Județ

A județ (pronounced [ʒuˈdets], plural județe [ʒuˈdetse]) is an administrative division in Romania, and was also used from 1940 to 1947 in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1998 to 2003 in Moldova.

Județ translates into English as "jurisdiction", but is commonly rendered as county (the preferred term for that being comitat in Romanian).

There are 41 județe in Romania, divided into municipii (municipalities), orașe (cities) and comune (communes). Each județ has a county seat (reședință de județ) which serves as its administrative capital; this designation usually belongs to the largest and most developed city in the respective county. The central government is represented by one prefect in every județ.

Etymology

In the Romanian Principalities, the județ was an office with administrative and judicial functions, corresponding to both judge and mayor. The word is etymologically rooted in the Latin "judicium", and is therefore cognate to other administrative institutions like the Sardinian giudicati, or terms like jurisdiction and judge.

In Romanian, the term județ does not take an initial capital unless it is the first word of a sentence.

See also

External links

  • Herb, Guntram Henrik; David H. Kaplan (1999). "Transylvania: Hungarian, Romanian, or Neither?". Nested Identities: Nationalism, Territory, and Scale. George W. White. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 275. ISBN 0-8476-8467-9. Retrieved 2008-05-26.

References

  • Lungu, Marius (2006). Statele lumii, Antologie (in Romanian). 1. Steaua Nordului. ISBN 978-606-511-018-2.
  • Malița, Mircea (1976). Statele lumii (in Romanian). 1 (2 ed.). Științifică și pedagogică. OCLC 251990545. Unknown ID 61813121918.
Botoșani County

Botoșani County (Romanian pronunciation: [botoˈʃanʲ] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Moldavia (few villages in Bukovina), with the capital city at Botoșani.

Buzău County

Buzău County (Romanian pronunciation: [buˈzəw] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Muntenia, with the capital city at Buzău.

Ciuc County

Ciuc County was a county (Romanian: județ) in the Kingdom of Romania. Its capital was Miercurea Ciuc. Its name was derived from the former county of the Kingdom of Hungary, Csík.

Călărași County

Călărași (Romanian pronunciation: [kələˈraʃʲ] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in Muntenia, with the county seat at Călărași.

Dolj County

Dolj County (Romanian pronunciation: [dolʒ] (listen); originally meant Dol(no)-Jiu, "lower Jiu", as opposed to Gorj (upper Jiu)) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in Oltenia, with the capital city at Craiova.

Dâmbovița County

Dâmbovița County (also spelt Dîmbovița, Romanian pronunciation: [ˈdɨmbovit͡sa] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Muntenia, with the capital city at Târgoviște.

Iași County

Iași County (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈjaʃʲ]) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Moldavia, with the administrative seat at Iași. It is the most populous county in Romania, after the Municipality of Bucharest (which has the same administrative level as that of a county).

Mehedinți County

Mehedinți County (Romanian pronunciation: [meheˈdint͡sʲ] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Serbia and Bulgaria. It is mostly located in the historical province of Oltenia, with one municipality (Orșova) and three communes (Dubova, Eșelnița and Svinița) located in the Banat. The county seat is Drobeta-Turnu Severin.

Neamț County

Neamț County (Romanian pronunciation: [ne̯amt͡s] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historic region of Moldavia, with the county seat at Piatra Neamț.

Olt County

Olt County (Romanian pronunciation: [olt]) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the historical regions of Oltenia and Muntenia (the regions are separated by the Olt river). The capital city is Slatina.

On 24 August 2017, the Olt County Council decided to hold a local referendum on 15 October 2017 on the proposal to change the county name to "Olt-Romanați". The local referendum was eventually held on 7 October 2018. The vote was nullified, as turnout was 27.19%, below the required threshold of 30%; therefore Olt County retains its current name.

Plasă

Plasă (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈplasə], plural plăși [ˈpləʃʲ]) was a territorial division unit of Romania, ranking below county (județ) and above commune. It was headed by a Pretor, appointed by the county Prefect. The institution headed by the Pretor was called Pretură.

The division of counties into plăși was used starting from the rule of Carol I as Domnitor, throughout the existence of a Romanian Kingdom, and during the first two years of Communist Romania, until they were replaced in 1950 by raions, following the Soviet system. In 1938, the country's 71 judeţe were divided into 429 plăşi.

Prahova County

Prahova County (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈprahova]) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Muntenia, with the capital city at Ploiești.

Sibiu County

Sibiu County (Romanian pronunciation: [siˈbiw]) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Transylvania, with the capital city Sibiu.

Teleorman County

Teleorman County (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈtele.orman]) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the historical region Muntenia, with its capital city at Alexandria.

The name Teleorman is of Cumanic (Turkic) origin. It literally means crazy forest (Deli orman) and, by extension, "thick and shadowy forest" in the Cuman language. It can be encountered in other toponyms, such as the Turkish name of the Ludogorie Plateau in northeastern Bulgaria.

Timiș County

Timiș (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈtimiʃ]) is a county (județ) of western Romania on the border with Hungary and Serbia, in the historical region Banat, with the county seat at Timișoara. It is the westernmost and the largest county in Romania in terms of land area. The county is also part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion.

Tulcea County

Tulcea County (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈtult͡ʃe̯a]) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Dobruja, with the capital city at Tulcea.

Vaslui County

Vaslui County (Romanian pronunciation: [vasˈluj]) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Moldavia, with the seat at Vaslui.

Vrancea County

Vrancea (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈvrant͡ʃe̯a]) is a county (județ) in Romania, with its seat at Focșani. It is mostly in the historical region of Moldavia but the southern part, below the Milcov River, is in Muntenia.

Vâlcea County

Vâlcea County (also spelt Vîlcea; Romanian pronunciation: [ˈvɨlt͡ʃe̯a]) is a county (județ) of Romania. Located in the historical regions of Oltenia and Muntenia (which are separated by the Olt River), it is also part of the wider Wallachia region. Its capital city is Râmnicu Vâlcea.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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