Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War. Trained at the United States Military Academy, Early resigned his U.S. Army commission after the Second Seminole War and his Virginia military commission after the Mexican–American War, in both cases to practice law and participate in politics. Accepting a Virginia and later Confederate military commission as the American Civil War began, Early fought in the Eastern Theater throughout the conflict. He commanded a division under Generals Stonewall Jackson and Richard Ewell, and later commanded a corps. A key Confederate defender of the Shenandoah Valley, during the Valley Campaigns of 1864, Early made daring raids to the outskirts of Washington, D.C., as well as far as York, Pennsylvania, securing money and supplies which delayed the Confederate surrender for several months. After the war, Early fled to Mexico, then Cuba and Canada, and upon returning to the United States took pride as "unrepentant rebel". Particularly after the death of Gen. Robert E. Lee in 1870, Early delivered speeches establishing the Lost Cause, as well as helped found the Southern Historical Society and memorial associations.
Jubal Anderson Early
|Member of the Virginia House of Delegates from Franklin County|
|Preceded by||Wyley P. Woods|
|Succeeded by||Norborne Taliaferro|
|Born||November 3, 1816|
Franklin County, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||March 2, 1894 (aged 77)|
Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S.
|Resting place||Spring Hill cemetery, Lynchburg|
|Alma mater||United States Military Academy|
|Profession||Military officer, politician, Lawyer|
"Bad Old Man"
|Allegiance|| United States of America (1837–1838, 1847–1848)|
Confederate States (1861–1865)
|Branch/service|| U.S. Army|
|Years of service||1837–1838|
|Rank|| Major (U.S.)|
Major General (C.S.)
Lieutenant General (temporary)
|Commands||Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia|
Army of the Valley
American Civil War
Early was born on November 3, 1816 in the Red Valley section of Franklin County, Virginia, third of ten children of Ruth (née Hairston) (1794–1832) and Joab Early (1791–1870). The Early family was well-established and well-connected in the area, either one of the First Families of Virginia, or linked to them by marriage as they moved westward toward the Blue Ridge Mountains from Virginia's Eastern Shore. His great grandfather, Col. Jeremiah Early (1730-1779) of Bedford County, Virginia bought an iron furnace in Rocky Mount (in what became Franklin County) with his son-in-law Col. James Calloway, but soon died. He willed it to his sons Joseph, John and Jubal Early (for whom this Jubal A. Early would be named). Of those men, only John Early (1773–1833) would live long and prosper—he sold his interest in the furnace and bought a plantation from his father-in-law in Albemarle County, so Earlysville, Virginia was named after him shortly after this Jubal Early's birth further south along the Blue Ridge foothills. Jubal Early (for whom the baby Jubal was named) only lived a couple of years after his marriage. His young sons Joab (this Early's father) and Henry became wards of Col. Samuel Hairston (1788–1875), a major landowner in southwest Virginia, and in 1851 reputedly the richest man in the South, worth $5 million in land and enslaved people.
Joab Early would marry his mentor's daughter, as well as like him (and his own son, this Jubal Early) serve in the Virginia House of Delegates part-time (1824–1826) and become the county sheriff and lead its militia, all while managing his extensive tobacco plantation of more than 4,000 acres using enslaved labor. His eldest son Samuel Henry Early (1813–1874) became a prominent manufacturer of salt using enslaved labor in the Kanawha Valley (of what became West Virginia during the American Civil War), and would also become a Confederate officer. Samuel H. Early married Henrian Cabell (1822–1890) and their daughter Ruth Hairston Early (1849–1928) would become a prominent writer, member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and preservationist in Lynchburg, which became her family's home before the American Civil War and this Jubal Early's base during his final decades. His slightly younger brother Robert Hairston Early (1818–1882) also served as a Confederate officer during the Civil War but moved to Missouri.
Jubal Early had the wherewithal to attend local private schools in Franklin County, as well as more advanced private academies in Lynchburg and Danville. He was deeply affected by his mother's death in 1832. The following year, his father and Congressman Nathaniel Claiborne secured a place in the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York for young Early, citing his particular aptitude for science and mathematics. He passed probation and became the first boy from Franklin County to enter the military academy. Early graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, ranked 18th of 50 graduating cadets and sixth among its engineering graduates. During his tenure at the Academy, fellow cadet Lewis Addison Armistead broke a mess plate over Early's head, which prompted Armistead's departure from the Academy, although he too would become an important Confederate officer. Other future generals in that 1837 class were Union generals Joseph Hooker (with whom Early would have a verbal mess hall altercation over slavery), John Sedgwick and William H. French, as well as future Confederate generals Braxton Bragg, John C. Pemberton, Arnold Elzey and William H. T. Walker. Future generals whose time also overlapped with Early's included P.G.T. Beauregard, Richard Ewell, Edward "Allegheny" Johnson, Irwin McDowell and George Gordon Meade.
Upon graduating from West Point, Early received a commission as a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery regiment. Assigned to fight against the Seminole in Florida, he was disappointed that he never even saw a Seminole and merely heard "some bullets whistling among the trees" not close to his position. His elder brother Samuel counseled him to finish his statutory one-year obligation, then return to civilian life. Thus Early resigned from the Army for the first time in 1838, later commenting that if notice of a promotion that reached him in Louisville during his return to Virginia had come earlier, he might have withheld that letter of resignation.
Early studied law with local attorney Norborne M. Taliaferro and was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1840. Franklin County voters the next year elected Early as one of their delegates in the Virginia House of Delegates (a part-time position); he was a Whig and served one term alongside Henry L. Muse from 1841 to 1842. After redistricting reduced Franklin County's representation, his mentor (but Democrat) Norborne M. Taliaferro was elected to succeed him (and would be re-elected many times until 1854, as well as become a local judge). Meanwhile, voters elected Early Talliaferro's successor as Commonwealth's attorney (prosecutor) for both Franklin and Floyd Counties; he would be re-elected and serve until 1852, apart from leading other Virginia volunteers during the Mexican–American War as noted below.
During the Mexican–American War (despite the opposition of prominent Whig Henry Clay to that war), Early volunteered and received a commission as a Major with the 1st Virginia Volunteers. During Early's time at West Point, he had considered resigning in order to fight for Texas' independence, but had been dissuaded by his father and elder brother. He served from 1847 to 1848, although his Virginians arrived too late to see battlefield combat. Major Early was assigned to logistics, as inspector general on the brigade's staff under West Pointers Col. John F. Hamtramck and Lt. Col. Thomas B. Randolph, and later helped govern the town of Monterrey, bragging that the good conduct of his men won universal praise and produced better order in Monterrey than ever before, as well as that by the time they were mustered out of service at Fort Monroe, many of his men conceded that they had misjudged him at the beginning. While in Mexico, Early met Jefferson Davis, who commanded the first Mississippi Volunteers, and they exchanged compliments. During the winter in damp northern Mexico, Early also experienced the first attacks of rheumatoid arthritis which would plague him the rest of his life, and was even sent home for three months to recover.
However, his legal career was not particularly remunerative when he returned, although Early did win an inheritance case in Lowndes County, Mississippi. He handled many cases involving slaves as well as divorces, but would only own one slave during his life. In the 1850 census Early owned no real estate and lived in a tavern, as did several other lawyers; likewise in the 1860 census, he owned neither real nor personal property (such as slaves) and lived in a hotel, as did several other lawyers and merchants. During this time, Early lived with Julia McNealey, who would bear four children whom Early acknowledged as his (including Jubal L. Early), although she would marry another man in 1871. A recent biographer would characterize Early as both unconventional and contrarian, "yet wedded to stability and conservatism".
Although Early failed to win election as Franklin County's delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1850, Franklin County voters elected Early and Peter Saunders (who lived in the same boardinghouse, although the son of prominent local landowner Samuel Sanders) to represent them at the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861. A staunch Unionist, Early argued that the rights of Southerners without slaves were worth protection as much as those who did own slaves, and that secession would precipitate war. Despite being mocked as "the Terrapin from Franklin," Early strongly opposed secession during both votes (Saunders left before the second vote, which approved secession).
However, when President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion, Early fumed. After Virginia voters ratified secession, like many of his cousins, he accepted a commission to serve against the U.S. Army. Initially, Early became a brigadier general in the Virginia Militia and was sent to Lynchburg, where he raised three regiments and then commanded one of them. On June 19, 1861, Early formally became a colonel in the Confederate army, commanding the 24th Virginia Infantry, including his young cousin (previously expelled from VMI for attending a tea party), Jack Hairston.
Following the First Battle of Bull Run (a/k/a First Manassas) in July 1861, Early was promoted to brigadier general, because his valor at Blackburn's Ford impressed General P.G.T. Beauregard, and his troops' charge along Chinn Ridge helped rout the Union forces (although his cousin Cpt. Charles F. Fisher of the 6th North Carolina died supporting the assault). As general, as discussed below, Early would lead Confederate troops in most of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, including the Seven Days Battles, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and numerous battles in the Shenandoah Valley.
General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, affectionately called Early his "Bad Old Man", because of his short temper, insubordination and use of profanity. However, Lee also appreciated Early's aggressive fighting and ability to command units independently. Most of Early's soldiers (except during the war's last days) referred to him as "Old Jube" or "Old Jubilee" with enthusiasm and affection. (The "old" referred to a stoop because of the rheumatism incurred in Mexico). However, his subordinate officers often experienced Early's inveterate complaints about minor faults, as well as biting criticism at the least opportunity. Generally blind to his own mistakes, Early reacted fiercely to criticism or suggestions from below.
As the Union Peninsular Campaign began in May 1862, Early without adequate reconnaissance led a futile charge through a swamp and wheat field against two Union artillery redoubts at what became known as the Battle of Williamsburg, His 22 year old cousin Jack Hairston was killed. The 24th Virginia suffered 180 killed, wounded or missing in the battle; Early himself received a shoulder wound and convalesced near home in Rocky Mount, Virginia. On June 26, the first day of the Seven Days Battles, Early reported himself ready for duty. However, the brigade he had commanded at Williamsburg no longer existed, having suffered severe casualties in that assault, and an army reorganization assigned the remaining men whose enlistments continued to other units. General Robert E. Lee informed Early that he could not be assigned a new command in the middle of the current heated action, and recommended that Early wait until an opening came up somewhere. On July 1, just in time for the Battle of Malvern Hill (the last engagement in the Seven Days Battles), Early (though still unable to mount a horse without assistance) received command of Brig. Gen. Arnold Elzey's brigade because Elzey had been wounded at the Battle of Gaines Mill and the ranking colonel, James Walker, seemed too inexperienced for brigade command. However, that brigade was not engaged in the battle.
For the rest of 1862, General Early commanded troops within the Second Corps under General Stonewall Jackson. During the Northern Virginia Campaign, Early's immediate superior was Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell. Early received accolades for his performance at the Battle of Cedar Mountain. Furthermore, his troops arrived in the nick of time to reinforce Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill on Jackson's left on Stony Ridge during the Second Battle of Bull Run (a/k/a Second Manassas).
At the Battle of Antietam, Early ascended to division command when his commander, Alexander Lawton, was wounded on September 17, 1862, after Lawton had assumed that division command while Maj. Gen. Ewell recovered after a wound received at Second Manassas caused amputation of his leg. At Fredericksburg, Early and his troops saved the day by counterattacking the division of Maj. Gen. George Meade, which penetrated a gap in Jackson's lines. Impressed by Early's performance, Gen. Lee retained him at commander of what had been Ewell's division; Early formally received a promotion to major general on January 17, 1863.
During the Chancellorsville campaign which began on May 1, 1863, Lee gave Early 9,000 men to defend Fredericksburg at Marye's Heights against superior forces (4 divisions) under Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick. Early was able to delay the Union forces and pin down Sedgwick while Lee and Jackson attacked the rest of the Union troops to the west. Sedgwick's eventual attack on Early up Marye's Heights on May 3, 1863 is sometimes known as the Second Battle of Fredericksburg. However, after the battle, Early engaged in a newspaper war with Brig. Gen. William Barksdale of Mississippi (a former newspaperman and congressman), who had commanded a division under Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws in the First Corps, until Gen. Lee told the two officers to stop their public feud. Furthermore, General Stonewall Jackson died on May 10, 1863 of a wound received from his own sentry on the night of May 2, 1863, and the recovered Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell assumed command of the Second Corps.
During the Gettysburg Campaign of mid-1863, Early continued to commanded a division in the Second Corps under Lt. Gen. Ewell. His troops were instrumental in overcoming Union defenders at the Second Battle of Winchester on June 13–15. They captured many prisoners, and opened up the Shenandoah Valley for Lee's oncoming forces. Early's division, augmented with cavalry, eventually marched eastward across the South Mountain into Pennsylvania, seizing vital supplies and horses along the way. Early captured Gettysburg on June 26 and demanded a ransom, which was never paid. Two days later, he entered York County and seized York. Here, his ransom demands were partially met, including $28,000 in cash. York, Pennsylvania thus became the largest Northern town to fall to the Rebels during the war. He also burned an iron foundry near Caledonia owned by abolitionist U.S. Senator Thaddeus Stevens. Elements of Early's command on June 28 reached the Susquehanna River, the farthest east in Pennsylvania that any organized Confederate force would penetrate. On June 30, Early was recalled to join the main force as Lee concentrated his army to meet the oncoming Federals.
Approaching the Gettysburg battlefield from the northeast on July 1, 1863, Early's division was on the leftmost flank of the Confederate line. He soundly defeated Brig. Gen. Francis Barlow's division (part of the Union XI Corps), inflicting three times the casualties to the defenders as he suffered, and drove the Union troops back through the streets of the town, capturing many of them. However, this later became another controversy, as Lt. Gen. Ewell denied Early permission to assault East Cemetery Hill to which Union troops had retreated. When the assault was allowed the following day as part of Ewell's efforts on the Union right flank, it failed with many casualties. The delay allowed Union reinforcements to arrive, which repulsed Early's two brigades. On the third day of battle, Early detached one brigade to assist Maj. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's division in an unsuccessful assault on Culp's Hill. Elements of Early's division covered the rear of Lee's army during its retreat from Gettysburg on July 4 and July 5.
Early's forces wintered in the Shenandoah Valley in 1863–64. During this period, he occasionally filled in as corps commander when Ewell's illness forced absences. On May 31, 1864, Lee expressed his confidence in Early's initiative and abilities at higher command levels. With President Davis now being authorized to make temporary promotions; on Lee`s request Early was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant general.
Early fought well during the inconclusive Battle of the Wilderness (during which a cousin died), and assumed command of the ailing A.P. Hill's Third Corps during the march to intercept Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Spotsylvania Court House. At Spotsylvania, Early occupied the relatively quiet right flank of the Mule Shoe. After Hill had recovered and resumed command, Lee, dissatisfied with Ewell's performance at Spotsylvania, assigned him to defend Richmond and gave Early command of the Second Corps. Thus, Early commanded that corps in the Battle of Cold Harbor.
However, Union Gen. David Hunter (a radical abolitionist) had burned the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington on June 11, and was raiding through the Shenandoah Valley Confederate breadbasket, so Lee sent Early and 8,000 men to defend Lynchburg, an important railroad hub (with links to Richmond, the Valley and points southwest) as well as many hospitals for recovering Confederate wounded. John C. Breckinridge, Arnold Elzey and other convalescing Confederates and the remains of VMI's cadet corps assisted Early and his troops, as did many townspeople including Narcissa Chisholm Owen, wife of the president of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. Using a ruse involving multiple trains entering town to exaggerate his strength, Early convinced Hunter to retreat back toward West Virginia on June 18, in what became known as the Battle of Lynchburg, although the pursuing Confederate cavalry were soon outrun.
During the Valley Campaigns of 1864, Early received a temporary promotion to lieutenant general and command of the "Army of the Valley" (the nucleus of which was the former Second Corps). Thus Early commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North, secured much-needed funds and supplies for the Confederacy and drawing off Union troops from the siege of Petersburg. Since Union armies under Grant and Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman were rapidly capturing formerly Confederate territory, Lee sent Early's corps to sweep Union forces from the Shenandoah Valley, as well as to menace Washington, D.C. He hoped to secure supplies as well as compel Grant to dilute his forces against Lee around the Confederate capital at Richmond and its supply hub at Petersburg.
Early delayed his march for several days in a futile attempt to capture a small force under Franz Sigel at Maryland Heights near Harpers Ferry. His men then rested and ate captured Union supplies from July 4 through July 6. Although elements of his army would eventually reach the outskirts of Washington at a time when it was largely undefended, his delay at Maryland Heights and from extorting Hagerstown and Frederick, Maryland prevented him from being able to attack the federal capital. Residents of Frederick paid $200,000 ($3.2 million in 2018 dollars) on July 9 and avoided being sacked, supposedly because some women had booed Stonewall Jackson's troops on their trip through town the previous year (the city had divided loyalties and would later erect a Confederate army monument). Later in the month, Early would attempt to extort funds from Cumberland and Hancock, Maryland and his cavalry commanders would burn Chambersburg, Pennsylvania after it could not pay sufficient ransom.
Meanwhile, Grant sent two VI Corps divisions from the Army of the Potomac to reinforce Union Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace defending the railroad to Washington, D.C. With 5,800 men, Wallace delayed Early for an entire day at the Battle of Monocacy Junction outside Frederick, which allowed additional Union troops to reach Washington and strengthen its defenses. Early's invasion caused considerable panic in both Washington and Baltimore, and his forces reached Silver Spring, Maryland and the outskirts of the District of Columbia. He also sent some cavalry under Brig. Gen. John McCausland to Washington's western side.
Knowing that he lacked sufficient strength to capture the federal capital, Early led skirmishes at Fort Stevens and Fort DeRussy. Opposing artillery batteries also traded fire on July 11 and July 12. On both days, President Abraham Lincoln watched the fighting from the parapet at Fort Stevens, his lanky frame a clear target for hostile military fire. After Early withdrew, he said to one of his officers, "Major, we haven't taken Washington, but we scared Abe Lincoln like hell."
Early retreated with his men and captured loot across the Potomac River to Leesburg, Virginia on July 13, then headed west toward the Shenandoah Valley. At the Second battle of Kernstown on July 24, 1864, Early's forces defeated a Union army under Brig. Gen. George Crook. Through early August, Early's cavalry and guerrilla forces also attacked the B&O Railroad in various places, seeking to disrupt Union supply lines, as well as secure supplies for their own use.
As July ended, Early ordered cavalry under Generals McCausland and Bradley Tyler Johnson to raid across the Potomac River. On July 30, they burned more than 500 buildings in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, nominally in retaliation for Union Maj. Gen. David Hunter's burning VMI in June and the homes of three prominent Southern sympathizers in Jefferson County, West Virginia earlier that month, as well as the Pennsylvania town's failure to heed his ransom demands (town leaders collecting door to door could only raise about $28,000 of the $100,000 in gold or $500,000 in greenbacks demanded, the local bank having sent its reserves out of town in anticipation). Early's forces also burned the region's only bridge across the Susquehanna River, impeding commerce as well as Union troop movements. Union cavalry commander Brig. Gen. William W. Averell had thought the attackers would raid toward Baltimore, Maryland, and so arrived too late to save Chambersburg. However, a rift developed between Early's two cavalry commanders because Marylander Johnson was loath to raze Cumberland and Hancock for likewise failing to meet ransom demands, because he saw McCausland's brigade commit war crimes while looting Chambersburg ("every crime ... of infamy.. except murder and rape"). Averill's Union cavalry, although half the size of the Confederate cavalry, chased them back across the Potomac River, and they skirmished three times, the Confederate cavalry losing most severely at the Battle of Moorefield in Hardy County, West Virginia on August 7.
Realizing Early could still easily attack Washington, Grant in mid-August sent Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan and additional troops to subdue Early's forces, as well as local guerilla forces led by Col. John S. Mosby. At times outnumbering the Confederates three to one, Sheridan defeated Early in three battles. Sheridan's troops also laid waste to much of what had been the Confederacy's breadbasket, in order to deny rations and other supplies to Lee's army. On September 19, 1864, Early's troops lost the Third Battle of Winchester after raiding the B&O depot at Martinsburg, West Virginia. Key subordinates (General Robert Rodes and A.C. Godwin) were killed, General Fitz Lee wounded and General John C. Breckinridge was ordered back to Southwest Virginia—so Early had lost about 40% of his troop strength since the campaign began, despite distracting thousands of Union troops. The Confederates never again captured Winchester or the northern Valley. On September 21–22, Early's troops lost Strasburg after Sheridan's much larger force (35,000 Union troops vs. 9500 Confederates ) won the Battle of Fisher's Hill, capturing much of Early's artillery and 1,000 men, as well as inflicting about 1,235 casualties including the popular Sandie Pendleton. In a surprise attack the following month, on October 19, 1864, Early's Confederates initially routed two thirds of the Union army at the Battle of Cedar Creek. In his post-battle dispatch to Lee, Early noted that his troops were hungry and exhausted and claimed they broke ranks to pillage the Union camp, which allowed Sheridan critical time to rally his demoralized troops and turn their morning defeat into an afternoon victory. However, he privately conceded he had hesitated rather than pursue the advantage, and another key subordinate, Dodson Ramseur, was wounded, captured and died the next day despite the best efforts of Union and Confederate surgeons. Furthermore, one of Early's key subordinates, Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon, in his memoirs written in 1908 (after the irascible Early's death), also blamed Early's indecision rather than the troops for the afternoon rout.
Although distracting thousands of Union troops from the action around Petersburg and Richmond for months, Early had also lost the confidence of former Virginia governor Extra Billie Smith, who told Lee that troops no longer considered Early "a safe commander." Lee ordered most of the remaining Second Corps to rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia defending Petersburg by late November, leaving Early to defend the entire Valley with a brigade of infantry and some cavalry under Lunsford L. Lomax. When Sheridan's troops nearly destroyed the Confederates at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865, Early could not evacuate his men (many of whom were captured), nor artillery and supplies. He barely escaped capture with his cousin Peter Hairston and a few members of his staff, returning almost alone to Petersburg. Hairston returned to one of his plantations near Danville, Virginia, where Confederate President Jefferson Davis would soon briefly flee to stay with slavetrader and financier William Sutherlin.
However, Lee would not put Early back in command of the Second Corps there because his former subordinate Gordon was handling matters satisfactorily, and the press and other commanders suggested the recent disasters made Early unacceptable to the troops. Lee told Early to go home and wait, then relieved Early of his command on March 30, writing:
While my own confidence in your ability, zeal, and devotion to the cause is unimpaired, I have nevertheless felt that I could not oppose what seems to be the current of opinion, without injustice to your reputation and injury to the service. I therefore felt constrained to endeavor to find a commander who would be more likely to develop the strength and resources of the country, and inspire the soldiers with confidence. ... [Thank you] for the fidelity and energy with which you have always supported my efforts, and for the courage and devotion you have ever manifested in the service ...— Robert E. Lee, letter to Early
Thus ended Early's Confederate career.
When the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered on April 9, 1865, Early escaped to Texas on horseback, hoping to find a Confederate force that had not surrendered. He proceeded to Mexico, and from there sailed to Cuba and finally Canada. Despite his former Unionist stance, Early declared himself unable to live under the same government as the Yankee. While living in Toronto with some financial support from his father and elder brother, Early wrote A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence, in the Confederate States of America (1866), which focused on his Valley Campaign. The book became the first published by a major general about the war. Early would spend the rest of his life defending his actions during the war and would become among the most vocal in justifying the Confederate cause, which became the Lost Cause movement.
President Andrew Johnson pardoned Early and many other prominent Confederates in 1869, but Early took pride in remaining an "unreconstructed rebel", and would thereafter only wear suits of "Confederate gray" cloth. He returned to Virginia and resumed his legal practice about a year before General Robert E. Lee died. However, his father died in 1870 and the mother of his four children (whom he had never married) married another man in 1871. Early spent the rest of his life suffering, as well as shaping interpretations of the greatest conflict in his life. In an 1872 speech on the anniversary of General Lee's death, Early claimed inspiration from two letters Lee had sent him in 1865. In Lee's published farewell order to the Army of Northern Virginia, the general had noted the "overwhelming resources and numbers" that the Confederate army fought against. In one letter to Early, Lee requested information about enemy strengths from May 1864 to April 1865, the war's last year, in which his army fought against Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (the Overland Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg). Lee wrote, "My only object is to transmit, if possible, the truth to posterity, and do justice to our brave Soldiers." Lee also wrote, "I have not thought proper to notice, or even to correct misrepresentations of my words & acts. We shall have to be patient, & suffer for awhile at least. ... At present the public mind is not prepared to receive the truth."
In his final years, Early became an outspoken proponent of white supremacy, believing it justified by his religion, and despised abolitionists. In the preface to his memoirs, Early characterized former slaves as "barbarous natives of Africa", considering them "in a civilized and Christianized condition" as a result of their enslavement. He continued:
The Creator of the Universe had stamped them, indelibly, with a different color and an inferior physical and mental organization. He had not done this from mere caprice or whim, but for wise purposes. An amalgamation of the races was in contravention of His designs or He would not have made them so different. This immense number of people could not have been transported back to the wilds from which their ancestors were taken, or, if they could have been, it would have resulted in their relapse into barbarism. Reason, common sense, true humanity to the black, as well as the safety of the white race, required that the inferior race should be kept in a state of subordination. The conditions of domestic slavery, as it existed in the South, had not only resulted in a great improvement in the moral and physical condition of the negro race, but had furnished a class of laborers as happy and contented as any in the world.
Despite Lee's avowed desire for reconciliation with his former West Point colleagues who remained with the Union and with Northerners more generally, Early became an outspoken and vehement critic of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, particularly criticizing his actions at the Battle of Gettysburg, and also taking issue with him and other former Confederates who after the war worked with Republicans and African Americans. Early also often criticized former Union General (later President) Ulysses S. Grant as a "butcher."
In 1873, Early founded and became president of the Southern Historical Society, an association he continued until his death. He frequently contributed to the Southern Historical Society Papers, whose secretary was former Confederate chaplain J. William Jones. With the support of former Confederate General William N. Pendleton, who like Jones ministered in Lexington, Virginia after the war, Early also became the first president of the Lee Monument Association, and of the Association of the Army of Northern Virginia. Beginning around 1877, Early and former Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard supported themselves in part as officials of the (reputedly then corrupt) Louisiana Lottery. Early also corresponded with and visited former Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who retired to Mississippi's Gulf Coast near New Orleans, Louisiana to write his own memoirs. Former Confederate First Lady Varina Davis, while also furthering the Lost Cause and corresponding with Early, would characterize Early as a "crabby bachelor with a squeaky, high-pitched voice".
Early tripped and fell down granite stairs at the Lynchburg, Virginia post office on February 15, 1894. A medical examination found no broken nor fractured bones, but noted Early suffered from back pain and mental confusion. He failed to recover during the next few weeks and died quietly at home on March 2, holding the hand of U.S. Sen. John Warwick Daniel. Local obituaries estimated his net worth at $200,000 to $300,000, His doctor did not specify an exact cause on the death certificate. Virginia's flag flew at half-mast over the Capitol the afternoon of the funeral, and canons boomed 36 times at five minute intervals. A procession of VMI cadets, 300 Confederate veterans and local militia accompanied the flag-draped casket and riderless horse with reversed stirrups to St. Paul's Church. During the brief service, Rev. T.M. Carson, a veteran of Early's Valley Campaign, testified as to "the almost countless forces of the enemy." Another, simple service, taps and a farewell kiss by one of Early's "noblest and bravest followers" concluded with Early's burial at Spring Hill Cemetery in Lynchburg. Nearby lay (distant) family members Captain Robert D. Early (killed in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864) and his brother William (killed at the Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865) and their parents, as well as Confederate generals Thomas T. Munford and James Dearing.
The Library of Congress has some of his papers. The Virginia Historical Society holds some of his papers, along with other members of the Early family. The Library of Virginia and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have Hairston family papers, but they barely mention activities during the American Civil War, other than selling provisions to the Confederacy.
The Lost Cause that Early promoted and espoused was continued by memorial associations such as the United Confederate Veterans (founded 1889) and the United Daughters of the Confederacy (founded 1894), as well as by his niece Ruth Hairston Early. Jubal Early's final book, Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the War between the States, was published posthumously in 1912. Historians, including Douglas Southall Freeman (who grew up in Lynchburg near the former Early home and remembered relatives' pointing out the stooped and grumbling Early as a bogeyman-type warning), espoused the Lost Cause to greater or lesser degrees until the 1960s, arguing the concept helped Southerners to cope with the dramatic social, political, and economic changes in the postbellum era, including Reconstruction. Early's recent biographer, Gary Gallagher, noted that Early understood the struggle to control public memory of the war, and that he "worked hard to help shape that memory, and ultimately enjoyed more success than he probably imagined possible." Other modern historians such as James Loewen believed Early's views fomented racial hatred.
Confederate cavalry leader Jubal Early demanded and got $300,000 from them lest he burn their town, a sum equal to at least $5,000,000 today.
The 1st Regiment Delaware Volunteer Cavalry was a cavalry regiment of the Union Army in the American Civil War.
Raised in late 1862, the regiment was reduced to a battalion designated the 1st Battalion Delaware Volunteer Cavalry due to the inability of the state to fill a cavalry regiment to full strength. It served on provost duty in Maryland and Delaware from 1863 to early 1864, and fought in the Action at Westminster known as Corbit's Charge during the Gettysburg Campaign. It participated in the Overland Campaign in June 1864, then returned to Maryland after the Confederate cavalry raid of Jubal Early. It remained there for the remainder of the war, and was mustered out after its end.2nd Virginia Cavalry
The 2nd Virginia Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was a cavalry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought mostly with the Army of Northern Virginia.
The unit was organized by Colonel Jubal Early in Lynchburg, Virginia, in May, 1861 as the 30th Virginia Volunteer Regiment under Col. Richard C.W. Radford (whence "Radford's Rangers"—not to be confused with Troop G's similar nickname). Its troops (the cavalry equivalent of infantry companies) were recruited across several counties of Central Virginia:
At the end of October, 1861 the unit was re-designated the 2nd Virginia Cavalry Regiment.During the war it was brigaded under Generals B.H. Robertson, Fitzhugh Lee, W.C. Wickham, and Thomas Munford. The 2nd Cavalry saw action at First Bull Run, in Jackson's Valley Campaign, and at Second Bull Run, Mile Hill, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Kelly's Ford, Chancellorsville, Brandy Station, Aldie, Upperville, Gettysburg, and Shepherdstown. After the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, it was involved at The Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, Spotsylvania, Haw's Shop, and Cold Harbor. It fought in the Shenandoah Valley with Jubal Early and later in numerous conflicts around Petersburg and Appomattox.
The regiment contained 676 men in July, 1861, lost twenty-eight percent of the 163 engaged at Groveton Heights, and of the 385 at Gettysburg about four percent were disabled. At Appomattox it cut through the Federal lines and disbanded at Lynchburg on April 10, 1865. However, 19 men were included in the surrender.
The field officers were Colonels Richard C.W. Radford and Thomas T. Munford, Lieutenant Colonels Cary Breckinridge and James W. Watts, and Major William F. Graves.Future Commonwealth's Attorney and Virginia Bar Association President Micajah Woods enlisted in the 2nd Virginia Cavalry. Woods was the prosecuting attorney in the trial of Charlottesville mayor J. Samuel McCue, the last man to be hanged in Virginia.
Thomas Whitehead, the future one-term Representative of Virginia's 6th Congressional District to the House of Representatives, was the captain of Company E.
The flag of the Botetourt Dragoons was conserved by the United Daughters of the Confederacy Chapter 797 when it was listed as one of the top 12 flags needing conservation at the Museum of the Confederacy. The flag was constructed in 1861 when the Fincastle, Virginia unit rode off to war. The silk flag was used by the unit for two years, and the flag bearer, Rufus H. Peck, presented the flag to the Museum of the Confederacy in 1907.50th Virginia Infantry
The 50th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought mostly with the Army of Northern Virginia and in Tennessee.
The 50th Virginia was organized in July 1861, with ten companies and three companies of cavalry temporarily attached. The regiment participated in the Battle of Carnifex Ferry on 10 September 1861; afterwards one of the cavalry companies was disabled and the other two transferred to the 8th Regiment Virginia Cavalry.
The unit was reorganized in May 1862, with nine companies. It moved to Tennessee and in February 1862, was captured at Fort Donelson. After being exchanged, it was assigned to the Department of Western Virginia and fought in Gen. Wm. W. Loring's Kanawha Valley Campaign of 1862 and participated in the capture of Charleston, Virginia (now, West Virginia) on 13 September 1862.
Later the 50th served in J.M. Jones', G.C. Wharton's, and Augustus Forsberg's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It participated in numerous conflicts from Chancellorsville to Cold Harbor, moved with Jubal Early to the Shenandoah Valley, and fought its last battle at Waynesboro.
The regiment reported 10 killed and 40 wounded at Fort Donelson, and there were 8 killed and 110 wounded at Chancellorsville. More than forty percent of the 240 engaged at Gettysburg were disabled, and it sustained heavy casualties in the fight at The Wilderness. During April 1865, it disbanded.
The field officers were Colonels Thomas Poage, Alexander W. Reynolds, and A.S. Vandeventer; Lieutenant Colonels William W. Finney and Logan H. N. Salyer; and Majors Lynville J. Perkins and C.E. Thorburn.7th Virginia Infantry
The 7th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought mostly with the Army of Northern Virginia.
The 7th Virginia was organized in May, 1861, at Manassas Junction, Virginia, with men from Giles, Madison, Rappahannock, Culpeper, Greene, Mercer, Monroe and Albemarle counties.It fought at First Manassas under General Jubal Early, then served with Richard Ewell, Ambrose P. Hill, James L.Kemper, and William R. Terry. In April, 1862, the regiment had 700 effectives and later was active in the various campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from Williamsburg to Gettysburg. It participated in Longstreet's Suffolk expedition, was prominent in the capture of Plymouth, then fought at Drewry's Bluff and Cold Harbor. The 7th continued the fight in the Petersburg trenches south of the James River and around Appomattox.
The regiment sustained 47 casualties at First Manassas, 77 at Williamsburg, 111 at Frayser's Farm, 59 at Second Manassas, and 4 at Fredericksburg. About 40% of the 335 engaged at Gettysburg were disabled. It lost 39 men at Drewry's Bluff, and many were captured at Five Forks and Sayler's Creek. Only 20 officers and men were present at the surrender at Appomattox Court House.
Its commanders were Colonels Charles C. Flowerree, James L. Kemper, and Waller T. Patton; Lieutenant Colonel Lewis B. Williams, Jr.; and Major Aylett A. Swindler.Arcadia (house)
Arcadia is a historic house located between Frederick and Buckeystown, Maryland. Built about 1790, the house overlooks Monocacy National Battlefield. The house was extensively altered in the late 19th century and now possesses an elaborate balconied tower. The interior was also extensively updated at that time.
The house played a role in the Civil War when in the days prior to the Battle of Antietam Confederate Colonel (later General) William Pendleton stayed at Arcadia. It later became General George Meade's headquarters in the time leading up to the Battle of Gettysburg. During the Battle of Monocacy General Jubal Early formed his troops at Arcadia.Arcadia was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.Battle of Cedar Creek
The Battle of Cedar Creek, or Battle of Belle Grove, fought October 19, 1864, was the culminating battle of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 during the American Civil War. Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal Early launched a surprise attack against the encamped army of Union Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, across Cedar Creek, northeast of Strasburg, Virginia. During the morning fighting, seven Union infantry divisions were forced to fall back and lost numerous prisoners and cannons. Early failed to continue his attack north of Middletown, and Sheridan, dramatically riding to the battlefield from Winchester, was able to rally his troops to hold a new defensive line. A Union counterattack that afternoon routed Early's army.
At the conclusion of this battle, the final Confederate invasion of the North was effectively ended. The Confederacy was never again able to threaten Washington, D.C. through the Shenandoah Valley, nor protect one of its key economic bases in Virginia. The stunning Union victory aided the reelection of Abraham Lincoln and won Sheridan lasting fame.Battle of Fisher's Hill
The Battle of Fisher's Hill was fought September 21–22, 1864, near Strasburg, Virginia, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 during the American Civil War. Despite its strong defensive position, the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. Jubal Early was defeated by the Union Army of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan.Battle of Fort Stevens
The Battle of Fort Stevens was an American Civil War battle fought July 11–12, 1864, in Northwest Washington, D.C., as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 between forces under Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early and Union Major General Alexander McDowell McCook. Although Early caused consternation in the Union government, reinforcements under Maj. Gen. Horatio G. Wright and the strong defenses of Fort Stevens minimized the military threat and Early withdrew after two days of skirmishing without attempting any serious assaults. The battle is noted for the personal presence of President Abraham Lincoln observing the fighting.Battle of Waynesboro, Virginia
The Battle of Waynesboro was fought on March 2, 1865, at Waynesboro in Augusta County, Virginia, during the American Civil War. It was the final battle for Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal Early, whose force was destroyed.Fort Early and Jubal Early Monument
The Fort Early and Jubal Early Monument was started in the early 1900s, and consists of the remains of an American Civil War fort and monument located on a 1.29-acre (5,200 m2) site at Lynchburg, Virginia. Confederate forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Jubal Early constructed the roughly square earthen fort in June 1864 as part of the outer defenses of Lynchburg as the Union Army of West Virginia, under Maj. Gen. David Hunter, advanced from the north and west in an attempt to capture the city during the Battle of Lynchburg. It is the only section of the Lynchburg defenses still in existence.The walls of the fort are approximately 12 to 15 feet (4.6 m) in height on the exterior and approximately 4 to 6 feet (1.8 m) high on the interior. Within the fort is a one-story brick structure that was built in 1922 by the Fort Hill Woman's Club and contains exhibits on the Battle of Lynchburg. A brick paved entrance drive with a 15-foot (4.6 m) high iron arch erected in 1924, with the words "Fort Early", cut through the eastern portion of the breastworks and forms the entrance to the site. The remaining portions of the breastworks are intact including a sally port in the northern wall used to bring in ammunition and other supplies during the military operation of the fort. A 17-foot (5.2 m) high granite obelisk honoring Confederate General Jubal A. Early and erected in 1919, is located on a triangle of land formed by the intersection of Fort Avenue and Memorial Avenue.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.Leetown, West Virginia
Leetown is an unincorporated community in Jefferson County in the U.S. state of West Virginia. It lies along West Virginia Secondary Route 1 at its junction with Leetown Pike.
An early historical distinction of the town is the interesting confluence of the estates of three British born, British colonial military officers who served under General Braddock and were all involved in the disastrous British operations against French and Indian forces at Fort Duquesne (modern Pittsburgh) and who later became American revolutionary officers under George Washington.
The town is named for the eccentric General Charles Lee, a British officer. He was born in Cheshire in 1732 and purchased an estate in Virginia in 1776. He called the estate "Prato Rio" and the main house rests today just south of town. Major General Adam Stephen established a hunting lodge “The Bower” in 1750 one mile west of Leetown along Opequon Creek. Their mutual Revolutionary War colleague General Horatio Gates, the victor of the Battle of Saratoga, lived four miles north of town in the estate "Traveler’s Rest".
St. Bartholomew’s Episcopal Church is an attractive feature of Leetown. It was consecrated in 1846 as part of the recovery of the Episcopal Church in (then) Virginia after its low ebb in the years after the Revolution. The church was badly damaged during the Civil War.
The town is featured in the documentation of the general ebb and flow of forces during the Civil War. On July 3, 1864 a running battle took place through the town in which troops under Lieutenant General Jubal Early, after initial setback, prevailed over Federal forces. The victory cleared the way for Early’s entry into Maryland as part of the third and last Confederate invasion of the North, culminating in a Pyrrhic victory at Monocacy Junction near Frederick, Maryland on July 8.
After the conflict, the artist David English Henderson resided in Leetown, rendering on canvas his memories as a soldier in the Army of Northern Virginia.
Today the town hosts the US Department of Interior’s Leetown Science Center. Established in 1931 as the first Federal Fishery research facility, the Center’s current mission is to provide expertise from a broad diversity of scientific disciplines to conduct integrated research programs addressing the high priority needs of natural resource managers and public policy makers.List of Firefly characters
This page lists characters from the television series Firefly.List of costliest American Civil War land battles
This is a list of the costliest land battles of the American Civil War, measured by casualties (killed, wounded, captured, and missing) on both sides.Monocacy National Battlefield
Monocacy National Battlefield is a unit of the National Park Service, the site of the Battle of Monocacy in the American Civil War fought on July 9, 1864. The battlefield straddles the Monocacy River southeast of the city of Frederick, Maryland. The battle, labeled "The Battle That Saved Washington," was one of the last the Confederates would carry out in Union territory. The two opposing leaders were General Jubal Early, fighting for the South, and General Lew Wallace, fighting for the North.Objects in Space
"Objects in Space" is the 14th episode and series finale of the science fiction television series Firefly. Serenity encounters Jubal Early, a ruthless professional bounty hunter who will stop at nothing to retrieve River. But River, feeling unwelcome on the ship, takes a novel approach to escaping from the long arm of the Alliance.
The inspiration for this episode came from Tim Minear, who gave Whedon the idea by merely mentioning Boba Fett. Whedon expanded upon the suggestion and extrapolated it into the villain of this episode, the "preternaturally cool, nearly psychotic bounty hunter" Jubal Early. Whedon has said that if he were forced to pick one piece of work to represent his entire body of work, he would pick this episode.River's and Early's tactile and spiritual connection with physical objects reflects an existential experience in Whedon's youth and his subsequent study of Jean-Paul Sartre's existential novel Nausea.Richard Brooks (actor)
Richard L. Brooks (born December 9, 1962) is an American actor, singer, and director. He is best known for his one-off role as the eccentric bounty hunter Jubal Early in the space-western Firefly and assistant district attorney Paul Robinette in the NBC drama series, Law & Order from 1990 to 1993 and reprising his role as a defense attorney on that same show. In 2013, he began starring as Patrick Patterson in the BET drama series, Being Mary Jane.Robert E. Rodes
Robert Emmett (or Emmet) Rodes (March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and the first of Robert E. Lee's divisional commanders not trained at West Point. His division led Stonewall Jackson's devastating surprise attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville; Jackson, on his deathbed, promoted Rodes to major general. Rodes then served in the corps of Richard S. Ewell at the Battle of Gettysburg and in the Overland Campaign, before that corps was sent to the Shenandoah Valley under Jubal Early, where Rodes was killed at the Third Battle of Winchester.Second Battle of Rappahannock Station
The Second Battle of Rappahannock Station took place on November 7, 1863, near the village of Rappahannock Station (now Remington, Virginia), on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, between Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. Jubal Early and Union forces under Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick as part of the Bristoe Campaign of the American Civil War. The battle resulted in a victory for the Union.