Juan Fernández (c. 1536 – c. 1604) was a Spanish explorer and navigator in the Pacific regions of the Viceroyalty of Peru and Captaincy General of Chile west of colonial South America. He is best known for the discovery of a fast maritime route from Callao (Peru) to Valparaíso (Chile), as well as for the discovery of the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of Chile.
In 1574 he discovered an alternative maritime route between Callao and Valparaíso, much faster than the old route which bordered the coastline. By taking a detour west from the coast, he managed to avoid the northernly Humboldt Current which used to slow down ships sailing south along the coast. In doing so, he discovered the Juan Fernández Islands archipelago, located west of present-day Valparaíso in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. He also discovered the Pacific islands of San Félix and San Ambrosio in 1574.
Early historians such as Alexander Dalrymple and James Burney claim that Juan Fernández was the first European to reach New Zealand. In 1575 the governor of Cuyo, Juan Jufré, organized an expedition to Terra Australis under the command of Juan Fernandez. The expedition was authorized by the governor of Chile but not the Viceroy of Peru. As a result, Jufré changed the official itinerary and pretended his expedition would only sail to the islands discovered by Fernández in 1574. In fact, the real destination of the expedition was still Terra Australis. Soon Juan Fernandez set sail from Valparaíso. After heading west for one month along the 40th parallel south, in the spring of 1576 they arrived in an island described as "mountainous, fertile, with strong-flowing rivers, inhabited by white peoples, and with all the fruits necessary to live". Such a voyage is hardly credible, though, given the powerful westerly head winds experienced at this latitude, as described by the common name Roaring Forties and the fact that fruits (wild or cultivated) were extremely scant in New Zealand in the pre-European era.
Later, the expedition set sail back for Chile and Juan Fernández wished to convey his discovery to government officials. However, Juan Jufré refused. He requested that the discovery be kept a secret as the expedition had not been authorized by the Viceroy of Peru. Later, after Jufré's death in 1578, Fernández finally shared the discovery with the authorities and tried to convince them of the need to return to the islands and establish a colony. The idea was scrapped due to lack of interest. A record exists in the Spanish Admiralty libraries which describes this discovery. It was reviewed in the 19th century by the Chilean biographer José Toribio Medina who is one of the main sources for the claim in South American literature.
Mainstream historians do not however accept these claims. University of Auckland history professor James Belich said that similar claims that the French and Chinese discovered New Zealand prior to Abel Tasman in 1642 have also been put forward. "I think there are a number of theories of this kind and all are highly unlikely.".
In the opinion of another University of Auckland professor, Phyllis Herda, despite the short duration of the trip between Chile and New Zealand (one month, according to Spanish records) Juan Fernández was known to be a brilliant navigator. In 1574 he discovered the much faster route between Peru and Chile and was since known as the brujo del Pacífico or "wizard of the Pacific".
Galápagos (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡaˈlapaɣos]) is a province of Ecuador in the country's Insular region, located approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) off the western coast of the mainland. The capital is Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
The province administers the Galápagos Islands, a group of tiny volcanic islands that sit on the equator. The Galápagos Islands have for centuries captured the interest of people from all over the globe because of its unique biodiversity that was made famous by Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution.List of islands named after people
This is a list of islands known to be named after individual people. It details the name of the island, its location and eponym.
Isla de Apodaca, British Columbia, Canada – Dr. Salvador Apodaca (Bishop of the city of Linares, Nuevo León, Mexico) – now Bowen Island
Banks Island, Queensland, Australia – Joseph Banks – now Moa Island
Bedloe's Island, New York, United States – Isaack Bedloo (merchant) – now Liberty Island
Blackwell's Island, New York, United States – Robert Blackwell – now Roosevelt Island
Fernando Pó, Equatorial Guinea – Fernão do Pó – now Bioko
Krusenstern Island, Adam Johann von Krusenstern
Mulgrave Island, Queensland, Australia – Earl Mulgrave – now Badu Island
Prince of Wales Isle, Malaysia – George IV, Prince of Wales – now Penang Island
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada – Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz – now Haida Gwaii
San Cristobal, Solomon Islands – Saint Christopher – now Makira
Sebald Islands – Sebald de Weert; now Jason Islands
Van Diemen's Land – Anthony van Diemen