Juan Fernández fur seal

The Juan Fernández fur seal is the second smallest of the fur seals, second only to the Galápagos fur seal. They are found only on the Pacific Coast of South America, more specifically on the Juan Fernández Islands and the Desventuradas Islands. There is still much that is unknown about this species. Scientists still do not know the average life span of this species, or the diet and behavior of males apart from the breeding season.[2]

Juan Fernández fur seal
Lobo fino
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Clade: Pinnipedia
Family: Otariidae
Genus: Arctocephalus
A. philippii
Binomial name
Arctocephalus philippii
Peters, 1866
Juan Fernandez Fur Seal area
Juan Fernández fur seal range


The Juan Fernandez fur seal is part of the group of eared seals. Fur seals in general have thick insulating fur that protects the skin from cold water, they have small ear flaps on the side of their head, and they hold their weight on their front flippers which are also used for land locomotion. Fur seals are different from true seals because they have the external ear flaps, but also true seals use their chest for support and movement, fur seals walk on their front flippers.

The Juan Fernandez fur seal is the second smallest fur seal, second only to the Galápagos fur seal. Their bodies are short and robust with brown pelage. Both the fore flippers and the hind flippers are relatively short, and the hind flippers have fleshy tips on the digits. Females are lighter brown and average 100 pounds and 4'6" long. Males are significantly larger and average 300 pounds and 6'6" in length. Males have thicker necks than females and have generally darker brown pelage. Male seals have golden tipped thick guard hairs on the back of the head, neck, and shoulders.[2] This seal species has a trait called sexual dimorphism, meaning the males look much different from the females after reaching sexual maturity.[3]


The Juan Fernández fur seal was discovered, and named by Juan Fernández in the mid 1500s. Once the seal was discovered the population was decimated by over hunting for the fur trade. It was believed that the Juan Fernández fur seal was extinct until a small group of 200 was found on the Juan Fernández islands in the 1960s. Now it is estimated that over 12,000 individuals exist today.[2]


This particular seal lives a solitary life. Seals forage out at sea and haul out on rocky shores to rest. Females seem to be fairly particular about where she rests during the day and prefer tide pools and rocky caves. The resting areas that females prefer often become areas of male competition for breeding rights. Although females will typically rest in close regions, they are sure to be a few feet away from each other and never touch one another.[2]


Breeding is a territorial process with the Juan Fernández fur seal, males will aggressively fight for access to female resting sites.[4] This seal is polygynous, meaning that one male breeds with multiple females. Pups are born between November and December and are weaned off the mother's milk at 10 months of age. Mothers stay with the pups for about a week and then they leave to mate again and forage. Pups are born with soft black fur that fades to light brown within the first few years.[2]


Not much is known about the diet of Juan Fernández fur seals. Scientists have only observed the diet of lactating females that are caring for pups. What they have observed is that females forage out at sea sometimes as far as 300 miles off shore and will dive to depths of 30 to 300 feet to find lanternfish and squid. Typically lactating females will dive and forage at night when prey swims to shallow waters and become more accessible. Sometimes they will stay out at sea for up to 25 days, then return to shore and stay with the pups for 5 days.[2]

During the period that the mothers are foraging the pup goes without milk for several days, sometimes weeks. To combat this, the mother's milk is high in fat and nutrients that the pup uses for energy while the mother is away.[5] However, during this time the pups' immune systems are not as highly functioning as adults and can be prone to infection from intestinal parasites that leads to fatal infections. In the early 90s there were 60 pups discovered dead from hookworm infections,[6] and also the presence of heavy metal ions[7] were found in their systems. Such loss decimated the population and they are still recovering now.


  1. ^ Aurioles, D. & Trillmich, F. (2008). "Arctocephalus philippii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Reeves (et. al.), Randal (2002). Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Andrew Stewart Publishing. pp. 69–71. ISBN 9780375411410.
  3. ^ Osman, Layla P.; Moreno, Carlos A.; Trites, Andrew W. (2010-10-15). "Growth rates and differential investment in male and female Juan Fernández fur seal pups". Journal of Mammalogy. 91 (5): 1188–1196. doi:10.1644/09-MAMM-A-197.1. ISSN 0022-2372.
  4. ^ Francis, John M.; Boness, Daryl J. (1991-11-01). "The Effect of Thermoregulatory Behaviour on the Mating System of the Juan Fernández Fur Seal, Arctocephalus philippii". Behaviour. 119 (1/2): 104–126. doi:10.1163/156853991x00391. JSTOR 4534978.
  5. ^ Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; Francis, John M.; Oftedal, Olav T. (1999-08-01). "Influence of Long Intersuckling Interval on Composition of Milk in the Juan Fernandez Fur Seal, Arctocephalus philippii". Journal of Mammalogy. 80 (3): 758–767. doi:10.2307/1383245. JSTOR 1383245.
  6. ^ Sepúlveda, Maria Soledad (1998-12-01). "Hookworms (Uncinaria sp.) in Juan Fernandez Fur Seal Pups (Arctocephalus philippii) from Alejandro Selkirk Island, Chile". The Journal of Parasitology. 84 (6): 1305–1307. doi:10.2307/3284700. JSTOR 3284700.
  7. ^ Sepúlveda, María S.; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; Sundlof, Stephen F. "Heavy metal concentrations in Juan Fernández fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii)". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 34 (8): 663–665. doi:10.1016/s0025-326x(97)00054-4.

External links

1574 in science

The year 1574 in science and technology involved some significant events.

Archipiélago de Juan Fernández National Park

Archipiélago de Juan Fernández National Park (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwaɱ feɾˈnandes]) is a national park located in the Pacific Ocean 665 kilometres west of Chile's mainland port of San Antonio, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. The park covers 96 square kilometres and comprises the Santa Clara, Alejandro Selkirk and the most part of the Robinson Crusoe Island islands.


The genus Arctocephalus consists of fur seals. Arctocephalus translates to "bear head."

Asiatic linsang

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Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head. They inhabit forested environments in Southeast Asia. The bay cat is restricted to the island of Borneo. Originally thought to be two subspecies of the same animal, recent genetic analysis has confirmed they are, indeed, separate species.The two species diverged from one another 4.9-5.3 million years ago, long before Borneo separated from the neighboring islands. Their closest living relative is the marbled cat, from which the common ancestor of the genus Catopuma diverged around 9.4 million years ago.

Eared seal

An eared seal or otariid or otary is any member of the marine mammal family Otariidae, one of three groupings of pinnipeds. They comprise 15 extant species in seven genera (another species became extinct in the 1950s) and are commonly known either as sea lions or fur seals, distinct from true seals (phocids) and the walrus (odobenids). Otariids are adapted to a semiaquatic lifestyle, feeding and migrating in the water, but breeding and resting on land or ice. They reside in subpolar, temperate, and equatorial waters throughout the Pacific and Southern Oceans and the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans. They are conspicuously absent in the north Atlantic.

The words 'otariid' and 'otary' come from the Greek otarion meaning "little ear", referring to the small but visible external ear flaps (pinnae), which distinguishes them from the phocids.


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Bornean ferret-badger (Melogale everetti)

Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata)

Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis)

Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata)

Vietnam ferret-badger (Melogale cucphuongensis)

Fur seal

Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae. They are much more closely related to sea lions than true seals, and share with them external ears (pinnae), relatively long and muscular foreflippers, and the ability to walk on all fours. They are marked by their dense underfur, which made them a long-time object of commercial hunting. Eight species belong to the genus Arctocephalus and are found primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, while a ninth species also sometimes called fur seal, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), belongs to a different genus and inhabits the North Pacific.

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Last Chance to See

Last Chance to See is a 1989 BBC radio documentary series and its accompanying book, written and presented by Douglas Adams and Mark Carwardine. In the series, Adams and Carwardine travel to various locations in the hope of encountering species on the brink of extinction. The book was published in 1990.

In 2009, the BBC broadcast a television follow-up series of the same name, with Stephen Fry replacing the late Adams.In 1985, Douglas Adams went to Madagascar in search of the (possibly extinct) lemur the aye-aye. The trip was part of a project by the World Wide Fund for Nature and British Sunday newspaper The Observer, sending well-known authors to remote places to seek endangered species and write articles for The Observer Magazine, to help raise awareness of ecological issues. Adams was met in Madagascar by zoologist Mark Carwardine (who was working for the WWF at the time). The Observer project was successful, and Adams and Carwardine developed a radio series around the same concept for BBC Radio 4. Carwardine later said:

"We put a big map of the world on a wall, Douglas stuck a pin in everywhere he fancied going, I stuck a pin in where all the endangered animals were, and we made a journey out of every place that had two pins."The journeys undertaken were to see:

The aye-aye in Madagascar

The Komodo dragon on the island of Komodo in Indonesia

The kakapo in New Zealand

The mountain gorilla in Zaire

The northern white rhinoceros in Zaire

The Yangtze river dolphin in China

The Rodrigues fruit bat on the island of Rodrigues, Mauritius

The Amazonian manatee in Brazil

The Juan Fernández fur seal on the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile


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the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

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The three species in this genus are found in Arctic and subarctic regions, as well as around the Caspian Sea. This includes these countries and regions: Russia, Scandinavia, Britain, Greenland, Canada, the United States, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Japan. Due to changing local environmental conditions, the ringed seals found in the Canadian region has varied patterns of growth. The northern Canadian ringed seals grow slowly to a larger size, while the southern seals grow quickly to a smaller size.

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