Juan Manuel Santos

Juan Manuel Santos Calderón GColIH GCB (Spanish: [ˈxwam maˈnwel ˈsantos kaldeˈɾon]; born 10 August 1951) is a Colombian politician. From 2010 to 2018, he was the President of Colombia. He was the sole recipient of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize.

An economist by profession and a journalist by trade, Santos is a member of the wealthy and influential Santos family, who from 1913 to 2007 were the majority shareholders of the newspaper El Tiempo until its sale to Planeta DeAgostini in 2007. He was a cadet at the Navy Academy in Cartagena. Shortly after graduating from the University of Kansas, he joined the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia as an economic advisor and delegate to the International Coffee Organization in London, where he also attended the London School of Economics. In 1981, he was appointed deputy director of El Tiempo newspaper, becoming its director two years later. Santos earned a mid-career/master's in public administration in 1981 from Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) and was a 1988 Nieman Fellow for his award-winning work as a columnist and reporter. Santos was a Fulbright visiting fellow at Fletcher at Tufts University in 1981. Santos served as a member and Vice Chair of the Washington-based think tank the Inter-American Dialogue and was president of the Freedom of Expression Commission for the Inter American Press Association.

In 1991, he was appointed by President César Gaviria Trujillo as Colombia's first Minister of Foreign Trade. Santos worked in expanding international trade with Colombia, and worked in creating various agencies for this purpose including: Proexport, Bancoldex and Fiducoldex. In 2000, he was appointed by President Andrés Pastrana Arango as the 64th Minister of Finance and Public Credit.[1]

Santos rose to prominence during the Administration of President Álvaro Uribe Vélez. In 2005, he co-founded and led the Social Party of National Unity (Party of the U), a liberal-conservative party coalition that backed the policies of President Uribe, successfully supporting his attempt to seek a Constitutional reform to be able to run for a second term. In 2006, after Uribe's re-election, when the Party of the U won a majority of seats in the two chambers of Congress, Santos was appointed as Minister of National Defence, and continued defending the security policies of President Uribe, taking a strong and forceful stance against FARC and the other guerrilla groups operating in Colombia. Santos also created the Good Government Foundation.

In 2010, Santos won the presidential election as the protégé of his predecessor Álvaro Uribe Vélez.[2][3] However, some months after Santos' possession, Uribe became his strongest opponent, who also founded, three years later, the opposition party Democratic Center.[4][5] This rivalry determined both Santos' unpopularity and his near-missed defeat during the presidential election in 2014 before Uribe's protégé Oscar Iván Zuluaga.[6][7]

On 7 October 2016, Santos was announced as recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, for his efforts negotiating a peace treaty with the FARC-guerrilla in the country, despite the unsuccessful referendum held over the deal, a "no" campaign led by Uribe's party Democratic Center.[8] The Colombian government and the FARC signed a revised peace deal on 24 November and sent it to Congress for ratification instead of conducting a second referendum.[9] Both houses of Congress ratified the revised peace accord on 29–30 November 2016, thus marking an end to the conflict.[10] Juan Manuel Santos has been named as one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people.[11] However, Santos left office with one of the lowest levels of popular approval ever,[12][13] and his successor was the new Uribe's protégé, Ivan Duque Marquez, a moderate critic of Santos' peace treaty with the FARC-guerilla.[14]

Juan Manuel Santos

Juan Manuel Santos and Lula (cropped)
32nd President of Colombia
In office
7 August 2010 – 7 August 2018
Vice PresidentAngelino Garzón
Germán Vargas Lleras
Oscar Naranjo
Preceded byÁlvaro Uribe
Succeeded byIván Duque Márquez
President pro tempore of the Pacific Alliance
In office
30 June 2017 – 24 July 2018
Preceded byMichelle Bachelet
Succeeded byMartin Vizcarra
In office
23 May 2013 – 20 June 2014
Preceded bySebastián Piñera
Succeeded byEnrique Peña Nieto
Minister of National Defense
In office
19 July 2006 – 18 May 2009
PresidentÁlvaro Uribe
Preceded byCamilo Ospina Bernal
Succeeded byFreddy Padilla de León (acting)
Minister of Finance and Public Credit
In office
7 August 2000 – 7 August 2002
PresidentAndrés Pastrana Arango
Preceded byJuan Camilo Restrepo Salazar
Succeeded byRoberto Junguito Bonnet
Minister of Foreign Trade
In office
18 November 1991 – 7 August 1994
PresidentCésar Gaviria
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byDaniel Mazuera Gómez
Presidential Designate of Colombia
In office
PresidentCésar Gaviria
Preceded byHumberto De la Calle
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Personal details
Juan Manuel Santos Calderón

10 August 1951 (age 68)
Bogotá, Colombia
Political partyLiberal Party (Before 2005)
Social Party of National Unity (2005–present)
Spouse(s)Silvia Amaya Londoño (divorced)
María Antonia
Alma materUniversity of Kansas
London School of Economics
Tufts University
Harvard University
AwardsNobel Peace Prize (2016)
Juan Manuel Santos's signature
Military service
Allegiance Colombia
Branch/serviceColombian Navy
Years of service1967–1971

Life and career

Santos was born in Bogotá, Colombia. He attended Colegio San Carlos,[15] a private secondary school in Bogotá, where he spent most of his school years until 1967, when he enlisted in the Colombian Navy and transferred to the Admiral Padilla Naval Cadet School in Cartagena, graduating from it in 1969, and continuing in the Navy until 1971, finishing with the rank of naval cadet NA-42z 139.[16]

After leaving the Navy, Santos moved to the United States where he attended the University of Kansas. A member of Delta Upsilon fraternity,[17] he graduated in 1973 with a Bachelor in Economics and Business Administration.[18] On 31 October 2017, Santos received an honorary doctorate of human letters from KU.[19]

After graduating from the University of Kansas, Santos served as Chief Executive of the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia to the International Coffee Organization[20] in London. During this time he also attended the London School of Economics, graduating with a Master of Science in Economic Development in 1975.[21] He then attended the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, graduating with a Master of Public Administration in 1981.[22] He returned to Colombia to become Deputy Director of his family owned newspaper El Tiempo. Santos served as a member and Vice Chair of the Washington-based think tank the Inter-American Dialogue and was president of the Freedom of Expression Commission for the Inter American Press Association.[23]

A Fulbright visiting fellow at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University in 1981,[24] and a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University in 1988,[25] Santos also holds an honorary Doctor of Laws degree.

He was Minister of Foreign Trade of Colombia during the administration of President César Gaviria Trujillo from 1991 to 1994,[26] Minister of Finance and Public Credit of Colombia during the administration of President Andres Pastrana Arango from 2000 to 2002.[1] In 1992 he was appointed President of the VIII United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.[27]

In 1994 Juan Manuel Santos founded the Good Government Foundation, whose stated objective is helping and improving the governability and efficiency of the Colombian Government.[28][29][30] This organization presented a proposal for a demilitarized zone and peace talks with the FARC guerrilla group.[31] Juan Manuel Santos has been named as one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people.[11] Universidade NOVA de Lisboa is granting the Honoris Causa Doctorate title to Juan Manuel Santos.[32]

Minister of Defense

Minister Santos with his counterpart, U.S. Secretary of Defence Robert Gates, during a visit to the Pentagon in 2008

Santos also founded the Social National Unity Party (Party of the U) to support the presidency of Álvaro Uribe.[33] He was named Minister of Defence on 19 July 2006. During his tenure as Defence Minister, the administration dealt a series of blows against the FARC guerrilla group, including the rescue of Fernando Araújo Perdomo, the death of FARC Secretariat member Raúl Reyes (a controversial military raid on Ecuador's border),[34] and the non-violent rescue of former presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt held captive since 2002, along with fourteen other hostages, including three Americans.[35][36]

In 2008 the 'false positives' scandal was uncovered, referring to revelations concerning extrajudicial executions carried out by members of the military in order to artificially increase the number of guerrillas killed by the Army and claim rewards from the government.[37] On 4 November 2008, Santos admitted that the military had carried out extrajudicial executions and he pledged to resolve the issue.[38] Twenty-seven military officers, including three generals and eleven colonels, were sacked after an internal army investigation concluded that they were responsible for administrative failures and irregularities in reporting enemy casualties and operational results.[39] The Commander of the Colombian National Army, General Mario Montoya, resigned.[40] By May 2009, 67 soldiers had been found guilty and over 400 were arrested pending trial.[41]

There are different estimates for the number of civilians who may have been killed in this manner. As of May 2009, prosecutors were investigating more than 900 cases involving over 1,500 victims and 1,177 members of the Colombian security forces.[41][42] According to the Coordinación Colombia-Europa-Estados Unidos NGO coalition and the Fundación para la Educación y el Desarrollo, an estimated 3,756 extrajudicial executions occurred between 1994 and 2009, of which 3,084 cases would have taken place after 2002.[43][44]

Families of the victims and non-governmental organisations have held the Uribe administration and Santos, as Defence Minister, responsible for the extrajudicial killings because they consider that the government's reward policies motivated the crimes.[43][44] Directive 029 of 2005 issued under Defence Minister Camilo Ospina Bernal and presidential decree 1400 of May 2006 have been questioned for offering incentives and benefits in exchange for capturing or killing members of illegal armed groups.[42][44]

In June 2009, United Nations Special Rapporteur Philip Alston declared that extrajudicial executions had been carried out in a "more or less systematic manner" by numerous Colombian military personnel and found the number of trials for those implicated to be lacking, but stated that he had found no evidence of the executions being an official government policy and acknowledged a decrease in the number of reported cases.[45]

In March 2010, Santos publicly stated these executions had stopped since October 2008 and that this had been confirmed by the CINEP, one of Colombia's foremost human rights defence institutions. Semana, a well-respected weekly magazine, reported that a few days later the CINEP responded to Santos's declarations by issuing a press release which stated that, while the number of reported cases had been significantly reduced after the Defence Ministry's measures were announced, the period between November 2008 and December 2009 still saw 7 such executions and 2 arbitrary detentions.[46]

Juan Manuel Santos announced his resignation from the Defence Ministry on 18 May 2009. Santos said that his resignation did not necessarily imply tossing his hat into the 2010 presidential race and that his participation in the electoral race depended on whether Uribe would pursue a third term, which he was willing to support. His resignation took effect on 23 May 2009. When the Constitutional Court ruled out the possibility of Uribe's participation in the upcoming elections, Santos officially launched his campaign for the presidency of the Republic of Colombia.[47]

President of Colombia

Santos Clinton
Santos and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, 9 June 2010.

On 20 June 2010, after two rounds of voting in the Presidential election, Juan Manuel Santos Calderón was officially elected as President of Colombia and was inaugurated on 7 August 2010 in the midst of a diplomatic crisis with Venezuela, which was quickly resolved.[48]

Negotiations with FARC rebels

Santos announced on 27 August 2012 that the Colombian government had engaged in exploratory talks with FARC in order to seek an end to the conflict.[49][50] He also said that he would learn from the mistakes of previous leaders, who failed to secure a lasting ceasefire with FARC, though the military would still continue operations throughout Colombia while talks continued.[49] According to an unnamed Colombian intelligence source, Santos offered FARC assurances that no one would be extradited to stand trial in another country.[51] The move has been viewed as a cornerstone of Santos' presidency. Former President Uribe has criticised Santos for seeking peace "at any costs" in contrast to his predecessor's rejection of talks.[52]

In October 2012, Santos received the Shalom Prize "for his commitment to seeking peace in his country and worldwide." Upon accepting the award from the Latin American chapter of the World Jewish Congress, Santos stated that "Both the people here and the people in Israel have been seeking peace for decades," adding that Colombia is in favour of a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.[53][54]

In September 2016, Santos announced that an agreement had been made completely settling the dispute between the Colombian government and FARC on the basis of a truth and reconciliation-like process, in which a combination of complete admissions of guilt and community service on the part of perpetrators of misdeeds during the years of conflict would serve in place of retributive justice.[55]

The 52-year Colombian war has cost the country 152 billion (USD), according to conflict monitoring NGO Indepaz. Within the last five years the daily cost of the war has escalated to USD9.3 million per day – enough to feed 3 million people in Colombia and wipe out extreme poverty in that country.[56]

Relations with Trump administration

In May 2017, Donald Trump and Santos held a joint news conference at the White House, where Trump praised Colombia's efforts to end a 52-year civil war that left more than 220,000 dead as a "great thing to watch."[57]

Around that time, it was reported that Trump had an "unusual meeting with former presidents Alvaro Uribe and Andres Pastrana" at his Florida resort Mar-a-Lago, lending weight to suspicion that Santos's political enemies were enlisting Trump's support against the historic peace accord.[58] The event was widely reported in Colombia, yet never announced by the White House.

In September 2017, Santos defended Colombia's record against U.S. President Donald Trump's complaints about what he called unacceptable growth in coca cultivation and production.[59][60] Trump added that he considered downgrading the country in a White House assessment, which would result in reduced development and security funding. One source of contention is the restarting fumigation of agricultural areas with glyphosate, something Washington has backed and Colombia rejects, due to the powerful herbicide's health effects on civilians and crops.[60]

Colombia defended its anti-narcotics efforts after the threat of Donald Trump to decertify the country as a partner in counter-narcotics efforts.

For more than 30 years Colombia has demonstrated its commitment – paying a very high cost in human lives – with overcoming the drug problem. This commitment stems from the profound conviction that the consumption, production and trafficking of drugs constitute a serious threat to the well-being and security of citizens. Colombia is undoubtedly the country that has fought the most drugs and with more successes on this front. No one has to threaten us to meet this challenge.
— Colombia’s National Government [61]
The problem of drugs is global. Overcoming it can only be achieved through cooperation and under the principle of joint responsibility. Consumer countries’ authorities have a fundamental responsibility to their fellow citizens and the world to reduce consumption and to attack trafficking and distribution organizations in their own countries.
— Colombia’s National Government [61]

In July 2018, Santos called on Trump to urge Russian leader Vladimir Putin to stop supporting Venezuela’s authoritarian government.[62] Santos has acknowledged that, in 2017, Trump raised the idea of a military invasion of Venezuela to drive out President Nicolas Maduro, which he and other Latin American leaders rejected at the time.[63]

Other views

During a Google hangout hosted by the Colombian newspaper El Tiempo on 20 May 2014, Santos voiced his support for same-sex marriage. "Marriage between homosexuals to me is perfectly acceptable and what's more I am defending unions that exist between two people of the same sex with the rights and all of the same privileges that this union should receive," said Santos.[64]

Presidential campaigns

2014 presidential campaign

On 20 November 2013, Santos announced his intent to run for re-election in a presidential address,[65] and formalised his intent by filing election papers with the National Civil Registry on 25 November.[66][67] As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the Social Party of National Unity convention, receiving 772 votes of the 787 party delegates, and receiving the party's nomination on 28 January 2014.[68] Santos and his allies also lobbied for the support of other political parties, receiving the nomination from the Liberal and Radical Change parties,[69][70] forming the National Unity Coalition.

On 12 March Santos officially launched his re-election campaign for the 2014 presidential election under the slogan: "We have done much, there is much to be done".[71] On 24 February, Santos announced that the running mate for his 2014 reelection campaign would be is Germán Vargas Lleras, a veteran politician from one of Colombia’s most powerful political dynasties, and his former Minister of Housing, City and Territory. The decision to replace Vice President Garzón as his running mate was an expected one, as Garzón had already announced his desire to retire from politics.

On 15 May, Santos obtained 25.69% of the votes, falling behind his main rival, Óscar Iván Zuluaga Escobar of the Democratic Center, who obtained 29.25% of the votes. Since no one candidate earned the required majority, a run-off election was announced. In the second round, Santos received the backing and support of his former electoral rival: Clara López Obregón of the Alternative Democratic Pole,[72] as well from dissident members of the Conservative and Green parties.

On 15 June, Santos won 50.95% of the popular vote in the second round of the election. President Santos addressed supporters and volunteers gathered at the campaign's headquarters in the Claustro de La Enseñanza after his reelection and said: "This is the end of 50 years of conflict in this country, and it is the beginning of a new Colombia". Santos′s victory, which was much smaller than his landslide result in 2010, was credited with strategic endorsements from left-wing politicians such as Clara López who appeared on a T.V. endorsement for Santos despite having nearly polar opposite views on many issues. This helped Santos, who had been neck and neck with his Conservative challenger on polls up to the second election round. Many among the Left whose fortunes had declined since the start of the FARC insurgency hoped a peaceful negotiation with FARC, which required a Santos victory, would help rehabilitate the left among the Conservative-Liberal dominated political scene in Colombia.

Payments from Brazilian conglomerate Odebrecht

On 14 March 2017 Santos acknowledged that his 2010 election campaign received illegal payments from Brazilian conglomerate Odebrecht.[73]

Paradise Papers

In November 2017, an investigation conducted by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalism claimed Juan Manuel Santos was in control of two offshore companies in Barbados.[74] Following this, Santos clarified that he left the managing board of one of these companies in prior to holding a ministerial office.[75]

Family and personal life

Santos was born on 10 August 1951 in Bogotá to Enrique Santos Castillo and his wife Clemencia Calderón Nieto,[76] his brothers are: Enrique, Luis Fernando, and Felipe.[77] The Santos family has been a well established and influential family since the mid-20th century; his great-great-grandaunt was María Antonia Santos Plata, a martyr of the Independence of Colombia, and his great-granduncle was Eduardo Santos Montejo,[78] President of Colombia between 1938 and 1942, who acquired the national newspaper El Tiempo. From there, his family has been connected to the newspaper and influenced the political life of the country; Eduardo's brother, Enrique, grandfather of Juan Manuel, and editor in chief of El Tiempo, was known as "Calibán" to his readers, and his three sons, Enrique (Juan Manuel's father) and Hernando Santos Castillo, and Enrique Santos Molano were chief editor, director, and columnist respectively. Through his father's brother, Hernando, and his mother's sister, Elena, Juan Manuel is also first cousin on both sides to Francisco Santos Calderón, former Vice President of Colombia during the previous administration from 2002 to 2010.[78][79]

Santos first married Silvia Amaya Londoño, a film director and television presenter, but divorced three years later having no children together.[79][80] He then married María Clemencia Rodríguez Múnera, or "Tutina" as she is known to those close to her, an industrial designer he had met while she worked as a private secretary at the Ministry of Communications and he was Deputy Director of El Tiempo.[80] Together they had three children, Martín (born 1989), María Antonia (born 1991), and Esteban (born 1993).[81][82]

Honours and awards

Foreign nations

Award or decoration Country Date Note
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 1Class BAR Order of the Aztec Eagle  Mexico 1 August 2011 [83]
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry  Portugal 14 November 2012 [84]
Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio Knight Grand Cross of the Two Sicilian Royal Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Special Class  Two Sicilies 7 June 2013 [85]
Mexican Military Merit (first class) Medal of Military Merit, First Class  Mexico 7 May 2015 [86]
MEX Condecoracion al Merito Naval Primera Clase Medal of Naval Merit, First Class  Mexico 7 May 2015 [86]
Order of the Bath UK ribbon Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath  United Kingdom 2016 [87][88][89]
PRT Order of Liberty - Grand Collar BAR Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty  Portugal 13 November 2017
Santos Leadership for the Americas
Santos accepting the Inter-American Dialogue's Distinguished Lifetime Achievement Award for Peace at the Four Seasons Hotel in Washington, DC.[90]

International bodies

International awards

New Colombian plant named after president Juan Manuel Santos

A new plant species from Northeastern Colombia has been named Espeletia praesidentis, in honour of efforts made by President Santos to build peace.[104]

Selected works

  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel (1994). Colombia Sin Fronteras: Para Un Nuevo Futuro. Bogotá: Colombian Ministry of Foreign Trade. OCLC 34283634.
  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel (1994). El Nuevo Camino al Progreso. Bogotá: Colombian Ministry of Foreign Trade. OCLC 253690673.
  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel; Hommes Rodríguez, Rudolf; et al. (1994). Prácticas Comerciales y Perspectivas Macroeconómicas. Bogotá: Cladei. ISBN 9789589394007. OCLC 318185414.
  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel; Blair, Tony (1999). La Tercera Vía: Una Alternativa Para Colombia. Bogotá: Aguilar. ISBN 9789588061313. OCLC 318268059.
  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel; Carrasquilla Barrera, Alberto (2000). Memorias de Hacienda. Bogotá: Colombian Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. OCLC 318238583.
  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel (2009). Jaque al Terror: Los Años Horribles de las FARC (2nd, illustrated. ed.). Bogotá: Planeta. ISBN 9789584223029. OCLC 605944076.


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External links

2010 Colombian presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Colombia in 2010. They took place under a two-round system, with an initial vote held on May 30 and a second poll held three weeks later on June 20. A referendum proposal that would have allowed incumbent President Álvaro Uribe the opportunity to run for a third term was rejected by the Constitutional Court of Colombia in a 7–2 ruling on February 26, 2010. Because no candidate received a majority (more than one-half) of the votes cast in the May 30 poll, the candidates with the two highest vote totals competed in a runoff election on June 20: Juan Manuel Santos of the liberal-conservative Social Party of National Unity which unites supporters of former President Uribe, and Antanas Mockus from the Green Party. Santos won the election with 69% of the votes.

2014 Colombian presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Colombia on May 25, 2014. Since no candidate received 50% of the vote in the first round, a run-off between the two candidates with the most votes took place three weeks later on June 15, 2014. According to the official figures released by the National Registry office (Registraduría Nacional), as of May 22, 2014 (the cut-off date to register) 32,975,158 Colombians were registered and entitled to vote in the 2014 presidential election, including 545,976 Colombians resident abroad. Incumbent president Juan Manuel Santos was allowed to run for a second consecutive term. In the first round, Santos and Óscar Iván Zuluaga of the Democratic Center (Centro Democrático) were the two highest-polling candidates and were the contestants in the June 15 run-off. In the second round, Santos was re-elected president, gaining 50.95% of the vote compared with 45.00% for Zuluaga.

2014 in Colombia

The following lists events that happened during 2014 in Colombia.

2016 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2016 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people." The conflict is the longest running war, and last remaining guerrilla struggle, in the Americas. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". The announcement was made on 7 October at a press conference at the Nobel Peace Center, and the formal award ceremony took place on 10 December at the Oslo City Hall.

The award was conferred only five days after the government's narrow defeat in the Colombian peace agreement referendum to ratify the final agreement on the peace process. The committee Chair Kaci Kullmann Five emphasized the effort and good intentions of Santos at the announcement press conference and also in the award citation: The Norwegian Nobel Committee emphasizes the importance of the fact that President Santos is now inviting all parties to participate in a broad-based national dialogue aimed at advancing the peace process. Even those who opposed the peace accord have welcomed such a dialogue. The Nobel Committee hopes that all parties will take their share of responsibility and participate constructively in the upcoming peace talks.

Santos was first informed of the prize by his son in the pre-dawn of the day of the announcement. In his first public statement he declared, This honourable distinction is not for me, it is for all the victims of the conflict. Together we will win the most important prize of all: PEACE. In the days following he also announced that the 8 million SEK prize (approximately 2.7 billion Colombian pesos) would be donated to support victims of the conflict.

2016 in Colombia

Events in the year 2016 in Colombia.

Carlos Rodado Noriega

Carlos Enrique Rodado Noriega (born 20 September 1943) is a Colombian engineer and politician currently serving as Ambassador of Colombia to Argentina. He served as the 28th and 9th Minister of Mines and Energy of Colombia, first in the administration of President Julio César Turbay Ayala and again in the administration of President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón. Rodado, a civil engineer and economist, has also served as Ambassador of Colombia to Spain, President of Ecopetrol, Member of the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia, and as the 58th Governor of Atlántico.On 20 September 2011, President Santos announced that Rodado would be stepping down as Minister of Mines and Energy to be replaced by Mauricio Cárdenas Santa María, and designated Rodado as new Ambassador of Colombia to Argentina. Rodado was sworn in by President Santos on 7 February 2012 at a ceremony at the Palace of Nariño, and presented his Letters of Credence to President Cristina Fernández on 11 April 2012 at an official ceremony at the Casa Rosada.

Cecilia Álvarez-Correa Glen

Cecilia Álvarez-Correa Glen (born 30 August 1953) is an Industrial Engineer and Colombian politician who served as Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism of Colombia under President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón. Álvarez-Correa is credited as the second woman to hold this post in Colombian history. Previously, Álvarez-Correa served as the 12th Minister of Transport of Colombia.

Colombian Liberal Party

The Colombian Liberal Party (Spanish: Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a centrist and social liberal political party in Colombia. It was founded as a classical liberal party but later developed a more social-democratic tradition, joining the Socialist International in 1999.The Liberal Party was the dominant force in Colombian politics alongside the Colombian Conservative Party until 2002, when the election victory of independent candidate Álvaro Uribe put an end to dominance of two party politics in Colombia.Currently, the Liberal Party is the second largest party in Congress, and has formed a coalition pact with the Social Party of National Unity, the governing party in Colombia under the presidency of Juan Manuel Santos since 2010.

El Tiempo (Colombia)

El Tiempo (English: The Time) is a nationally distributed broadsheet daily newspaper in Colombia. As of 2012, it had the highest circulation in Colombia with an average daily weekday of 1,137,483 readers, rising to 1,921,571 readers for the Sunday edition. After longtime rival El Espectador was reduced to a weekly publication following an internal financial crisis in 2001, El Tiempo enjoyed monopoly status in Colombian media as the only daily that circulated nationally, as most smaller dailies have limited distribution outside their own regions. However, El Espectador returned to the daily format on May 11, 2008.

From 1913 to 2007, El Tiempo's main shareholders were members of the Santos family. Several also participated in Colombian politics: Eduardo Santos Montejo was President of Colombia from 1938 to 1942. Francisco Santos Calderón served as Vice-President (2002–2010). And Juan Manuel Santos as Defense Minister (2006–2009) during Álvaro Uribe's administration. The latter was elected president in 2010.In 2007, Spanish Grupo Planeta acquired 55% of the Casa Editorial El Tiempo media group, including the newspaper and its associated TV channel Citytv Bogotá. In 2012, businessman Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo bought the shares of Planeta, the Santos family and other small shareholders, becoming the only owner of the newspaper.

Francisco Estupiñán Heredia

Francisco de Paula Estupiñán Heredia (born in Guateque - Boyacá ) is a business administrator and Colombian economist , member of the Conservative Party. He served as Minister of Agriculture between June and September 2013. In July 2014, he was appointed as liquidator of La Polar in Colombia by the Superintendence of Companies. During November 2014 until June 2016, he served as president of the Mercantile Exchange of Colombia (BMC).

He has a degree in Business Administration from the Externado University and a specialization in Economics from the Universidad de los Andes .

Estupiñán Heredia has a long career in public and private life. He has served as general director of National Budget; director of the Institute of Industrial Development IFI-Concession Salinas; Deputy Minister of Finance between December 1999 and July 2000; President of Banco Granahorrar from 2000 to 2003; among other charges. Before being appointed Minister of Agriculture, he served as president of the Banco Agrario.

The 27 of maypole of 2013 , President Juan Manuel Santos named Francisco Estupiñán as agriculture minister, replacing Juan Camilo Restrepo. In this position Estupiñan had to face the National Agrarian Stoppage in which peasant sectors of the country ceased activities in protest against the conditions generating the crisis of the national agricultural production. Two weeks after the start of the strike, Estupiñan presented his resignation letter, which was accepted by President Santos. Estupiñan left office on September 11, 2013 and Rubén Darío Lizarralde took office in his replacement.

In July 2014, the Superintendence of Companies appointed him liquidator of La Polar . From November 2014 to June 2016 he served as president of the Mercantile Exchange of Colombia (BCM). According to the Financial Superintendency, Estupiñan at the time of taking office in the BCM obviated its connection as liquidator of the chain of stores, for which it announced in September 2015 that it would review the corresponding actions. On December 14, 2015, the Superintendency of Companies declared that "the object of the judicial liquidation process was fulfilled given that the asset was carried out in an orderly and professional manner".

On 27 May 2013, President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, announced the designation of Estupiñán as new Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development in replacement of Juan Camilo Restrepo Salazar. He was sworn in on 2 June 2013.

Frank Pearl González

Frank Joseph Pearl González (born 1962) is a Colombian economist. He served as the 1st Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development serving in the administration of President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, and as the 1st High Presidential Advisor for the Social and Economic Reintegration of People and Groups Up in Arms during the administration of President Álvaro Uribe Vélez between 2006 and 2010 during which time he was also entrusted the office of High Commissioner for Peace ad interim in replacement of Luis Carlos Restrepo Ramírez, until his resignation from both posts in 2010.On 19 September 2011, President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón designated Pearl to head the process that divided the Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development into two separate portfolios of environment and housing, and afterwards was entrusted the just created Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development.

Germán Vargas Lleras

Germán Vargas Lleras (Spanish pronunciation: [xeɾˈmam ˈbaɾɣaz ˈʝeɾas]; born February 19, 1962) is a Colombian politician who recently served as Vice President of Colombia under President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón. A member of the Radical Change political party, he served four consecutive terms in the Senate, having been elected in 1994. German Vargas also served in the Cabinet as the Minister of Interior and then as the Minister of Housing, City and Territory. He was elected Vice President of Colombia in 2014, running alongside Juan Manuel Santos who was seeking re-election for a second term as President. On 15 March 2017, Vargas Lleras resigned as Vice President in order to be eligible to run for President in the 2018 Presidential elections.

List of Latino and Hispanic Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969. Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 800 individuals.Latin Americans, Spaniards, Latinos and Hispanics have been the recipients in five of six award categories: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. The first Spanish recipient, José Echegaray, was awarded the Literature Prize in 1905, and the first Latin American to receive the prize was Carlos Saavedra Lamas in 1936. The most recent recipient Juan Manuel Santos was awarded the Peace prize in October 2016.

Two Latin American laureates — Óscar Arias Sánchez and Juan Manuel Santos — were president of their country when they were awarded the prize. As of 2015, 25 Nobel Prize winners have been Latin American, Spanish, Latinos or Hispanics.

List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the London School of Economics

A list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the London School of Economics. By official figures 18 Nobel Prizes in economics, peace and literature have been awarded to LSE alumni and staff. By 2016, 27% (or 13 out of 48) of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 17% (13 out of 78) of all laureates. LSE alumni and staff have also won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes, and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature.


1950: Ralph Bunche (Peace)

1979: Sir William Arthur Lewis (Economics)

1991: Ronald Coase (Economics)

1999: Robert Mundell (Economics)

2007: Leonid Hurwicz (Economics)

2016: Juan Manuel Santos (Peace)Founders and professors

1925: George Bernard Shaw (Literature)

1950: Bertrand Russell (Literature)

1959: Philip Noel-Baker (Peace)

1972: Sir John Hicks (Economics)

1974: Friedrich von Hayek (Economics)

1977: James Meade (Economics)

1990: Merton Miller (Economics)

1998: Amartya Sen (Economics)

2001: George Akerlof (Economics)

2008: Paul Krugman (Economics)

2010: Christopher A. Pissarides (Economics)

2016: Oliver Hart (Economics)Non-alumni1987: Óscar Arias (Peace)

Rafael Pardo Rueda

Rafael Pardo Rueda (born 26 November 1953) is a Colombian politician. A Liberal party politician and economist, he has previously served as the 1st Minister of Labour of Colombia serving in the Administration of President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, Minister of National Defence, and was elected Senator of Colombia from for the 2002-2006 legislative period.

Santiago Rojas Arroyo

Santiago Rojas Arroyo is the 4th and current Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism of Colombia, serving in the administration of President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón. Before his appointment, Rojas, a lawyer from the Pontifical Xavierian University, served as President of the Bank of Foreign Trade of Colombia, Bancóldex, and had previously served as Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade, as Director of the Directorate of National Taxes and Customs of Colombia (DIAN), and as Director of the Foreign Trade Institute of Colombia (Incomex).

Social Party of National Unity

The Social Party of National Unity (Spanish: Partido Social de Unidad Nacional), or Party of the U (Spanish: Partido de «la U») is a centrist social liberal political party in Colombia. The Party is led by former president Juan Manuel Santos. It was formerly Colombia's largest political party, in a coalition with the Liberal Party and Radical Change, until it lost 7 seats in the 2018 elections.

Tomás González Estrada

Tomás González Estrada (born 1969) is a Colombian economist. He was an Economic Counselor in the government of Andrés Pastrana Arango and the Minister of Mines and Energy in the second government of Juan Manuel Santos. On 7 March 2016, his resignation from the position was accepted due to the country's energy crisis.

Óscar Naranjo

Óscar Adolfo Naranjo Trujillo (born 22 December 1956) is a Colombian politician and former National Police of Colombia general, who served as Vice President of Colombia from 30 March 2017 – 7 August 2018 (under President Juan Manuel Santos). After retirement in 2012, Naranjo was appointed as a peace negotiator by President Santos in the Colombian peace negotiations with the FARC. Naranjo was Director General of the Police from 2007 until retirement in 2012. He also held the positions of Director of Police Intelligence and was Police Commander of Bolivar.

Offices and distinctions
Cabinet of President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (2010-2018)
Gran Colombia
Republic of New Granada
Grenadine Confederation
United States of Colombia
Republic of Colombia
2016 Nobel Prize laureates
Peace (2016)
Physiology or Medicine
Economic Sciences


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