Joseph Pulitzer

Joseph John Pulitzer (/ˈpʊlɪtsər/;[2] Hungarian: [ˈpulit͡sɛr]; born József Pulitzer;[a] April 10, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the New York World. He became a leading national figure in the Democratic Party and was elected congressman from New York. He crusaded against big business and corruption, and helped keep the Statue of Liberty in New York.

In the 1890s the fierce competition between his World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal caused both to develop the techniques of yellow journalism, which won over readers with sensationalism, sex, crime and graphic horrors. The wide appeal reached a million copies a day and opened the way to mass-circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue (rather than cover price or political party subsidies) and appealed to readers with multiple forms of news, gossip, entertainment and advertising.

Today, his name is best known for the Pulitzer Prizes, which were established in 1917 as a result of his endowment to Columbia University. The prizes are given annually to recognize and reward excellence in American journalism, photography, literature, history, poetry, music and drama. Pulitzer founded the Columbia School of Journalism by his philanthropic bequest; it opened in 1912.

Joseph Pulitzer
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 9th district
In office
March 4, 1885 – April 10, 1886
Preceded byJohn Hardy
Succeeded bySamuel Cox
Personal details
József Pulitzer

April 10, 1847
Makó, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire
DiedOctober 29, 1911 (aged 64)
Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Katherine "Kate" Davis (1878–1911; his death; 7 children)
OccupationPublisher, philanthropist, journalist, lawyer
Net worthUSD $30.6 million at the time of his death (approximately 1/1142nd of US GNP)[1]
Joseph Pulitzer's signature
Military service
AllegianceUnited States of America
Branch/serviceUnion Army
Years of service1864–1865
UnitFirst Regiment, New York Cavalry
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War

Early life

He was born as Pulitzer József (name order by Hungarian custom) in Makó, about 200 km south-east of Budapest in Hungary, the son of Elize (Berger) and Fülöp Pulitzer.[3] The Pulitzers were among several Jewish families living in the area, and had established a reputation as merchants and shopkeepers. Joseph's father was a respected businessman, regarded as the second of the "foremost merchants" of Makó. Their ancestors emigrated from Moravia to Hungary at the end of the 18th century.[4]

In 1853, Fülöp Pulitzer was rich enough to retire. He moved his family to Pest, where he had the children educated by private tutors, and taught French and German. In 1858, after Fülöp's death, his business went bankrupt, and the family became impoverished. Joseph attempted to enlist in various European armies for work before emigrating to the United States.[5]

Pulitzer arrived in Boston in 1864 at the age of 17, his passage having been paid by Massachusetts military recruiters who were seeking soldiers for the American Civil War. Learning that the recruiters were pocketing the lion's share of his enlistment bounty, Pulitzer left the Deer Island recruiting station and made his way to New York. He was paid $200 to enroll in the Lincoln Cavalry on September 30.[6] He was a part of Sheridan's troopers, in the First New York Lincoln Cavalry in Company L., where he served for eight months. Although he spoke three languages: German, Hungarian, and French, Pulitzer learned little English until after the war, as his regiment was composed mostly of German immigrants.[7]

After the war

After the war, Pulitzer returned to New York City, where he stayed briefly. He moved to New Bedford, Massachusetts for the whaling industry, but found it was too boring for him. He returned to New York with little money. Flat broke, he slept in wagons on cobblestone side streets. He decided to travel by "side-door Pullman" (a euphemism for a freight boxcar) to St. Louis, Missouri. He sold his one possession, a white handkerchief, for 75 cents.

When Pulitzer arrived at the city, he recalled, "The lights of St. Louis looked like a promised land to me". In the city, his German was as useful as it was in Munich because of the large ethnic German population, due to strong immigration since the revolutions of 1848. In the Westliche Post, he saw an ad for a mule hostler at Benton Barracks. The next day he walked four miles and got the job, but held it for only two days. He quit due to the poor food and the whims of the mules, stating "The man who has not cared for sixteen mules does not know what work and troubles are."[8] Pulitzer had difficulty holding jobs; he was too scrawny for heavy labor and likely too proud and temperamental to take orders.

He worked as a waiter at Tony Faust, a famous restaurant on Fifth Street. It was frequented by members of the St. Louis Philosophical Society, including Thomas Davidson, the German Henry C. Brockmeyer, a nephew of Otto von Bismarck; and William Torrey Harris. Pulitzer studied Brockmeyer, who was famous for translating Hegel, and he "would hang on Brockmeyer's thunderous words, even as he served them pretzels and beer". He was fired after a tray slipped from his hand and a patron was soaked in beer.

Pulitizer spent his free time at the St. Louis Mercantile Library on the corner of Fifth and Locust, studying English and reading voraciously. Soon after, he and several dozen men each paid a fast-talking promoter five dollars, after being promised good-paying jobs on a Louisiana sugar plantation. They boarded a steamboat, which took them downriver 30 miles south of the city, where the crew forced them off. When the boat churned away, the men concluded the promised plantation jobs had been a ruse. They walked back to the city, where Pulitzer wrote an account of the fraud and was pleased when it was accepted by the Westliche Post, evidently his first published news story.

In the building where the Westliche Post was co-edited by Dr. Emil Pretorius and Carl Schurz, the attorneys William Patrick and Charles Phillip Johnson and surgeon Joseph Nash McDowell also worked. Patrick and Johnson referred to Pulitzer as "Shakespeare" because of his extraordinary profile. They helped him secure a job with the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad.[9] His work was to record the railroad land deeds in the twelve counties in southwest Missouri where the railroad planned to build a line.[10] When he was done, the lawyers gave him desk space and allowed him to study law in their library to prepare for the bar.

On March 6, 1867, Pulitzer renounced his allegiance to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and became a naturalized American citizen. He still frequented the Mercantile Library, where he befriended the librarian Udo Brachvogel in what became a lifetime relationship. He often played in the chess room where Carl Schurz noticed his aggressive style. Schurz was admired by Pulitzer. He was an inspiring emblem of American democracy and of the success attainable by a foreign-born citizen through his own energies and skills. In 1868, Pulitzer was admitted to the bar, but his broken English and odd appearance kept clients away. He struggled with the execution of minor papers and the collecting of debts. That year, when the Westliche Post needed a reporter, he was offered the job.[11]

Newspaper career

A chromolithograph of Pulitzer superimposed on a composite of his newspapers.

Pulitzer displayed a flair for reporting. He would work 16 hours a day—from 10 AM to 2 AM. He was nicknamed "Joey the German" or "Joey the Jew". He joined the Philosophical Society and frequented a German bookstore where many intellectuals hung out. Among his new group of friends were Joseph Keppler and Thomas Davidson.[12]

He joined the Republican Party. On December 14, 1869, Pulitzer attended the Republican meeting at the St. Louis Turnhalle on Tenth Street, where party leaders needed a candidate to fill a vacancy in the state legislature. They settled on Pulitzer, nominating him unanimously, forgetting he was only 22, three years under the required age. However, his chief Democratic opponent was possibly ineligible because he had served in the Confederate army. Pulitzer had energy. He organized street meetings, called personally on the voters, and exhibited such sincerity along with his oddities that he had pumped a half-amused excitement into a campaign that was normally lethargic. He won 209–147.

His age was not made an issue and he was seated as a state representative in Jefferson City at the session beginning January 5, 1870. He had lived there for only two years. He also moved up one notch in the administration at the Westliche Post. He eventually became its managing editor, and obtained a proprietary interest.[13]

In 1872, Pulitzer was a delegate to the Cincinnati convention of the Liberal Republican Party which nominated Horace Greeley for the presidency. However, the attempt at electing Greeley as president failed, the party collapsed, and Pulitzer, disillusioned with the corruption of the Republican Party, switched to the Democratic Party. He served as a delegate to the Missouri Constitutional Convention in 1874, representing St. Louis; and in 1876 gave nearly 70 speeches in favor of Presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden. In 1880, he was a delegate to the Democratic national convention and a member of its platform committee from Missouri.[13]

St. Louis Post-Dispatch

In 1872, Pulitzer purchased a share in the Westliche Post for $3,000, and then sold his stake in the paper for a profit the following year. In 1878 he bought both the St. Louis Dispatch, and the St. Louis Post, merging the two papers as the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, founded on December 12. It continues as St. Louis' daily newspaper. With his own paper, Pulitzer developed his role as a champion of the common man, featuring exposés and a hard-hitting populist approach.[13]

Marriage and family

In 1878 at the age of 31, Pulitzer married Katherine "Kate" Davis (1853-1927), a woman of high social standing, from Georgetown in the District of Columbia. She was five years younger than Pulitzer and was rumored to be a distant relative of Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederate States of America. They married in an Episcopal ceremony at the Church of the Epiphany in Washington, D.C.[14]

Of seven children, five lived to adulthood: Ralph, Joseph Jr., Constance Helen (1888-1938), who married William Gray Elmslie, D.D.[15] Edith (1886-1975), who married William Scoville Moore,[16] and Herbert, eventually his brother Ralph's partner at the Post. On December 31, 1897, their older daughter, Lucille Irma Pulitzer, died at the age of 17 from typhoid fever. Their other daughter, Katherine Ethel Pulitzer, died of pneumonia in May 1884.

Pulitzer's grandson, Herbert Pulitzer, Jr. was married to the American fashion designer and socialite Lilly Pulitzer.[17]

Following a fire at his former residence, Pulitzer commissioned Stanford White to design a limestone-clad Venetian palazzo at 11 East 73rd Street on the Upper East Side; it was completed in 1903.[18] Pulitzer's thoughtful seated portrait by John Singer Sargent is at the Columbia School of Journalism that he founded.

The family continued to be involved in the operation of the St. Louis paper for several generations until April 1995, when Joseph Pulitzer IV resigned from the paper in a management dispute.[19] His daughter (Joseph J. Pulitzer's great-great-granddaughter) Elkhanah Pulitzer is an opera director.

New York World

Editorial cartoon by Leon Barritt. Newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, full-length dressed as the "Yellow Kid" (a popular cartoon character of the day), each pushing against opposite sides of a pillar of wooden blocks that spells WAR. This is a satire of the Pulitzer and Hearst newspapers' role in rousing public opinion for war with Spain. First published 29 June 1898.

In 1883, Pulitzer, by now a wealthy man, purchased the New York World from Jay Gould for $346,000. The newspaper had been losing $40,000 a year. To raise circulation, Pulitzer emphasized sensational stories: human-interest, crime, disasters, and scandal.

In 1884, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from New York as a Democrat, and served from March 4, 1885, until April 10, 1886. He resigned halfway through his term due to the pressure of journalistic duties.

In 1887, he recruited the famous investigative journalist Nellie Bly. In 1895 the World introduced the immensely popular The Yellow Kid comic by Richard F. Outcault, one of the first strips to be featured in the newly launched Sunday color supplement shortly after. Under Pulitzer's leadership, circulation grew from 15,000 to 600,000, making it the largest newspaper in the country.[20]

Charles A. Dana, the editor of the rival New York Sun, attacked Pulitzer in print, often using anti-Semitic terms like "Judas Pulitzer".[21] In 1895, William Randolph Hearst purchased the rival New York Journal from Pulitzer's brother, Albert. The two embarked on a circulation war. This competition with Hearst, particularly the coverage before and during the Spanish–American War, linked Pulitzer's name with yellow journalism.[22]

Pulitzer had an uncanny knack for appealing to the common man. His World featured illustrations, advertising, and a culture of consumption for working men who, Pulitzer believed, saved money to enjoy life with their families when they could, at Coney Island for example.[23] Crusades for reform and news of entertainment were the two main staples for the 'World.'

Despite this 'knack', Pulitzer along with William Randolph Hearst were the cause of "the newsboys' strike of 1899, a youth-led campaign to force change in the way that Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst's newspapers compensated their child newspaper hawkers."

Before the demise of the paper in 1931, many of the best reporters in America worked for it.

After the World exposed an illegal payment of $40,000,000 by the United States to the French Panama Canal Company in 1909, Pulitzer was indicted for libeling Theodore Roosevelt and J. P. Morgan. The courts dismissed the indictments.[24]


Pulitzer's health problems (blindness, depression, and acute noise sensitivity)[25] caused a rapid deterioration, and he had to withdraw from the daily management of the newspaper. But, he continued to manage the paper from his New York mansion, his winter retreat at the Jekyll Island Club on Jekyll Island, Georgia, and his summer vacation retreat in Bar Harbor, Maine.

After he hired Frank I. Cobb (1869–1923) as the editor of the New York World, the younger man resisted Pulitzer's attempts to "run the office" from his home. Time after time, they battled each other, often with heated language.

When Pulitzer's son took over administrative responsibility in 1907, Pulitzer wrote a carefully worded resignation. It was printed in every New York paper except the World. Pulitzer was insulted, but slowly began to respect Cobb's editorials and independent spirit. Their exchanges, commentaries, and messages increased. The good rapport between the two was based largely on Cobb's flexibility. In May 1908, Cobb and Pulitzer met to outline plans for a consistent editorial policy but it wavered on occasion.

Pulitzer's demands for editorials on contemporary breaking news led to overwork by Cobb. Pulitzer sent him on a six-week tour of Europe to restore his spirit. Cobb continued the editorial policies he had shared with Pulitzer until Cobb died of cancer in 1923.[26]

In a company meeting, Professor Thomas Davidson said, "I cannot understand why it is, Mr. Pulitzer, that you always speak so kindly of reporters and so severely of all editors." "Well", Pulitzer replied, "I suppose it is because every reporter is a hope, and every editor is a disappointment."[27]

This phrase became an epigram of journalism.[27]


For six months during 1908, C. Louis Leipoldt, a South African doctor, writer, and poet, was Pulitzer's personal physician aboard his yacht Liberty.[28] While traveling to his winter home at the Jekyll Island Club on Jekyll Island, Georgia in 1911, Pulitzer had his yacht stop in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. On October 29, 1911, Pulitzer listened to his German secretary read aloud about King Louis XI of France. As the secretary neared the end, Pulitzer said in German: "Leise, ganz leise" (English: "Softly, quite softly"), and died.[29] His body was returned to New York for services, and he was interred in the Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx.


Grave of Joseph Pulitzer
The grave of Joseph Pulitzer in Woodlawn Cemetery
Joseph Pulitzer 3c 1947 issue U.S. stamp
Joseph Pulitzer commemorative stamp, issued in 1947

Journalism schools

In 1892, Pulitzer offered Columbia University's president, Seth Low, money to set up the world's first school of journalism. The university initially turned down the money. In 1902, Columbia's new president Nicholas Murray Butler was more receptive to the plan for a school and journalism prizes, but it would not be until after Pulitzer's death that this dream would be fulfilled.

Pulitzer left the university $2,000,000 in his will.[30] In 1912 the school founded the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. This followed the Missouri School of Journalism, founded at the University of Missouri with Pulitzer's urging. Both schools remain among the most prestigious in the world.

Pulitzer Prize

In 1917, Columbia organized the awards of the first Pulitzer Prizes in journalism. The awards have been expanded to recognize achievements in literature, poetry, history, music, and drama.

Legacy and honors

  • The U.S. Post Office issued a 3-cent stamp commemorating Joseph Pulitzer on the 1947 100th anniversary of his birth.
  • The Pulitzer Art Museum in Saint Louis was founded by his family's philanthropy and is named in their honor.
  • In 1989 Joseph Pulitzer was inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame.[31]
  • He is featured as a character in the Disney film Newsies (1992), in which he was played by Robert Duvall, and the Broadway stage production (Newsies) adapted from it which was produced in 2011.
  • In the 2014 historical novel, The New Colossus, by Marshall Goldberg, published by Diversion Books,[32] Joseph Pulitzer gives reporter Nellie Bly the assignment of investigating the death of poet Emma Lazarus.
  • The Hotel Pulitzer in Amsterdam was named after his grandson Herbert Pulitzer.

See also


  1. ^ Hungarian: Pulitzer József


  1. ^ Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996), The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present, Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0-8065-1800-8, OCLC 33818143
  2. ^ "The Pulitzer prizes – Answers to frequently asked questions". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2009.. The more anglicized pronunciation /ˈpjuːlɪtsər/ PEW-lit-sər is common but widely considered incorrect.
  3. ^ "Joseph Pulitzer: Hungarian revolutionary in America".
  4. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes - Pulitzer biography".
  5. ^ András Csillag, "Joseph Pulitzer's Roots in Europe: A Genealogical History," American Jewish Archives, Jan 1987, Vol. 39 Issue 1, pp 49–68
  6. ^ Morris, "Pulitzer," pp. 18–21
  7. ^ Swanberg, Pulitzer, pp. 3–4
  8. ^ Swanberg, Pulitzer, pp. 4–5
  9. ^ Swanberg, Pulitzer, p. 7
  10. ^ Morris, "Pulitzer", p. 35
  11. ^ Swanberg, Pulitzer, pp. 7–8
  12. ^ Swanberg, Pulitzer, p. 10
  13. ^ a b c Brian (2001)
  14. ^ WETA: "A Wedding Announcement: Joseph Pulitzer and Kate Davis" by Mark Jones June 19, 2013 | They were married at the Church of the Epiphany, by the Rev. J.H. Chew, rector of St. Alban's, Georgetown
  15. ^ New York Times, "Miss Pulitzer weds brother's tutor" 1913; the writer Kenward Elmslie is their son.
  16. ^ New York Times, "Miss Edith Pulitzer to Wed W.S. Moore", 1911; Moore was the great-grandson of Clement Clarke Moore.
  17. ^ Horwell, Veronica (10 April 2013). "Lilly Pulitzer obituary". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  18. ^ Joseph Pulitzer Residence Archived January 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Garrison, Chad. "Pulitzer's Pain". Riverfront Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  20. ^ Brian, Pulitzer (2001)
  21. ^ Brian (2001), p. 129
  22. ^ Buescher, John. "Breaking the News in 1900", accessed September 2, 2011
  23. ^ J.E. Steele, "The 19th Century World Versus the Sun: Promoting Consumption (Rather than the Working Man)," Journalism Quarterly, Autumn 1990, Vol. 67 Issue 3, pp 592–600
  24. ^ Seymour Topping, "Pulitzer's Biography" retrieved on 29 September 2014.
  25. ^ topping, seymour. "Pulitzer Biography". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  26. ^ Louis M. Starr, "Joseph Pulitzer and his most 'indegoddampendent' editor," American Heritage, June 1968, Vol. 19 Issue 4, pp 18–85
  27. ^ a b "Training for the Newspaper Trade" Don Carlos Seitz Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company 1916. Pg. 66
  28. ^ J.C Kannemeyer (1999). Leipoldt 'n Lewensverhaal. Cape Town: Tafelberg Uitgewers Beperk. Translation: Leipoldt a biography. Table Mountain Publishers Ltd.
  29. ^ "Joseph Pulitzer Dies Here," Charleston (S.C.) News & Courier, October 30, 1911, p.1.
  30. ^ Heinz-Dietrich Fischer (1987). "The" Pulitzer Prize Archive: A History and Anthology of Award-winning Materials in Journalism, Letters, and Arts. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1. ISBN 9783598301704.
  31. ^ St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  32. ^ "The New Colossus". Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.

Further reading

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
John Hardy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 9th congressional district

March 4, 1885 – April 10, 1886
Succeeded by
Samuel S. Cox
  1. ^ Pfaff, Daniel (1991). Joseph Pulitzer II and The Post-Dispatch: A Newspaperman's Life. Penn State University Press. ISBN 978-0271007489.
Bathers with a Turtle

Bathers with a Turtle is a painting by Henri Matisse from 1907 to 1908, in the collection of the Saint Louis Art Museum in St. Louis, Missouri.

It was purchased for $2400 by Joseph Pulitzer Jr. in 1939 at an auction of art that the Nazi government considered "degenerate". He later donated it to the museum.

Prior to that it had been in the collection of the Folkwang Museum in Essen, Germany.

Pulitzer purchased it at the urging of Matisse's son Pierre Matisse, in order to prevent the artwork from being destroyed, despite the profit from the auction going to the Nazis.

Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism

The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is the journalism school of Columbia University. It is located in Pulitzer Hall on Columbia's Morningside Heights campus in New York City.

Founded in 1912 by Joseph Pulitzer, Columbia Journalism School is the only journalism school in the Ivy League and one of the oldest in the world. It offers four degree programs: 1) master of science; 2) master of arts; 3) a variety of dual degrees, including a master of science in journalism and computer science; and 4) a doctor of philosophy in communications.

The school houses the Pulitzer Prizes, arguably journalism's most prestigious award. It also directly administers several other prizes, including the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award, honoring excellence in broadcast and digital journalism in the public service. It co-sponsors the National Magazine Awards, also known as the Ellie Awards, and publishes the Columbia Journalism Review, a widely respected voice on press criticism since 1961.

In addition to offering professional development programs, fellowships and workshops, the school is home to the Tow Center for Digital Journalism, which explores technological changes in journalism, and the Brown Institute for Media Innovation, which supports innovation in storytelling in the digital age.

Admission to the school is highly selective and has traditionally drawn a very international student body. A faculty of experienced professionals preeminent in their respective fields, including politics, arts and culture, religion, science, education, business and economics, investigative reporting, and national and international affairs, instruct students. A Board of Visitors meets periodically to advise the dean's office and support the school's initiatives.

Frank I. Cobb

Frank Irving Cobb (August 6, 1869 – December 21, 1923) was an American journalist, primarily an editorial writer from 1896 to his death. In 1904 he succeeded Joseph Pulitzer as editor of Pulitzer's newspaper The World of New York. He became famous for his editorials in support of the policies of liberal Democrats, especially Woodrow Wilson, during the Progressive Era.

Jackson Heights, Queens

Jackson Heights is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the borough of Queens in New York City. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 3. Jackson Heights is neighbored by North Corona to the east, Elmhurst to the south, Woodside to the west, northern Astoria (Ditmars-Steinway) to the northwest, and East Elmhurst to the northeast. The main ZIP code of Jackson Heights is 11372. According to the 2010 United States Census, the neighborhood has a population of 108,152.

Joseph Pulitzer House

The Joseph Pulitzer House is a mansion located on 7-11 East 73rd Street in the Upper East Side in New York City.

It was constructed for Joseph Pulitzer.

Joseph Pulitzer Jr.

Joseph Pulitzer III (May 13, 1913 – May 26, 1993) was an American newspaperman and publisher of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch for 38 years. A grandson of the famous newsman Joseph Pulitzer, for 31 years he chaired the board which was responsible for awarding the Pulitzer Prize, and from 1955 to 1993 was chairman of the Pulitzer Publishing Company.

Miss Liberty

Miss Liberty is a 1949 Broadway musical with a book by Robert E. Sherwood and music and lyrics by Irving Berlin. It is based on the sculpting of the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) in 1886. The score includes the song "Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor", a musical setting of Emma Lazarus's sonnet "The New Colossus" (1883), which was placed at the base of the monument in 1903.

Mountain Stream (John Singer Sargent)

Mountain Stream is an early 20th century watercolor painting by the American artist John Singer Sargent. Done in watercolor and graphite pencil on wove paper, the work depicts a nude figure by a dazzling mountain stream. Sargent's work was donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, where it remains, as part of the bequest of Joseph Pulitzer in 1915.

New York World

The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a major role in the history of American newspapers. It was a leading national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers' attention and pushing its daily circulation to the one-million mark.

Pulitzer, Inc.

Pulitzer Inc. owned newspapers, television stations and radio stations across the United States. Founded by Joseph Pulitzer (who also funded the Pulitzer Prizes, which are not affiliated with the company), its papers included the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, the Arizona Daily Star (Tucson), and Chicago's Daily Southtown and Lerner Newspapers chain.

Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017). The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.

Pulitzer Prize for Drama

The Pulitzer Prize for Drama is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. (No Drama prize was given, however, so that one was inaugurated in 1918, in a sense.) It recognizes a theatrical work staged in the U.S. during the preceding calendar year.

Through 2006 the Drama Prize was unlike the majority of the other Pulitzer Prizes: during these years, the eligibility period for the drama prize ran from March 1 to March 2, to reflect the Broadway 'season' rather than the calendar year. The decision was made, however, that the 2007 Prize would consider works staged during an eligibility period of January 1 to December 31, 2006—thus bringing the schedule for the Drama Prize in line with those of the other prizes.

The drama jury, which consists of one academic and four critics, attends plays in New York and in regional theaters. The Pulitzer board has the authority to overrule the jury's choice, however, as happened in 1986 when the jury chose the CIVIL warS to receive the prize, but due to the board's opposition no award was given.

In 1955 Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. pressured the prize jury into presenting the Prize to Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, which the jury considered the weakest of the five shortlisted nominees ("amateurishly constructed... from the stylistic points of view annoyingly pretentious"), instead of Clifford Odets' The Flowering Peach (their preferred choice) or The Bad Seed, their second choice. Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? was selected for the 1963 Pulitzer Prize for Drama by that award's committee. However, the committee's selection was overruled by the award's advisory board, the trustees of Columbia University, because of the play's then-controversial use of profanity and sexual themes. Had Albee been awarded, he would be tied with Eugene O'Neill for the most Pulitzer Prizes for Drama (four).

Pulitzer Prize for Music

The Pulitzer Prize for Music is one of seven Pulitzer Prizes awarded annually in Letters, Drama, and Music. It was first given in 1943. Joseph Pulitzer arranged for a music scholarship to be awarded each year, and this was eventually converted into a prize: "For a distinguished musical composition of significant dimension by an American that has had its first performance in the United States during the year." Because of the requirement that the composition have its world premiere during the year of its award, the winning work had rarely been recorded and sometimes had received only one performance. In 2004 the terms were modified to read, "For a distinguished musical composition by an American that has had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year."

Pulitzer Prize for Photography

The Pulitzer Prize for Photography was one of the American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism. It was inaugurated in 1942 and replaced by two photojournalism prizes in 1968: the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography and "Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography". The latter was renamed for Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography in 2000.

The Pulitzer Prizes were established by the bequest of Joseph Pulitzer, which suggested four journalism awards, and were inaugurated beginning 1917. By 1942 there were eight Pulitzers for journalism; for several years now there have been 14 including the two for photojournalism.

St. Louis Post-Dispatch

The St. Louis Post-Dispatch is the major regional newspaper in St. Louis, Missouri, serving St. Louis City and County, St. Charles County, the Metro East and surrounding counties (roughly, the Greater St. Louis area). It is the only daily newspaper in the city. The publication has received 18 Pulitzer Prizes.The paper is owned by Lee Enterprises of Davenport, Iowa, which purchased Pulitzer, Inc. in 2005 in a cash deal valued at $1.46 billion.

The paper is sold at $2 daily or $4 on Sundays and Thanksgiving Day. The price may be higher outside adjacent counties and states. Sales tax is included at newsracks.

Sunday comics

The Sunday comics or Sunday strip is the comic strip section carried in most western newspapers, almost always in color. Many newspaper readers called this section the Sunday funnies, the funny papers or simply the funnies.The first US newspaper comic strips appeared in the late 19th century, closely allied with the invention of the color press. Jimmy Swinnerton's The Little Bears introduced sequential art and recurring characters in William Randolph Hearst's San Francisco Examiner. In the United States, the popularity of color comic strips sprang from the newspaper war between Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Some newspapers, such as Grit, published Sunday strips in black-and-white, and some (mostly in Canada) print their Sunday strips on Saturday.

Subject matter and genres have ranged from adventure, detective and humor strips to dramatic strips with soap opera situations, such as Mary Worth. A continuity strip employs a narrative in an ongoing storyline. Other strips offer a gag complete in a single episode, such as Little Iodine and Mutt and Jeff. The Sunday strip is contrasted with the daily comic strip, published Monday through Saturday, usually in black and white. Many comic strips appear both daily and Sunday, in some cases, as with Little Orphan Annie, telling the same story daily and Sunday, in other cases, as with The Phantom, telling one story in the daily and a different story in the Sunday. Some strips, such as Prince Valiant appear only on Sunday. Others, such as Rip Kirby, are daily only and have never appeared on Sunday. In some cases, such as Buz Sawyer, the Sunday strip is a spin-off, focusing on different characters than the daily.

The Evening World

The Evening World was a newspaper that was published in New York City from 1887 to 1931. It was owned by Joseph Pulitzer, and served as an evening edition of the New York World.

Thomas B. Edsall

Thomas Byrne Edsall (born August 22, 1941) is an American journalist, Joseph Pulitzer II and Edith Pulitzer Moore Professor, Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, 2006–2014; adjunct professor 2014–2017, Columbia University School of Journalism in New York City. He is best known for his weekly opinion column for The New York Times online and for his 25 years covering national politics for the Washington Post.

Virginia Irwin

Virginia Irwin (1908 – 1980) was an American WWII war correspondent who worked for Joseph Pulitzer. A photo of her with the headline "She Got to Berlin" featured in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch on VE Day, 1945.

Irwin was born in Quincy, Illinois, where she became valedictorian of her High School and attended Lindenwood College and Gem City Business College. Her first job was a secretarial position in a paper factory owned by her uncle, where she met a salesman whom she briefly married 1930-1932. After her divorce she moved to Saint Louis where she worked at the St. Louis Post-Dispatch reference desk. She started writing for the cooking column and was hired by the editor of the Everyday Magazine in 1934. She was assigned "the woman's angle" and wrote on "childcare, etiquette, marriage, divorce, and household problems". Her pieces often provoked letters to the editor, and her work was read by women and men alike. After Pearl Harbor her work took on a more serious tone and she wrote a series on women working in the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps.Irwin finished an eleven-part series on women in war industries in 1943. For this she had traveled across the western United States and this inspired efforts to obtain accreditation to report on events in Europe as a war correspondent. Her superiors (OK Bovard and Ben Reese) refused to agree to sponsor a woman abroad, but they agreed on a leave of absence for a year and she left for England, where she worked in the public relations department of the American Red Cross. She was encouraged to send in articles, which she did until finally earning accreditation from Washington D.C. through approval from Joseph Pulitzer and formal application by Washington correspondent Raymond P. Brandt. Her early contributions described the preparations of American soldiers in England preparing for Operation Overlord, always being careful to include stories of local men wherever possible. A month after D-Day she finally left for the continent and joined the American troops and accompanied them to France. In September 1944 she became the first woman correspondent of the 19th Air Command. She followed the Third Army through the winter and spring, and on April 25, 1945 she was covering the fall of Nuremberg when she met Boston reporter Andrew Tully who had a driver and asked her if she wanted to go see the fall of Berlin. They crossed the Elbe at Torgau and managed to make it to Berlin, but due to censorship the dateline of her April 27th filed story was finally published on May 8th front page.

After the war she took on a position as New York correspondent for the Post-Dispatch, returning to Saint Louis in 1960. Despite the more cosmopolitan locale, even in New York City she was often assigned the "woman's angle" again, making advice column contributions under the pseudonym 'Martha Carr', work she disliked.

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