Journalist

A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics.[1] For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics.

Reporter from CN8 at the Petco gas explosion 20050304
A television reporter speaking into a microphone in front of a camera, 2005

Roles

A reporter is a type of journalist who researches, writes, and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific beat or area of coverage.

Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, columnists, and visual journalists, such as photojournalists (journalists who use the medium of photography).

Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint. This has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms often project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product.

Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication,[2] has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, and Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves, then communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.

In his best-known books, Public Opinion (1922) and The Phantom Public (1925), Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity, time, and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they often directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights. These limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, and prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was really important.”[3]

In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters, correspondents and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026.[4]

Journalistic freedom

Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger, particularly when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press. Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder (71%), crossfire or combat (17%), or on dangerous assignment (11%). The "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq (230 deaths), Philippines (109), Russia (77), Colombia (76), Mexico (69), Algeria (61), Pakistan (59), India (49), Somalia (45), Brazil (31) and Sri Lanka (30).[5]

The Committee to Protect Journalists also reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are even higher. The ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey (95),[6] China (34), Iran (34), Eritrea (17), Burma (13), Uzbekistan (six), Vietnam (five), Cuba (four), Ethiopia (four), and Sudan (three).[7]

Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically. This applies especially to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home often do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is strongly needed. However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far.[8]

The Newseum in Washington, D.C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty.

Journalist and source relationship

The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can actually impact the direction of the article written by the journalist. The article 'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor 'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source often leads but journalists commonly object to this notion for two reasons:

  1. It signals source supremacy in news making.
  2. It offends journalists’ professional culture, which emphasizes independence and editorial autonomy.

This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article fully describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources that is too cozy is potentially compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive. Journalists have typically favored a more robust, conflict model, based on a crucial assumption that if the media are to function as watchdogs of powerful economic and political interests, journalists must establish their independence of sources or risk the fourth estate being driven by the fifth estate of public relations".[9]

The worst year on record for journalist

Jamal Khashoggi in March 2018 (cropped)
Jamal Khashoggi, killed inside Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul on Oct 2, 2018

According to Reporters Without Borders' annual report, the year 2018 was the worst year on record for deadly violence and abuse toward journalists; there was a 15 per cent increase in such killings since 2017.[10][11] Ruben Pat was gunned down outside a Mexican beach bar. Yaser Murtaja was shot by an Israeli army sniper. Bulgarian Viktoria Marinova was beaten, raped and strangled. A car bomb killed Malta's Daphne Caruana Galizia. Jamal Khashoggi was killed inside Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul on Oct 2.[12]

Gallery

Pn-telekanal-1998-staff

A program director sets the task for TV journalists, 1998.

RFA reporter Helmand

a reporter for Radio Azadi interviews a citizen in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, 2009.

Cosplayers at Comicdom 2012 in Athens, Greece grant interviews to the MTV television channel 21

Journalist interviews a cosplayer, 2012.

InterviewAT

A reporter interviewing Boris Johnson when he was Mayor of London, 2014

A Mogadishu offiicial tastes the water at a new well donated by the African Union Mission in Somalia in front of local journalists in the country's capital on June 6. AMISOM Photo - Tobin Jones (14328499146)

Official tastes the water of a new well in front of journalists in Mogadishu, Somalia, 2014.

See also

References

  1. ^ Diderot, Denis. "Journalist". The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert: Collaborative Translations Project. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  2. ^ Publications, Environment Magazine - Heldref. "Environment Magazine - Communicating Climate Change: Why Frames Matter for Public Engagement". www.environmentmagazine.org.
  3. ^ Matthew C. Nisbet (March 2013). "Nature's Prophet: Bill McKibben as Journalist, Public Intellectual and Activist" (PDF). Discussion Paper Series #D-78. Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, School of Communication and the Center for Social Media American University. p. 7. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  4. ^ Talton, Jon (2018-01-31). "Occupational outlook: Where the big bucks are — and aren't". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  5. ^ "887 Journalists Killed since 1992." Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  6. ^ "Number of Jailed Journalists Nearly Doubles in Turkey". Los Angeles Times. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  7. ^ Iran, China drive prison tally to 14-year high. "Iran, China drive prison tally to 14-year high (December 8, 2010). Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved November 18, 2011". Cpj.org. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  8. ^ "Petra Tabeling: In crisis areas, journalists are at risk in physical and psychological terms".
  9. ^ Lewis, Justin; Williams, Andrew; Franklin, Bob (6 February 2008). "A Compromised Fourth Estate". Journalism Studies. 9: 1–20. doi:10.1080/14616700701767974.
  10. ^ Langford, Eleanor (17 December 2018). "2018 was worst year for violence and abuse against journalists, report says". telegraph.co.uk. The telegraph. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  11. ^ "WORLDWIDE ROUND-UP of journalists killed, detained, held hostage, or missing in 2018" (PDF). rsf.org. Reporters Without Borders. 1 December 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  12. ^ Hjelmgaard, Kim (18 December 2018). "'Unscrupulous politicians' blamed for worst year on record for journalist killings". USA Today. USA Today. Retrieved 7 January 2019.

Bibliography

External links

Media related to Journalists at Wikimedia Commons

Broadcast journalism

Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio (via air, cable, and Internet), television (via air, cable, and Internet) and the World Wide Web. Such media disperse pictures (static and moving), visual text and sounds.

Chris Wallace

Christopher W. Wallace (born October 12, 1947) is an American television anchor and political commentator who is the host of the Fox Broadcasting Company/Fox News program Fox News Sunday. Wallace has won three Emmy Awards and the Dupont-Columbia Silver Baton Award. Wallace has been with Fox News since 2003. As a previous moderator of Meet the Press on NBC, Wallace is the only person to date to have served as host/moderator of more than one of the major American Sunday morning political talk shows.

Deaths in 2019

The following deaths of notable individuals occurred in 2019. Names are reported under the date of death, in alphabetical order by surname or pseudonym.

A typical entry reports information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent nationality (if applicable), what subject was noted for, cause of death (if known), and reference.

February 10

February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 324 days remaining until the end of the year (325 in leap years).

February 11

February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 323 days remaining until the end of the year (324 in leap years).

February 13

February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 321 days remaining until the end of the year (322 in leap years).

February 14

February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 320 days remaining until the end of the year (321 in leap years).

February 15

February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 319 days remaining until the end of the year (320 in leap years).

February 16

February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 318 days remaining until the end of the year (319 in leap years).

February 17

February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 317 days remaining until the end of the year (318 in leap years).

February 18

February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 316 days remaining until the end of the year (317 in leap years).

Freelancer

A freelancer or freelance worker, is a term commonly used for a person who is self-employed and is not necessarily committed to a particular employer long-term. Freelance workers are sometimes represented by a company or a temporary agency that resells freelance labor to clients; others work independently or use professional associations or websites to get work.

While the term independent contractor would be used in a higher register of English to designate the tax and employment classes of this type of worker, the term freelancing is most common in culture and creative industries and this term specifically motions to participation therein.Fields, professions, and industries where freelancing is predominant include: music, writing, acting, computer programming, web design, graphic design, translating and illustrating, film and video production and other forms of piece work which some cultural theorists consider as central to the cognitive-cultural economy.

Investigative journalism

Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report. Practitioners sometimes use the terms "watchdog reporting" or "accountability reporting".

Most investigative journalism has traditionally been conducted by newspapers, wire services, and freelance journalists. With the decline in income through advertising, many traditional news services have struggled to fund investigative journalism, which is time-consuming and therefore expensive. Journalistic investigations are increasingly carried out by news organisations working together, even internationally (as in the case of the Panama Papers and Paradise Papers), or by organisations such as ProPublica, which have not operated previously as news publishers and which rely on the support of the public and benefactors to fund their work.

The growth of media conglomerates in the U.S. since the 1980s has been accompanied by massive cuts in the budgets for investigative journalism. A 2002 study concluded "that investigative journalism has all but disappeared from the nation's commercial airwaves". The empirical evidence for this is consistent with the conflicts of interest between the revenue sources for the media conglomerates and the mythology of an unbiased, dispassionate media: advertisers have reduced their spending with media that reported too many unfavorable details. The major media conglomerates have found ways to retain their audience without the risks of offending advertisers inherent in investigative journalism.

John McVicar

John McVicar (born 1940) is a British journalist and convicted one-time armed robber who escaped from prison.

List of women writers

This is a list of notable women writers.

Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining.

Timeliness

The images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events.Objectivity

The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone.Narrative

The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to audiences.Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter, but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to significant obstacles (e.g., physical danger, weather, crowds, physical access).

Rachel Nichols (journalist)

Rachel Michele Nichols (née Alexander, born October 18, 1973) is a sports journalist who is currently an ESPN television host, sports reporter, and anchor. She currently hosts The Jump, a daily NBA discussion/debate show, weekdays on ESPN. Nichols began hosting Unguarded with Rachel Nichols on CNN in October 2013. The program was changed from a regular series to occasional special in October 2014. Sports Illustrated has called Nichols "the country's most impactful and prominent female sports journalist." She earned widespread praise for her tough questioning of NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell in the wake of the Ray Rice scandal and for confronting boxer Floyd Mayweather on his history of domestic violence.Nichols previously worked for ESPN as a regular part of SportsCenter, Sunday NFL Countdown and Monday Night Countdown, as well as a regular on the network's NFL and NBA coverage. Nichols was also a correspondent for E:60 and worked as the sideline reporter on a number of Monday Night Football broadcasts. Prior to her time at ESPN she worked for the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel (1995–1996) and Washington Post (1996–2004), where she covered the NHL's Washington Capitals. She also became a recurring guest-host on Pardon My Take and the Pardon the Interruption (a.k.a. PTI) TV show and podcast (2016–present).

Sverri Patursson

Sverri Patursson (1871–1960) was a Faroese writer, author, and journalist. He was also a translator, ornithologist and environmentalist.

Patursson was born in the village of Kirkjubøur on Streymoy, Faroe Islands. He attended Vallekilde Folk High School in Zealand in Denmark. Patursson worked as a journalist and his articles frequently featured Faroese wildlife with birds a principal focusr. He was devoted to make the Faroe Islands known, and his actions included writing tourist articles as a freelance journalist for the Scandinavian press. Patursson was also a translator and literary writer, and one of the first authors who wrote in Faroese.

The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum as its sister papers The Guardian and The Guardian Weekly, whose parent company Guardian Media Group Limited acquired it in 1993, it takes a social liberal or social democratic line on most issues. First published in 1791, it is the world's oldest Sunday newspaper.

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