Juan José Pérez Hernández

Juan José Pérez Hernández (born Joan Perés[1] ca. 1725 – November 3, 1775), often simply Juan Pérez, was an 18th-century Spanish explorer. He was the first known European to sight, examine, name, and record the islands near present-day British Columbia, Canada. Born in Palma de Mallorca, Spain, he first served as a piloto in western Spanish colonial North America on Manila galleons en route to and from the Philippines in the Spanish East Indies. In 1768, he was assigned to the Pacific port of San Blas, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present day Mexico), and acquired the rank of ensign (alférez).

1774 expedition

Confident of their territorial claims, the Spanish Empire did not explore or settle the northwest coast of North America in the 250 years after being claimed for the crown by Vasco Núñez de Balboa. By the late 18th century; however, learning of Russian and British arrivals along the Pacific Northwest and Alaskan coasts, Spain finally grew sufficiently concerned about their claims to the region and set out to discover the extent of any colonial Russian and British encroachment.

In early 1774, the Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa, commanded Pérez to explore the Pacific coast with the objective of reaching 60° north latitude (about the latitude of present-day Cordova, Alaska) to discover possible Russian America and British settlements and to re-assert the long-standing Spanish claim to the Pacific Northwest. Rumors of Russian fur traders caused the Spanish to send the frigate Santiago north under the command of Pérez, with a crew mostly from New Spain.[2][3] Pérez was given explicit instructions to treat all indigenous peoples with respect, and to establish friendly relations with any encountered.[4]

In July 1774, he reached 54°40' north latitude, just off the northwestern tip of Langara Island, one of the islands of Haida Gwaii. There he had an interaction with a group of Haida natives, but he did not go ashore. Due to a lack of provisions and the poor health of his crew, Pérez turned south at this point despite the viceroy's orders to attain 60° north. He reached Nootka Sound on August 7, 1774 (at about 49.6° north latitude), part of today's Vancouver Island and had an extended set of interactions with the natives, including the first trade of trade goods. Again, he did not go ashore, this time because of bad weather that almost ran his ship aground.

Pérez was accompanied by Fray Juan Crespí and his assistant Fray Tomas de la Pena Y Saravia.[4] Pérez gave the name of Cerro Nevado de Santa Rosalía ("Snowy Peak of St. Rosalia") to present day Mount Olympus in the U.S. state of Washington.[4]

Pérez continued south to the Presidio of Monterey, Las Californias, which he reached on August 28, 1774. After a brief stay, he continued on to reach San Blas on November 5, 1774, thus completing his expedition.

1775 expedition

In 1775, a second expedition under Bruno de Heceta and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra was organized. Pérez participated as piloto of Heceta's ship, the Santiago.

Pérez died on the return journey, on November 3, 1775, between Monterey, California and San Blas.

Legacy

Juan Perez Sound, off the east coast of Moresby Island of Haida Gwaii, is named for him.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Catalan Encyclopaedia
  2. ^ Geographical Society of the Pacific (1907). Transactions and Proceedings of the Geographical Society of the Pacific, Volume 4. San Francisco. p. 65. OCLC 15737543.
  3. ^ Rodríguez Sala, María Luisa (2006). De San Blas Hasta la Alta California: Los Viajes y Diarios de Juan Joseph Pérez Hernández (in Spanish). Universidad Autónoma de México. p. 35. ISBN 978-970-32-3474-5.
  4. ^ a b c Official State of Washington history of Pérez.

External links

1725 in Canada

Events from the year 1725 in Canada.

1775 in Canada

Events from the year 1775 in Canada.

Alexander Archipelago

The Alexander Archipelago is a 300-mile (480 km) long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska. It contains about 1,100 islands, which are the tops of the submerged coastal mountains that rise steeply from the Pacific Ocean. Deep channels and fjords separate the islands and cut them off from the mainland. The northern part of the Inside Passage is sheltered by the islands as it winds its way among them.

The islands have irregular, steep coasts and dense evergreen and temperate rain forests, and most are accessible only by boat or aeroplane. The vast majority of the islands are part of the Tongass National Forest.

In order of land area, the largest islands are Prince of Wales Island, Chichagof Island, Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, Revillagigedo Island, Kupreanof Island, Kuiu Island, Etolin Island, Dall Island, Wrangell Island, Mitkof Island, Zarembo Island, Kosciusko Island, Kruzof Island, Annette Island, Gravina Island, and Yakobi Island. All the islands are rugged, densely forested, and have an abundance of wildlife.

The Tlingit and Kaigani Haida people are native to the area. The Tsimshian people found on Annette Island are not originally from the area, having immigrated to the region from British Columbia in the late 19th century.

Ketchikan on Revillagigedo Island and Sitka

on Baranof Island are the largest towns on the islands. The most populous neighborhoods of the largest town in the region, Juneau, are on the mainland, though portions of the city also lie on Douglas Island, which is a part of the archipelago.

Tourism, fishing, and logging are the main industries of the islands.

Bruno de Heceta

Bruno de Heceta (Hezeta) y Dudagoitia (1743–1807) was a Spanish Basque explorer of the Pacific Northwest. Born in Bilbao of an old Basque family, he was sent by the Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa, to explore the area north of Alta California in response to information that there were colonial Russian settlements there.

Canada–Spain relations

Canada–Spain relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Canada and the Kingdom of Spain. Both nations are mutual members of NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations.

Estevan Point

Estevan Point is a lighthouse located on the headland of the same name on the Hesquiat Peninsula on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada.

During World War II, in 1942, the Estevan Point lighthouse was fired upon by the Japanese submarine I-26, marking the first enemy attack on Canadian soil since the Fenian Raids of 1866 and 1871.

Currently the Canadian Coast Guard still maintains Estevan Point, with the light still active as of 2008. The light emits a signal of a double flash every 15 seconds with the focal plane located at 37.5 metres (123 ft) above sea level.

Former colonies and territories in Canada

A number of states and polities formerly claimed colonies and territories in Canada prior to the evolution of the current provinces and territories under the federal system. North America prior to colonization was occupied by a variety of indigenous groups consisting of band societies typical of the sparsely populated North, to loose confederacies made up of numerous hunting bands from a variety of ethnic groups (Plains region), to more structured confederacies of sedentary farming villages (Great Lakes region), to stratified hereditary structures centred on a fishing economy (Plateau and Pacific Coast regions). The colonization of Canada by Europeans began in the 10th century, when Norsemen explored and, ultimately unsuccessfully, attempted to settle areas of the northeastern fringes of North America. Early permanent European settlements in what is now Canada included the late 16th and 17th century French colonies of Acadia and Canada (New France), the English colonies of Newfoundland (island) and Rupert's Land, the Scottish colonies of Nova Scotia and Port Royal.France lost nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War to the British Empire. Britain's imperial government over a century later then ceded the land to Canadian control in 1867 after confederation. Since then, Canada's external borders have changed several times, and had grown from four initial provinces to ten provinces and three territories by 1999.

History of British Columbia

British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada. Originally politically constituted as a pair of British colonies, British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation on July 20, 1871. Perhaps the most influential historian of British Columbia has been Margaret Ormsby; in British Columbia: A History (1958) she presented a structural model that has been adopted by numerous historians and teachers. Chad Reimer says, "in many aspects, it still has not been surpassed". Ormsby posited a series of propositions that provided the dynamic to the history:

the ongoing pull between maritime and continental forces; the opposition between a "closed", hierarchical model of society represented by the Hudson's Bay Company and colonial officials, and the "open", egalitarian vision of English and Canadian settlers, and regional tensions between Vancouver Island and mainland, metropolitan Vancouver and the hinterland interior.

History of Oregon

The history of Oregon, a U.S. state, may be considered in five eras: geologic history, inhabitation by native peoples, early exploration by Europeans (primarily fur traders), settlement by pioneers, and modern development.

The term "Oregon" may refer to:

Oregon Country, a large region explored by Americans and the British (and generally known to Canadians as the Columbia District);

Oregon Territory, established by the United States two years after its sovereignty over the region was established by the Oregon Treaty; and

Oregon, a U.S. state since 1859The history of Oregon, and of the Pacific Northwest, has received little attention from historians, as compared to other regions of the American far west.

Joan Crespí

Joan Crespí or Juan Crespí (March 1, 1721 – January 1, 1782) was a Franciscan missionary and explorer of Las Californias.

Juan

Juan is a given name, the Spanish language and Manx language versions of John. It is very common in Spain and in other Spanish-speaking communities around the world and in the Philippines, and also (pronounced differently) in the Isle of Man. The feminine form in Spanish is Juana, or Juanita in its diminutive.

Juan Perez Sound

Juan Perez Sound is a sound off the east coast of Moresby Island in the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia, Canada. It is named for Juan José Pérez Hernández, usually known as Juan Pérez, who was among the first European explorer in the region.

Juan Pérez

Juan Pérez may refer to:

Juan Pérez (pitcher) (born 1978), Major League Baseball pitcher

Juan Pérez (outfielder) (born 1986), Major League Baseball player

Juan Perez (friar) (died before 1513), Spanish Franciscan and companion of Christopher Columbus

Juan Perez (politician) (born 1956), American municipal politician and lawyer

Juan Pérez 'Kichi' (born 1985), Mexican football player

Juan Pérez (handballer) (born 1974), Spanish Olympic handball player

Juan Pérez Alsina, Argentine politician

Juan Pérez de Gijón (fl. 1460–1500), Spanish composer of the Renaissance

Juan Pérez de Montalbán (1602–1638), Spanish dramatist, poet and novelist

Juan Pérez de la Serna (1573–1631), seventh Archbishop of Mexico

Juan Pérez de Zurita (1516–c. 1595), Spanish conquistador

Juan José Pérez Hernández (c. 1725–1775), Spanish explorer

Juan Pérez (cyclist) (born 1932), Chilean Olympic cyclist

Juan Carlos Pérez (born 1981), Bolivian trap shooter

Juan de Dios Pérez (born 1980), Panamanian footballer

Juan Manuel Pérez (born 1993), Argentine footballer

Juan David Pérez (born 1991), Colombian footballer

Juan Pérez Medina (born 1960), Mexican politician and educator

Langara Island

Langara Island is the northernmost island of Haida Gwaii in British Columbia, Canada. The island is approximately 8,080 acres (3,270 ha) in size. It is located approximately 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of Alaska.

List of Balearics

This is a list of famous Balearic people (people from the Balearic Islands, one of the Autonomous Communities of Spain).

Álex Abrines (born 1993), basketball player

Antoni Maria Alcover i Sureda (1862–1932), linguist and folk tale writer

Simón Andreu (born 1941), actor

Miquel Barceló (born 1957), painter

Fortunio Bonanova (1895–1969), actor, opera singer

Maria del Mar Bonet (born 1947), singer

Nicolas Cotoner (1608–1680), Grand Master of the Knights of St. John

Raphael Cotoner (1601–1663), Grand Master of the Knights of St. John

Abraham Cresques (14th century), cartographer

Jehuda Cresques (14th–15th centuries), cartographer

DJ Sammy (born 1969), disc-jockey

Simeon ben Zemah Duran, Rashbatz (1361–1444), rabbinical authority

Rudy Fernández (basketball) (born 1985), basketball player

Elena Gómez (born 1985), artistic gymnast

Joan Horrach (born 1974), cyclist

Maria de la Pau Janer (born 1966), novelist

Isabel of Majorca (1337–1403), queen

James II of Majorca (1243–1311), king

James III of Majorca (1315–1349), king

James IV of Majorca (c. 1336–1375), king

Ramon Llull (1232–1315), writer and philosopher

Jorge Lorenzo (born 1987), motorcycle racer, 2006 and 2007 250 cc World Champion, 2010 and 2012 MotoGP Champion

Juan March Ordinas (1880–1962), financier

Juan Mascaró (1897–1987), Sanskrit translator

Antonio Maura (1853–1925), prime minister of Spain

Carlos Moyá (born 1976), tennis player

Francisco Javier Muñoz (born 1980), Xisco, football player

Miguel Ángel Nadal (born 1966), football player

Rafael Nadal (born 1986), tennis player

Mathieu Orfila (1787–1853), chemist

Juan José Pérez Hernández (1725–1775), explorer

Albert Riera (born 1982), footballer

Carme Riera (born 1948), novelist

Guillem Sagrera (14th century–1456), architect and sculptor

Sancho I of Majorca (1276–1324), king

Junípero Serra (1713–1784), friar, California's colonizer

Llorenç Serra Ferrer (born 1953), football manager

Anselm Turmeda (1355–1423), writer

Llorenç Villalonga i Pons (1897–1980), writer

Agustí Villaronga (born 1953), filmmaker

Pérez

Pérez or Perez, as most commonly written in English, is a Spanish and Jewish surname popular among people of Sephardic Jewish descent.

San Christoval Range

The San Christoval Range is a 50 km long, jagged mountain range located on the west coast of Moresby Island, British Columbia, Canada. It is the only lineal mountain range in the Queen Charlotte Mountains and the highest peaks are just above 1000 m. The mountain range was named by Juan José Pérez Hernández in 1774.

Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest

Spanish claims to the West Coast of North America date to the papal bull of 1493, and the Treaty of Tordesillas. In 1513, this claim was reinforced by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean, when he claimed all lands adjoining this ocean for the Spanish Crown. Spain only started to colonize the claimed territory north of present-day Mexico in the 18th century, when it settled the northern coast of Las Californias (California).

Starting in the mid-18th century, Spain's claim began to be challenged in the form of British and Russian fur trading and colonization. King Charles III of Spain and his successors sent a number of expeditions from New Spain to present-day Canada and Alaska between 1774 and 1793, to counter the threat of Russian and British colonizers and to strengthen the Spanish claim. During this period of history it was important for a nation's claims to be backed up by exploration and the "first European discovery" of particular places.

Vancouver Island

Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Canadian province of British Columbia. The island is 460 kilometres (290 mi) in length, 100 kilometres (62 mi) in width at its widest point, and 32,134 km2 (12,407 sq mi) in area. It is the largest island on the West Coast of the Americas.

The southern part of Vancouver Island and some of the nearby Gulf Islands are the only parts of British Columbia or Western Canada to lie south of the 49th Parallel. This area has one of the warmest climates in Canada, and since the mid-1990s has been mild enough in a few areas to grow subtropical Mediterranean crops such as olives and lemons.Vancouver Island had a population in 2016 of 775,347. Nearly half of that population (367,770) live in the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria. Other notable cities and towns on Vancouver Island include Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Parksville, Courtenay, and Campbell River. Victoria, the capital city of British Columbia, is located on the island, but the larger city of Vancouver is not – it is on the North American mainland, across the Strait of Georgia from Nanaimo.

Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many Indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The island was explored by British and Spanish expeditions in the late 18th century. It was named Quadra's and Vancouver's Island in commemoration of the friendly negotiations held in 1792 by Spanish commander of the Nootka Sound settlement, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, and by British naval captain George Vancouver, during the Nootka Crisis. Bodega y Quadra's name was eventually dropped from the name. It is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, who explored the Pacific Northwest coast between 1791 and 1794.

Vancouver Island is the world's 43rd largest island, Canada's 11th largest island, and Canada's second most populous island after the Island of Montreal. It is the largest Pacific island anywhere east of New Zealand.

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