Juan Marichal

Juan Antonio Marichal Sánchez (born October 20, 1937[1]) is a Dominican former professional baseball player. He played as a right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball, most notably for the San Francisco Giants.[1] Marichal was known for his high leg kick, pinpoint control and intimidation tactics, which included aiming pitches directly at the opposing batters' helmets.[2]

Marichal also played for the Boston Red Sox and Los Angeles Dodgers for the final two seasons of his career.[1] Although he won more games than any other pitcher during the 1960s, he appeared in only one World Series game and he was often overshadowed by his contemporaries Sandy Koufax and Bob Gibson in post-season awards.[3][4] Marichal was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1983.[5]

Juan Marichal
Juan Marichal 2009
Marichal in 2009
Pitcher
Born: October 20, 1937 (age 81)
Laguna Verde, Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
July 19, 1960, for the San Francisco Giants
Last MLB appearance
April 16, 1975, for the Los Angeles Dodgers
MLB statistics
Win–loss record243–142
Earned run average2.89
Strikeouts2,303
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1983
Vote83.7% (third ballot)

Early life

Juan Marichal was born on October 20, 1937, in the small farming village of Laguna Verde, Dominican Republic, the youngest of Francisco and Natividad Marichal's four children.[6] He has two brothers, Gonzalo and Rafael, and a sister, Maria. His father died of an unknown illness when Marichal was three years old.[6] His house did not have electricity, but food was plentiful since his family owned a farm.[7] As a child, Marichal worked on the farm daily and was responsible for taking care of his family's horses, donkeys, and goats.[7] He lived near the Yaque del Norte River and often spent time swimming and fishing.[8] One day while Marichal was playing by the river, he fell unconscious owing to poor digestion and was in a coma for nine days.[9] Doctors did not expect him to survive, but he slowly regained consciousness after his family gave him steam baths by doctor's orders.[9]

His older brother Gonzalo instilled a love of baseball in young Marichal and taught him the fundamentals of pitching, fielding, and batting.[10] Every weekend, Marichal played the sport with his brother and friends. For their games, they found golf balls and paid the local shoemaker one peso to sew thick cloth around the ball to make it the proper size.[11] They employed branches from a wassama tree for bats and canvas tarps for gloves.[11] Among his childhood playmates were the Alou brothers, Felipe, Jesús, and Matty, who all later played with Marichal on the San Francisco Giants.[11] From the age of six, Marichal aspired to become a professional baseball player, but his mother discouraged this, instead urging him to get an education.[12] At the time, there were no players from the Dominican Republic in Major League Baseball, and his goal was viewed to be unrealistic.[12] At age 11, he briefly held a job cutting sugar cane for the J.W. Tatem Shipping conglomerate.

In 1954, sixteen-year-old Marichal joined a summer league in Monte Cristi, playing for a team called Las Flores.[10] Although he began at shortstop, Marichal switched to pitcher after taking inspiration from Bombo Ramos of the Dominican national team.[10] He left high school after being recruited to play for the United Fruit Company team in 1956.[13]

Playing career

Marichal's delivery was renowned for one of the fullest windups in modern baseball, with a high kick of his left leg that went nearly vertical (even more so than Warren Spahn's delivery).[3] Marichal maintained this delivery his entire career, and photographs taken near his retirement show the vertical kick only diminished. The windup was the key to his delivery in that he was consistently able to conceal the type of pitch until it was on its way.

Marichal was discovered by Ramfis Trujillo, the son of late Dominican dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo. Ramfis was the primary sponsor of the Dominican Air Force Baseball Team (Aviación Dominicana), against which Marichal pitched a 2–1 victory game in his native Monte Cristi. From the very moment the game ended, Marichal was a member of Aviación Dominicana team, enlisted to the Air Force right on the spot by Ramfis's orders.[14]

Juan Marichal 1962
Marichal in 1962

Marichal entered the major leagues on July 19, 1960 with the San Francisco Giants as the second native pitcher to come from the Dominican Republic. He made an immediate impression: in his debut, on July 19, 1960 against the Philadelphia Phillies, he took a no hitter into the eighth inning only to surrender a two-out single to Clay Dalrymple.[15] He ended up with a one-hit shutout, walking one and striking out 12.[16] He started 10 more games that season, finishing at 6–2 with a 2.66 ERA.[1] He improved his victory totals to 13 and 18 over the following two seasons, respectively, before finally cracking the 20-victory plateau in 1963, when he went 25–8 with 248 strikeouts and a 2.41 ERA.[1] He appeared in every All-Star game of the 1960s beginning in 1962. In May 1966, he was named NL Player of the Month with a 6-0 record, a 0.97 ERA, and 42 SO. On July 14, 1967, he surrendered the 500th Home Run of Eddie Mathews' career.

Marichal enjoyed similar success through the 1969 season, posting more than 20 victories in every season except 1967, and never posting an ERA higher than 2.76.[1] He led the league in victories in 1963 and 1968 when he won 26 games.[17][18] In 1968, he also finished in the highest rank of his career in MVP voting, finishing fifth behind Bob Gibson, Pete Rose, Willie McCovey, and Curt Flood. He and Sandy Koufax were the only two Major League pitchers in the post-war era (1946–present) to have more than one season of 25 or more wins; both pitchers had three such seasons in their careers.

Marichal won more games during the decade of the 1960s (191) than any other major league pitcher,[3] but did not receive any votes for the Cy Young Award until 1970, when baseball writers started voting for the top three pitchers in each league rather than one per league (or, until 1967, only the top pitcher in MLB). Marichal finished in the top 10 in ERA seven consecutive years, starting in 1963 and culminating in 1969, in which year he led the league.[19] During his career, he also finished in the top 10 in strikeouts six times, top 10 in innings pitched eight times (leading the league twice), and top 10 in complete games 10 times, with a career total of 244.[20] He led the league twice in shutouts, throwing 10 of them in 1965.[19][21]

Marichal exhibited exceptional control. He had 2,303 strikeouts with only 709 walks,[1] a strikeout-to-walk ratio of 3.25 to 1. This ranks among the top 20 pitchers of all time, ahead of such notables as Bob Gibson, Nolan Ryan, Steve Carlton, Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, Walter Johnson and Roger Clemens, who each have strikeout-to-walk ratios of less than 3:1. Over his career, he led the league in the fewest walks per nine innings four times, and finished second three times – totaling eleven years in which he finished in the top 10, all while also finishing in the top 10 for strikeouts six years.

The Greatest Game Ever Pitched

One regular-season game in Marichal's career deserves mention, involving him and Milwaukee Braves' Hall of Famer Warren Spahn in a night contest played July 2, 1963, before almost 16,000 at Candlestick Park in San Francisco. The two great pitchers matched scoreless innings until Giants outfielder Willie Mays homered off Spahn to win the game 1–0 in the 16th inning.[22][23] Both Spahn and Marichal tossed 15-plus inning complete games,[23] something that had not happened before or since in the big leagues. Marichal allowed eight hits (all singles except for a double hit by Spahn) in the 16 innings, striking out 10, and saddling eventual career home run king Hank Aaron with an 0-for-6 collar.[23] Spahn permitted nine hits in 15​13 innings, walking just one (Mays intentionally, in the 14th, after Harvey Kuenn's leadoff double) and striking out two.[23] The game, almost the innings-duration of two contests, lasted only 4 hours, 10 minutes.[23] By coincidence, future Major League Baseball commissioner Bud Selig attended the game as a fan.[24]

Roseboro incident

Juan Marichal 1965
Marichal in 1965

Marichal is also remembered for a notorious incident that occurred with John Roseboro during a game between the Giants and Los Angeles Dodgers at Candlestick Park on August 22, 1965.[25][26] The Giant-Dodger rivalry was, at the time, the fiercest in baseball—a rivalry which began when both teams played in the New York City market.[27] As the 1965 season neared its climax, the Giants were involved in a tight pennant race, entering the game trailing the Dodgers by a game and a half while the Milwaukee Braves were one game behind the Dodgers.[27][28]

Maury Wills led off the game with a bunt single off Marichal and scored when Ron Fairly hit a double.[29] Marichal, a fierce competitor, viewed the bunt as a cheap way to get on base and took umbrage with Wills.[26][28] When Wills came up to bat in the second inning, Marichal threw a pitch directly at Wills sending him sprawling to the ground.[26] Willie Mays then led off the bottom of the second inning for the Giants and Dodgers' pitcher Sandy Koufax threw a pitch over Mays' head as a token form of retaliation.[26][28] In the top of the third inning with two outs, Marichal threw a fastball that came close to hitting Fairly, prompting him to dive to the ground.[28] Marichal's act angered the Dodgers and home plate umpire Shag Crawford warned both teams any further retaliations would not be tolerated.[28]

Marichal came to bat in the third inning expecting Koufax to throw at him. Instead, Marichal was startled when, after the second pitch, Roseboro's return throw to Koufax either brushed his ear or came close enough for Marichal to feel the breeze off the ball.[27] When Marichal confronted Roseboro, Roseboro came out of his crouch with his fists clenched.[27] Marichal later said he thought Roseboro was about to attack him. Marichal raised his bat, striking Roseboro at least twice on the head, opening a two-inch gash that sent blood flowing down the catcher's face. Roseboro later required 14 stitches.[27][30] Koufax raced in from the mound to attempt to separate them and was joined by the umpires, players and coaches from both teams.[27]

A 14-minute brawl ensued on the field before Koufax, Giants captain Willie Mays and other peacemakers restored order.[26] Marichal was ejected from the game and afterwards, National League president Warren Giles suspended him for eight games (two starts), fined him a then-NL record US$1,750[25][31] (equivalent to $13,910 in 2018),[32] and also forbade him from traveling to Dodger Stadium for the final, crucial two-game series of the season.[27] Roseboro filed a $110,000 damage suit against Marichal one week after the incident, but eventually settled out of court for $7,500.[27]

Many people thought Marichal's punishment was too lenient, since it would cost Marichal only two starts.[27] The Giants were in a tight pennant race with the Dodgers (as well as the Pirates, Reds, and Braves) and the race was decided with only two games to play. The Giants, who ended up winning the August 22 game and were down only a half-game afterward, eventually lost the pennant to the Dodgers by two games. Ironically, the Giants went on a 14-game win streak that started during Marichal's absence and by then it was a two-team race as the Pirates, Reds, and Braves fell further behind. But then the Dodgers won 15 of their final 16 games (after Marichal had returned) to win the pennant. Marichal won in his first game back, 2–1 vs. the Astros on September 9 (the same day Koufax pitched his perfect game vs. the Cubs), but lost his last three decisions as the Giants slumped in the season's final week.

Marichal didn't face the Dodgers again until spring training in April 3, 1966. In his first at bat against Marichal since the incident, Roseboro hit a three-run home run.[33] San Francisco General Manager Chub Feeney approached Dodgers General Manager Buzzy Bavasi to attempt to arrange a handshake between Marichal and Roseboro however, Roseboro declined the offer.[33]

Years later, Roseboro stated that he was retaliating for Marichal having thrown at Wills.[27] He explained that Koufax would not throw at batters for fear of hurting them due to the velocity of his pitches.[27] He further stated that his throwing close to Marichal's ear was, "standard operating procedure", as a form of retribution.[27] After years of bitterness, Roseboro and Marichal became close friends in the 1980s, getting together occasionally at old-timers' games, golf tournaments and charity events.[27]

1970–75

In 1970, Marichal experienced a severe reaction to penicillin which led to back pain and chronic arthritis. Marichal's career stumbled in 1970, when he only posted 12 wins and his ERA shot up to 4.12, before straightening itself out with a stellar 1971 season in which he won 18 games and his ERA dropped below 3.00.[1] It was the only season in which Marichal earned any consideration for the Cy Young Award, finishing in 8th place. It was his final great season (and his final of nine All-Star appearances), however, as he posted 6–16 and 11–15 records in 1972 and 1973 respectively.[1]

After the 1973 season, the Giants sold Marichal to the Boston Red Sox.[34] He had a fairly solid 1974, going 5–1 in 11 starts, but was released after the season.[1] He then signed with the Dodgers as a free agent.[34] Dodger fans had never forgiven Marichal for his attack on Roseboro 10 years earlier, and it took a personal appeal from Roseboro to calm them down. However, Marichal's 1975 didn't last long; he was lit up for nine runs, 11 hits and a 13.50 ERA in only two starts before retiring.[35] He finished his career with 243 victories, 142 losses, 244 complete games, 2,303 strikeouts and a 2.89 ERA over 3,507 innings pitched.[1] He played in the 1962 World Series against the New York Yankees (one start, a no decision) and the 1971 National League Championship Series against the Pittsburgh Pirates (losing his only start).[36] Between 1962 and 1971, the Giants averaged 90 wins a season, and Marichal averaged 20 wins a year.

No-hitter and All-Star performances

Marichal pitched a no-hitter on June 15, 1963, and was named to nine All-Star teams.[1][37] He was selected the Most Valuable Player of the 1965 game in Minneapolis, in which he pitched three shutout innings and faced the minimum nine batters, giving up one hit. His overall All-Star Game record was 2–0 with a 0.50 ERA in eight appearances facing 62 batters in 18 total innings, second-most in innings pitched only to Don Drysdale (19.1 innings; 2-1, 1.40 ERA and 69 batters faced).[20]

Honors

Juan Marichal 2008 by Andy Shaindlin
Marichal at the 2008 All-Star Game Red Carpet Parade
SFGiants 27
Juan Marichal's number 27 was retired by the San Francisco Giants in 1975.

Marichal was passed over for election to the Baseball Hall of Fame during his first two years of eligibility, by all accounts because the Baseball Writers' Association of America voters still held his attack on Roseboro against him. However, after a personal appeal by Roseboro, Marichal was elected in 1983, and thanked Roseboro in his induction speech.[30][35] When Roseboro died in 2002, Marichal served as an honorary pallbearer at his funeral and told the gathered, "Johnny's forgiving me was one of the best things that happened in my life. I wish I could have had John Roseboro as my catcher."[38]

Marichal's uniform number 27 has been retired by the Giants.[39] In 1990, Marichal, who was working as a broadcaster for Spanish radio, was on hand to see his son-in-law at the time, José Rijo, win the World Series Most Valuable Player Award. In 1999, he ranked #71 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, and was a finalist for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.[40][41] He was honored before a game between the Giants and Oakland Athletics with a statue outside AT&T Park in 2005, and was named one of the three starting pitchers on Major League Baseball's Latino Legends Team. In 1976, sportswriter Harry Stein published an "All Time All-Star Argument Starter", consisting of five ethnic baseball teams. Marichal was the right-handed pitcher on Stein's Latin team. The Giants also honored him by wearing jerseys that said "Gigantes." Marichal was inducted into the Hispanic Heritage Baseball Museum Hall of Fame on July 20, 2003 in pregame on field ceremony at Pac Bell Park.[42] In 2015 the Estadio Quisqueya in his home country was renamed Quisqueya stadium Juan Marichal after him.[43][44]

Controversy

In 2008, Marichal was filmed at a cockfight in the Dominican Republic along with New York Mets pitcher Pedro Martínez. The incident caused controversy in the United States, but Martinez defended their attendance at the cockfight by saying, "I understand that people are upset, but that is part of our Dominican culture and is legal in the Dominican Republic". He added, "I was invited by my idol, Juan Marichal, to attend the event as a spectator, not as a participant."[45]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Juan Marichal at Baseball Reference
  2. ^ "Juan Marichal took a bat to Roseboro in 1965 fracas". The Washington Times. August 23, 2004. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Juan Marichal: He Was Winningest Pitcher of '60s, by John Lowe, Baseball Digest, August 1998, Vol. 57, No. 8, ISSN 0005-609X
  4. ^ Juan Marichal-A Man In Many Shadows, by Michael R. Lauletta, Baseball Digest, June 1970, Vol. 29, No. 6, ISSN 0005-609X
  5. ^ Juan Marichal at the Baseball Hall of Fame
  6. ^ a b Marichal, Freedman, 2011. p. 13
  7. ^ a b Marichal, Freedman, 2011. p. 14
  8. ^ Marichal, Freeman, 2011. p. 20
  9. ^ a b Marichal, Freeman, 2011. p. 21
  10. ^ a b c Marichal, Freedman, 2011. p. 15
  11. ^ a b c Marichal, Freedman, 2011. p. 16
  12. ^ a b Marichal, Freedman, 2011. p. 17
  13. ^ Marichal, Freedman, 2011. p. 23
  14. ^ "The Dandy Dominican", Time magazine, June 10, 1966
  15. ^ Baseball Digest, June 1990, Vol. 49, No. 6, ISSN 0005-609X
  16. ^ July 19, 1960 Phillies-Giants box score at Baseball Reference
  17. ^ 1963 National League Pitching Leaders at Baseball Reference
  18. ^ 1968 National League Pitching Leaders at Baseball Reference
  19. ^ a b 1969 National League Pitching Leaders at Baseball Reference
  20. ^ a b Haft, Chris. Marichal returns to city of All-Star MVP performance, retrieved 15 July 2014.
  21. ^ 1965 National League Pitching Leaders at Baseball Reference
  22. ^ July 2, 1963, by Ron Fimrite, Sports Illustrated, July 19, 1993
  23. ^ a b c d e July 2, 1963 Braves-Giants box score at Baseball Reference
  24. ^ Brown, Daniel (August 12, 2016). "Marichal-Spahn epic duel was 50 years ago". The Mercury News. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  25. ^ a b Goldstein, Richard (August 20, 2002). "John Roseboro, a Dodgers Star, Dies at 69". New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d e Mann, Jack (August 30, 1965). "The Battle Of San Francisco". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Marichal clubbing of Roseboro an ugly side of baseball". The Times-News. Associated Press. August 22, 1990. p. 18. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  28. ^ a b c d e Rosengren, John (2014). "Marichal, Roseboro and the inside story of baseball's nastiest brawl". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  29. ^ "August 22, 1965 Dodgers-Giants box score". Baseball Reference. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Put up your dukes". espn.go.com. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  31. ^ "MLBN Remembers ("Incident at Candlestick")". MLBN-tv. November 17, 2011.
  32. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "John Roseboro Hammers Homer In First Meeting With Juan Marichal". The Day. Associated Press. April 4, 1966. p. 25. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  34. ^ a b Juan Marichal Trades and Transactions at Baseball Almanac
  35. ^ a b Purdy, Dennis (2006). The Team-by-Team Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. New York City: Workman. ISBN 0-7611-3943-5.
  36. ^ Juan Marichal postseason pitching statistics at Baseball Reference
  37. ^ June 15, 1963 Colt 45s-Giants box score at Baseball Reference
  38. ^ Plaschke, Bill (August 22, 2015). "Fifty years after Giants' Juan Marichal hit Dodgers' John Roseboro with a bat, all is forgiven".
  39. ^ Giants retired numbers at MLB.com
  40. ^ Juan Marichal at The Sporting News 100 Greatest Baseball Players Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Juan Marichal at The Major League Baseball All-Century Team
  42. ^ "Hispanic Heritage Baseball Museum". Archived from the original on June 6, 2003. Retrieved July 21, 2008.
  43. ^ "Senado reconocerá a Pedro Martínez ; entregan gaceta con ley 11-15 a Juan Marichal". El Nacional (in Spanish). March 18, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  44. ^ Terrero Galarza, Satosky (February 1, 2016). "Nombre y silueta de Juan Marichal ya adornan el estadio Quisqueya". El Caribe (in Spanish). Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  45. ^ "Video showed Pedro, Marichal at cockfight" ESPN

Bibliography

  • Marichal, Juan and Freedman, Lew (2011). Juan Marichal: My Journey from the Dominican Republic to Cooperstown. MVP Books. ISBN 978-0760340592.

External links

Preceded by
Don Nottebart
No-hitter pitcher
June 15, 1963
Succeeded by
Ken Johnson
Preceded by
Willie Mays
Major League Player of the Month
May, 1966
Succeeded by
Gaylord Perry
1963 San Francisco Giants season

The 1963 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 81st year in Major League Baseball, their sixth year in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their fourth at Candlestick Park. The team finished in third place in the National League with an 88-74 record, 11 games behind the Los Angeles Dodgers.

1964 San Francisco Giants season

The 1964 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 82nd year in Major League Baseball, their seventh year in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their fifth at Candlestick Park. The team finished in fourth place, as a result of their 90–72 record, placing them three games behind the National League and World Series Champion St. Louis Cardinals.

1965 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1965 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 36th midseason exhibition between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and the National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was played on July 13, 1965, at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington, Minnesota. The game resulted in a 6–5 victory for the NL.

1965 San Francisco Giants season

The 1965 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 83rd year in Major League Baseball, their eighth year in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their sixth at Candlestick Park. The team finished in second place in the National League with a 95–67 record, 2 games behind the Los Angeles Dodgers.

1965 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1965 throughout the world.

1966 San Francisco Giants season

The 1966 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 84th year in Major League Baseball, their ninth year in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their seventh at Candlestick Park. The Giants finished second in the National League with a record of 93 wins and 68 losses, a game-and-a-half behind their arch-rivals, the NL champion Los Angeles Dodgers.

1967 San Francisco Giants season

The 1967 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 85th year in Major League Baseball, their tenth year in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their eighth at Candlestick Park. The team finished in second place in the National League with a record of 91 wins and 71 losses, 10½ games behind the NL and World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals.

1968 San Francisco Giants season

The 1968 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 86th year in Major League Baseball, their eleventh year in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their ninth at Candlestick Park. The team finished in second place in the National League with an 88–74 record, 9 games behind the St. Louis Cardinals.

1974 Boston Red Sox season

The 1974 Boston Red Sox season was the 74th season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished third in the American League East with a record of 84 wins and 78 losses, seven games behind the Baltimore Orioles.

1983 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1983 followed the system in place since 1978.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and

elected two, Juan Marichal and Brooks Robinson.

The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider older major league players as well as managers, umpires, executives, and figures from the Negro Leagues.

It selected Walter Alston and George Kell.

Dominican Summer League Athletics

The Dominican Summer League Athletics or DSL Athletics are a Minor League Baseball team of the Dominican Summer League that began play in 1989 as a rookie-level affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. They are located in Boca Chica, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and play their home games at the Juan Marichal Complex. Two DSL Athletics squads existed between 1997 and 2008—DSL Athletics East and West (1997–2002) and DSL Athletics 1 and 2 (2003–08).

Estadio Quisqueya

Quisqueya Stadium Juan Marichal is a baseball stadium in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. It is often used as a multi-use stadium. Football club Atlético Pantoja used the venue for their inaugural Caribbean football championship match. The Quisqueya holds about 14,469 people after its renovation. The Dominican League of Baseball Authority is in charge of its management.

It is the only stadium in Dominican Republic to host two different baseball teams, Tigres del Licey (Licey's Tigers) and the Escogido Lions (Leones del Escogido). Its field dimensions are 335 feet at the foul poles, 383 feet at the power alleys, and 411 feet at the center field. It was built in 1955 as Estadio Trujillo, during the Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina dictatorship, taking the Bobby Maduro Miami Stadium as the design base.

The stadium was renamed Estadio Quisqueya Juan Marichal, after the former Major League Baseball player and Hall of Famer Juan Marichal.

Green Weenie

The Green Weenie was a sports gimmick co-created by Bob Prince (1916–1985), the legendary broadcaster for the Pittsburgh Pirates Major League Baseball team, and Pirate trainer Danny Whelan. It was most popular during the 1966 baseball season in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The "Green Weenie" was manufactured by Tri-State Plastics, a Pittsburgh plastic thermoforming company between 1967-1974 and during the 1989 season.

The Green Weenie was a green plastic rattle in the shape of a hot dog, which when waved at opposing players, purportedly put a jinx on them. Conversely, when waved at Pirate players it allegedly bestowed good luck.

The superstition began during a 1966 game against the Houston Astros, when Danny Whelan shouted from the dugout at Astros' pitcher Dave Giusti, "You're gonna walk him!" while waving a green rubber hot dog in the direction of the pitcher's mound. Giusti did walk the batter, and the Astros lost the game. During the next game's broadcast, Prince quizzed Whelan about the frankfurter incident, and the gimmick was born. Within weeks, Green Weenies were being sold to fans at Forbes Field.

Though the gimmick didn't conjure up a pennant for the Pirates in 1966, the writer Dave Cole has noted that Roberto Clemente did win that year's National League MVP Award, Matty Alou won the National League batting title, Bill Mazeroski led the league in double plays, and Willie Stargell had his personal best year in batting.

According to the August 12, 1966 issue of Time Magazine, however, the hex of the Green Weenie sometimes seemed to work: "When the Pirates played the Giants two weeks ago, Prince pointed a Weenie at Juan Marichal. Marichal won the game, 2-1, but next day he caught the third finger of his pitching hand in a car door and missed two scheduled turns on the mound. In Pittsburgh, the Pirates were trailing the Philadelphia Phillies 3-1 in the seventh inning when Prince's fellow announcer Don Hoak begged Bob to use the Weenie. 'Not yet,' said Prince. In the eighth inning, with Pittsburgh still behind by two runs, Prince finally waved the Weenie. The Pirates scored four runs and won the game 5-3. 'Remember,' said Prince to Hoak. 'Never waste the power of the Green Weenie.'"

The Green Weenie was revived several times during subsequent seasons, but failed to stay popular with fans.

In 1974, Prince invented another talisman, encouraging female fans to spark a Pirates rally by waving their babushkas (folded kerchiefs used as head coverings, especially by East European women, a large immigrant minority in Pittsburgh). "Babushka Power," as it was called, most likely inspired the Terrible Towel, another sports gimmick created a year later by sportscaster Myron Cope for the Pittsburgh Steelers, the city's football team. The Terrible Towel has remained popular with Steeler fans for over thirty years.

John Roseboro

John Junior Roseboro (May 13, 1933 – August 16, 2002) was an American professional baseball player and coach. He played as a catcher in Major League Baseball from 1957 until 1970, most notably for the Los Angeles Dodgers. Roseboro was a four-time All-Star player and won two Gold Glove Awards for his defensive skills. He was the Dodgers' starting catcher in four World Series with the Dodgers winning three of those. He is considered one of the best defensive catchers of the 1960s. Roseboro was known for his role in one of the most violent incidents in baseball history when Juan Marichal struck him in the head with a bat during a game in 1965.

Juan Marichal (historian)

Juan Marichal (2 February 1922 – 9 August 2010) was a Spanish-Canarian historian, literary critic and essayist. Marichal also served as a professor at Harvard University. Marichal spent years in exile during the Francoist State following the end of the Spanish Civil War.Marichal was born on 2 February 1922 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. He moved with his family to Madrid in 1935. However, he soon relocated to both Valencia and Barcelona before attending school in Paris, France. He graduated from French lycee in Casablanca, near the end of the Spanish Civil War.In 1941, Marichal boarded a ship with other exiles from the Spanish Civil War and sailed from Casablanca to Mexico at just 19 years old. He enrolled at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, where he studied literature and philosophy. He worked at a box factory as a student to pay for his tuition.Marichal became a professor at Luis Vives Institute, an organization in Mexico founded by Spaniard exiles. He moved to the United States, where he enrolled as a doctoral student at Princeton University due to a scholarship obtained for him by Edmundo O'Gorman, a Mexican historian and philosopher. Marichal received his doctorate in literature from Princeton University in 1949.Marichal taught literature at Harvard University in Massachusetts after obtaining his doctorate, where his courses, which focused on Spain and the Spanish-language, included El Cid. He later spent more than 10 years writing his most famous work, The Complete Works of Manuel Azaña, a Spanish politician. He also published the writings and works of his father-in-law, Spanish poet Pedro Salinas, Three Voices of Pedro Salinas, in 1976. Marichal was a recipient of the Spain National Prize in Literature in 1996 for his work as a historian and was awarded the Canary Prize for Literature in 1987.Juan Marichal died on 9 August 2010 at his home in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, at the age of 88. His death was announced by the regional government of the Canary Islands. He was predeceased by his wife, Solita, the daughter of poet Pedro Salinas. The couple had two sons, Miguel Marichal Salinas and Carlos Marichal Salinas.

List of San Francisco Giants Opening Day starting pitchers

The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball franchise based in San Francisco, California. They moved to San Francisco from New York City in 1958. They play in the National League West division. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. Through 2016, the Giants have used 30 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 58 seasons since moving to San Francisco. The 30 starters have a combined Opening Day record of 27 wins, 16 losses and 16 no decisions. No decisions are only awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game.The first Opening Day game for the San Francisco Giants was played against the Los Angeles Dodgers on April 15, 1958 at Seals Stadium, the Giants' first home ball park in San Francisco. Rubén Gómez was the Giants' Opening Day starting pitcher that day, in a game the Giants lost 8–0. That was the Giants' only Opening Day game at Seals Stadium. They also played in two other home parks in San Francisco: Candlestick Park from 1960 to 1999, and AT&T Park, previously called PacBell Park and SBC Park, since 2000. The Giants' Opening Day starting pitchers had a record of seven wins, three losses and seven no decisions at Candlestick Park and have a record of two wins, one loss and one no decision at AT&T Park. That gives the San Francisco Giants' Opening Day starting pitchers a total home record of 10 wins, 4 losses and 8 no decisions. Their record in Opening Day road games is 17 wins, 12 losses, and 8 no decisions.Juan Marichal holds the San Francisco Giants' record for most Opening Day starts, with 10. Marichal had a record in Opening Day starts of six wins, two losses and two no decisions. Tim Lincecum and Madison Bumgarner each made four Opening Day starts for the Giants, and John Montefusco, Mike Krukow, John Burkett and Liván Hernández each made three Opening Day starts. Sam Jones, Vida Blue, Rick Reuschel, Mark Gardner, Kirk Rueter, Jason Schmidt and Barry Zito have each made two Opening Day starts for the Giants. Marichal has the most wins in Opening Day starts for San Francisco, with six. Reuschel and Burkett are the only pitchers to have won more than one Opening Day start for San Francisco without a loss. Both have records in Opening Day starts of two wins and no losses. Burkett also has a no decision. Zito has the worst record for San Francisco in Opening Day starts, with no wins and two losses. Zito and Marichal have the most losses in Opening Day starts, with two apiece. The Giants have played in the World Series six times since moving to San Francisco, in 1962, 1989, 2002, 2010, 2012 and 2014, winning in 2010, 2012 and 2014. Their Opening Day starting pitchers in those years were Juan Marichal in 1962, Rick Reuschel in 1989, Liván Hernández in 2002, Tim Lincecum in 2010 and 2012, and Madison Bumgarner in 2014. The Giants' Opening Day starting pitchers won four of their six Opening Day starts in those seasons, with their only loss coming in 2012 and a no decision in 2014.

List of San Francisco Giants no-hitters

The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball franchise based in San Francisco, California. They play in the National League West division. Also known in their early years as the "New York Gothams" (1883–84) and "New York Giants" (1885–1957), pitchers for the Giants have thrown 17 no-hitters in franchise history. A no-hitter is officially recognized by Major League Baseball only "when a pitcher (or pitchers) allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings", although one or more batters "may reach base via a walk, an error, a hit by pitch, a passed ball or wild pitch on strike three, or catcher's interference." No-hitters of less than nine complete innings were previously recognized by the league as official; however, several rule alterations in 1991 changed the rule to its current form. A no-hitter is rare enough that one team in Major League Baseball has still never had a pitcher accomplish the feat, and teams may go decades without recording one. A perfect game, a special subcategory of no-hitter, was finally thrown by Matt Cain on June 13, 2012. As defined by Major League Baseball, "in a perfect game, no batter reaches any base during the course of the game." Previously, this feat came closest on July 4, 1908 when Hooks Wiltse was hit by a pitch with two outs in the ninth and a scoreless tie. The plate umpire, Cy Rigler, claimed he should have called the previous pitch strike three, that would have ended the inning with a perfection. Wiltse would go on to retire all three in the tenth to end the game after the Giants scored a run in the top of the tenth.

Amos Rusie threw the first no-hitter in Giants history on July 31, 1891; the most recent no-hitter was thrown by Chris Heston on June 9, 2015. Five left-handed pitchers have thrown no-hitters in franchise history. The other ten pitchers were right-handers, including the most recent no-hitter author, Heston. Tim Lincecum and Hall of Famer Christy Mathewson are the only pitchers to throw more than one no-hitter in a Giants uniform. Ten no-hitters were thrown at home and seven on the road. The Giants threw one in April, two in May, five in June, five in July, one in August, and three in September. The longest interval between no-hitters was between the games pitched by Hubbell and Juan Marichal, encompassing 34 years, 1 month, and 7 days from May 8, 1929 till June 15, 1963. Conversely, the shortest interval between no-hitters was between the two games pitched by Lincecum, a period of 347 days. The Giants have no-hit the Philadelphia Phillies and San Diego Padres the most, doing so three times each—Wiltse in 1908; Jeff Tesreau in 1912; Jesse Barnes in 1922; Jonathan Sánchez in 2009; and Tim Lincecum in 2013 and 2014. Every Giants no-hitter has been a shutout (which is likely, but not a given, considering baserunners can reach, advance, and score by methods other than hits). The most baserunners allowed in a no-hitter was five, which occurred in Lincecum's first no-hitter. Of the 17 no-hitters, four have been won by a score of 1–0, more common than any other result. Those 1–0 no-hitters were attained by Christy Mathewson in 1905, Wiltse in 1908, Juan Marichal in 1963, and Gaylord Perry in 1968. The largest margin of victory in a Giants no-hitter was an 11–0 win by Carl Hubbell in 1929. Matt Cain is tied with Sandy Koufax for the most strikeouts in a perfect no-hitter with 14.The umpire is also an integral part of any no-hitter. The task of the umpire in a baseball game is to make any decision "which involves judgment, such as, but not limited to, whether a batted ball is fair or foul, whether a pitch is a strike or a ball, or whether a runner is safe or out… [the umpire's judgment on such matters] is final." Part of the duties of the umpire making calls at home plate includes defining the strike zone, which "is defined as that area over homeplate (sic) the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap." These calls define every baseball game and are therefore integral to the completion of any no-hitter. 16 different umpires presided over each of the franchise's 17 no-hitters.

The manager is another integral part of any no-hitter. The tasks of the manager include determining the starting rotation, the batting order and defensive lineup in every game, and how long a pitcher stays in the game. There have been eight different managers in the franchise's 17 no-hitters.

Michigan City White Caps

The Michigan City White Caps were a minor league baseball team that played in Michigan City, Indiana from 1956 to 1959. The team had been the Hannibal Stags, moving to Michigan City to become a charter member of the Midwest League in 1956. The White Caps were affiliated with the Giants, who played in New York from 1956–57 and San Francisco from 1958-59. The franchise folded after the 1959 season, but the nickname name was restored to the region when today's West Michigan White Caps began play in the Midwest League in 1994.Baseball Hall of Fame Inductee Juan Marichal pitched for Michigan City in 1958.

Springfield Giants

From 1957 through 1965, the Springfield Giants were the Single-A and Double-A baseball team affiliate of the New York/San Francisco Giants in the Eastern League. The team played at Pynchon Park in Springfield, Massachusetts.

The Springfield Giants won three consecutive championships in 1959, 1960 (co-champs) and 1961 under manager Andy Gilbert, all leading the way to San Francisco's National League pennant in 1962.

Some Springfield Giants players with Major League experience include:

Juan Marichal

Felipe Alou

Matty Alou

Tom Haller

Manny Mota

Bill Hands

Jim Ray Hart

Hal Lanier

Frank Linzy

José Pagán

Bob Barton

Al Stanek

Ernie Bowman

Rick Joseph

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