges nominated by President Trump, including 2 Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, 37 judges for the United States Courts of Appeals, 58 judges for the United States District Courts, and 0 judges for the United States Court of International Trade. There are currently 60 nominations to Article III courts awaiting Senate action, including 5 for the Courts of Appeals, 53 for the District Courts, and 2 for the Court of International Trade. There are currently 8 vacancies on the U.S. Courts of Appeals, 125 vacancies on the U.S. District Courts, 4 vacancies on the U.S. Court of International Trade, and 16 announced federal judicial vacancies that will occur before the end of Trump's first term (2 for the Courts of Appeals and 14 for District Courts). Trump has not made any recess appointments to the federal courts.

In terms of Article I courts, as of March 5, 2019, the Senate has confirmed 7 judges nominated by Trump, including 2 for the United States Tax Court, 4 for the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, and 1 for the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. There are currently 9 nominations to Article I courts awaiting Senate action, including 4 for the United States Court of Federal Claims, 4 for the Tax Court, and 1 for the United States Court of Military Commission Review. Trump designated Susan G. Braden and Margaret M. Sweeney as chief judges of the Court of Federal Claims.

In terms of Article IV territorial courts, Trump has not made any appointments or elevated any judges to the position of chief judge.

Office Space

Office Space is a 1999 American comedy film written and directed by Mike Judge. It satirizes the everyday work life of a typical mid-to-late-1990s software company, focusing on a handful of individuals fed up with their jobs. It stars Ron Livingston, Jennifer Aniston, Gary Cole, Stephen Root, David Herman, Ajay Naidu, and Diedrich Bader.Office Space was shot in Dallas and Austin, Texas. It is based on Judge's Milton cartoon series and was his first foray into live-action filmmaking and his second full-length motion picture release, following Beavis and Butt-Head Do America. His 2009 film Extract is also set in an office and was meant to be a companion piece to Office Space.

The film's sympathetic depiction of ordinary information technology workers garnered a cult following within that field, but it also addresses themes familiar to white-collar employees and the workforce in general. It was a box office disappointment, making $12.2 million against a $10 million production budget. But after repeated airings on Comedy Central, it sold well on home video, and has become a cult film.Several aspects of the film have become popular Internet memes. A scene where the three main characters systematically destroy a dysfunctional printer after being laid off has been widely parodied, by Family Guy, Ted Cruz's presidential campaign, and many amateurs. Swingline introduced a red stapler to its product line after the Milton character used one painted that color in the film.

Simon Cowell

Simon Phillip Cowell (; born 7 October 1959) is an English television music and talent show judge, A&R executive, businessman, talent manager, television producer, critic and entrepreneur. He has judged on the British TV talent competition series Pop Idol, The X Factor and Britain's Got Talent, and the American TV talent competition shows American Idol, The X Factor and America's Got Talent. Cowell is the principal, founder and chief executive of the British entertainment company Syco.Cowell often makes blunt and controversial comments as a television show judge, including insults and wisecracks about contestants and their singing abilities. He combines activities in both the television and music industries. Cowell has produced and promoted singles and albums for various singers whom he has taken under his wing. He is popularly known for signing successful boybands such as Westlife, One Direction and CNCO.

In 2004 and 2010, Time named Cowell one of the 100 most influential people in the world. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph ranked him sixth in their list of the "100 most powerful people in British culture".

Supreme court

The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and high (or final) court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts.However, not all highest courts are named as such. Civil law states tend not to have a single highest court. Additionally, the highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court", for example, the High Court of Australia; this is because decisions by the High Court could formerly be appealed to the Privy Council. On the other hand, in some places the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; examples include the New York Supreme Court, the Supreme Courts of several Canadian provinces/territories and the former Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales and Supreme Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland, which are all subordinate to higher courts of appeal.

The idea of a supreme court owes much to the framers of the United States constitution. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary. Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea; in the English tradition, judicial matters had been treated as an aspect of royal (executive) authority. It was also proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to exercise a veto or to revise laws. In the end the Framers of the Constitution compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting of federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." They delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Judicial Branch as a whole.

Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law. Some countries with a federal system of government may have both a federal supreme court (such as the Supreme Court of the United States), and supreme courts for each member state (such as the Supreme Court of Nevada), with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law. However, other federations, such as Canada, may have a supreme court of general jurisdiction, able to decide any question of law. Jurisdictions with a civil law system often have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court as is the case in the Netherlands. A number of jurisdictions also maintain a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920), such as Austria, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Portugal, Russia, Spain and South Africa. Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London). A number of Commonwealth jurisdictions retain this system, but many others have reconstituted their own highest court as a court of last resort, with the right of appeal to the Privy Council being abolished.

In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the supreme court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts; this is intended to apply a uniform interpretation and implementation of the law. In civil law jurisdictions the doctrine of stare decisis is not generally considered to apply, so the decisions of the supreme court are not necessarily binding beyond the immediate case before it; however, in practice the decisions of the supreme court usually provide a very strong precedent, or jurisprudence constante, for both itself and all lower courts.

Thomas Massie

Thomas Harold Massie (born January 13, 1971) is an American inventor, entrepreneur, and Republican politician who has been the United States Representative for Kentucky's 4th congressional district since 2012.

In 2012, he defeated Bill Adkins in the special and general elections to represent Northern Kentucky in Washington, D.C. Before joining congress, Massie was Judge-Executive of Lewis County, Kentucky, from 2011 to 2012. He also ran a start-up company based in Massachusetts, where he previously studied robotics at MIT. He is an engineer by practice and education.Massie has been described as a libertarian Republican and is associated with the House Liberty Caucus.

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:

District of Alaska

District of Arizona

Central District of California

Eastern District of California

Northern District of California

Southern District of California

District of Hawaii

District of Idaho

District of Montana

District of Nevada

District of Oregon

Eastern District of Washington

Western District of WashingtonIt also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts:

District of Guam

District of the Northern Mariana IslandsHeadquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals.

Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel.

United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court. Each federal judicial district has at least one courthouse, and many districts have more than one. The formal name of a district court is "the United States District Court for" the name of the district—for example, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.

In contrast to the Supreme Court, which was established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress. There is no constitutional requirement that district courts exist at all. Indeed, after the ratification of the Constitution, some opponents of a strong federal judiciary urged that, outside jurisdictions under direct federal control, like Washington, D.C., and the territories, the federal court system be limited to the Supreme Court, which would hear appeals from state courts. This view did not prevail, however, and the first Congress created the district court system that is still in place today.

There is at least one judicial district for each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The insular areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands each have one territorial court; these courts are called "district courts" and exercise the same jurisdiction as district courts, but differ from district courts in that territorial courts are Article IV courts, with judges who serve ten-year terms rather than the lifetime tenure of judges of Article III courts, such as the district court judges.There are 89 districts in the 50 states, with a total of 94 districts including territories.

United States federal judge

In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge (pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution) appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.

In addition to the Supreme Court of the United States, whose existence and some aspects of whose jurisdiction are beyond the constitutional power of Congress to alter, Congress has established 13 courts of appeals (also called "circuit courts") with appellate jurisdiction over different regions of the United States, and 94 United States district courts.

Every judge appointed to such a court may be categorized as a federal judge; such positions include the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, Circuit Judges of the courts of appeals, and district judges of the United States district courts. All of these judges described thus far are referred to sometimes as "Article III judges" because they exercise the judicial power vested in the judicial branch of the federal government by Article III of the U.S. Constitution. In addition, judges of the Court of International Trade exercise judicial power pursuant to Article III.

Other judges serving in the federal courts, including magistrate judges and bankruptcy judges, are also sometimes referred to as "federal judges"; however, they are neither appointed by the President nor confirmed by the Senate, and their power derives from Article I instead.

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