Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor

Joseph I (Joseph Jacob Ignaz Johann Anton Eustachius; 26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711. He was the eldest son of Emperor Leopold I from his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687 and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690. He succeeded to the thrones of Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire when his father died.

Joseph continued the War of the Spanish Succession, begun by his father against Louis XIV of France, in a fruitless attempt to make his younger brother Charles (later Emperor Charles VI) King of Spain. In the process, however, owing to the victories won by his military commander, Prince Eugene of Savoy, he did succeed in establishing Austrian hegemony over Italy. Joseph also had to contend with a protracted revolt in Hungary, fomented by Louis XIV. Neither conflict was resolved until the Treaty of Utrecht, after his death.[2]

His motto was Amore et Timore (Latin for "Through Love and Fear").[3]

Joseph I
JosephI.1705
Joseph I in 1705. Portrait by Franz Stampart
Holy Roman Emperor;
King of Bohemia;
Archduke of Austria;
King of Croatia
Reign5 May 1705 – 17 April 1711
PredecessorLeopold I
SuccessorCharles VI
King of the Romans
Reign23 January 1690 – 17 April 1711
Coronation26 January 1690, Augsburg
PredecessorLeopold I
SuccessorCharles VI
King of Hungary
Reign9 December 1687 – 17 April 1711
Coronation9 December 1687, Pressburg
PredecessorLeopold I
SuccessorCharles VI
Born26 July 1678
Vienna, Austria
Died17 April 1711 (aged 32)
Vienna, Austria
Burial
SpouseWilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
IssueMaria Josepha, Queen of Poland
Archduke Leopold Joseph
Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress
Full name
German: Joseph Jacob Ignaz Johann Anton Eustachius[1]
HouseHouse of Habsburg
FatherLeopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherEleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Early life

Benjamin von Block 003
Archduke Joseph at the age of six (by Benjamin Block, 1684)

Born in Vienna, Joseph was educated strictly by Prince Dietrich Otto von Salm and became a good linguist. Although he was the first son and child born of his parents' marriage, he was his father's third son and seventh child. Previously, Leopold had been married to Infanta Margaret Theresa of Spain, who had given him four children, one of whom survived infancy. He then married Claudia Felicitas of Austria, who gave him two short-lived daughters. Thus, Joseph had six half-siblings. In 1684, the six-year-old Archduke had his first portrait painted by Benjamin Block. At the age of nine, on 9 December 1687, he was crowned King of Hungary; and at the age of eleven, on 23 January 1690, King of the Romans. Although he never formally ceased to be a Roman Catholic, Joseph (unlike his parents and most of his other relatives) was not particularly devout by nature.[4] He had two great enthusiasms: music and hunting.[4]

Military service

In 1702, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Joseph saw his only military service. He joined the Imperial General, Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, in the Siege of Landau.

Holy Roman Emperor

Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph I as a young ruler in armor

Prior to his ascension, Joseph had surrounded himself with reform-hungry advisors and the ‘young court’ of Vienna was ambitious in the elaboration of innovative plans. He was described as a "forward-looking ruler".[4] The large number of privy councillors was reduced and attempts were made to make the bureaucracy more efficient. Measures were taken to modernize the central bodies and a certain success was achieved in stabilizing the chronic Habsburg finances. Joseph also endeavoured to strengthen his position in the Holy Roman Empire – as a means of strengthening Austria’s standing as a great power. When he sought to lay claim to imperial rights in Italy and gain territories for the Habsburgs, he even risked a military conflict with the Pope over the duchy of Mantua.[4]

In Hungary, Joseph had inherited the kuruc rebellion from his father Leopold I: once again, nobles in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) had risen against Habsburg rule, even advancing for a time as far as Vienna. Although Joseph was compelled to take military action, he refrained – unlike his predecessors – from seeking to teach his subjects a lesson by executing the leaders. Instead, he agreed to a compromise peace, which in the long term facilitated the integration of Hungary into the Habsburg domains.[4] It was his good fortune to govern the Austrian dominions and to be head of the Empire, during the years in which his trusted general, Prince Eugene of Savoy, either acting alone in Italy or with the Duke of Marlborough in Germany and Flanders, was beating the armies of Louis XIV of France. During the whole of his reign, Hungary was disturbed by the conflict with Francis Rákóczi II, who eventually took refuge in the Ottoman Empire. The emperor reversed many of the authoritarian measures of his father, thus helping to placate opponents. He began the attempts to settle the question of the Austrian inheritance by a pragmatic sanction, which was continued by his brother Charles VI.

Joseph I was threatened with excommunication by Pope Clement XI on 16 June 1708.[5]

Death

JosephI.01
Tomb of the emperor in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna

During the smallpox epidemic of 1711, which killed Louis, le Grand Dauphin and three siblings of the future Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, Joseph became infected. He died on 17 April in the Hofburg Palace. He had previously promised his wife to stop having affairs, should he survive.

The Emperor was buried in the Imperial Crypt, resting place of the majority of the Habsburgs. His funeral took place on 20 April, in tomb no. 35 in Karl's Vault. His tomb was designed by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, decorated with pictures of various battles from the War of Spanish Succession. Josefstadt (the eighth district of Vienna) is named for Joseph.

Marriage and lack of heir(s)

On 24 February 1699, he married Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Vienna. They had three children and their only son died of hydrocephalus before his first birthday. Joseph had a passion for love affairs (none of which resulted in illegitimate children) and he caught a sexually transmittable disease, probably syphilis, which he passed on to his wife while they were trying to produce a new heir. This incident rendered her sterile.[4] Their father, who was still alive during these events, made Joseph and his brother Charles sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, ensuring that Joseph's daughters would have absolute precedence over Charles's daughters, neither of whom was born at the time, and that Maria Josepha would inherit both the Austrian and Spanish realms.

Issue

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes
Maria Josepha
Queen of Poland
Maria Josepha of Austria as a child in Hungarian costume 8 December 1699 –
17 November 1757
Archduchess of Austria, married Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony.
Leopold Joseph
29 October 1700 –
4 August 1701
Archduke of Austria, died in infancy.
Maria Amalia
Holy Roman Empress
Richter - Maria Amalia of Austria - Kunsthistorisches Museum 22 October 1701 –
11 December 1756
Archduchess of Austria, married Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Full title

Joseph I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Naon and Salines, etc.[19]

References

  1. ^ Johann Burkhard Mencke; Leben und Thaten Sr. Majestät des Römischen Käysers Leopold des Ersten pg 914 https://books.google.com/books?id=AdhXAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA914&lpg=PA914&dq=carolus+Franciscus+Josephus+Wenceslaus+Balthazar+Johannes+Antonius+Ignatius&source=bl&ots=NpPXd41dVg&sig=0VkCx--BPVqw5BXrPlU8ca9LSmA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjgpofR2fLdAhVCLK0KHRdiC_gQ6AEwDXoECAEQAQ#v=snippet&q=Josephus%20Jacobus%20Ignatius%20Johannes%20Antonius%20Eustachius&f=false
  2. ^ "MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01.
  3. ^ "Joseph I as Roman-German Emperor, oval portrait with motto". The World of the Habsburgs. english.habsburger.net. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Reforming zeal in the Baroque: Joseph I". The World of the Habsburgs. english.habsburger.net. Archived from the original on December 14, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  5. ^ Joaquín Lorenzo Villanueva, Misapprehension of Patrick Curties and James Doyle concerning the oath which the bishops of Ireland take to the Roman Pontiff, (1825) page 64
  6. ^ a b c d Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 100.
  7. ^ a b Eder, Karl (1961), "Ferdinand III.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 85–86; (full text online)
  8. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Spanien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 23 – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ a b Fuchs, Peter (2001), "Philipp Wilhelm", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 20, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 384; (full text online)
  10. ^ a b Louda, Jirí; MacLagan, Michael (1999). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (2nd ed.). London: Little, Brown and Company. table 84.
  11. ^ a b Eder, Karl (1961), "Ferdinand II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 83–85; (full text online)
  12. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Bayern" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 23 – via Wikisource.
  13. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp III." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 120 – via Wikisource.
  14. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 13 – via Wikisource.
  15. ^ a b Breitenbach, Josef (1898), "Wolfgang Wilhelm", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 44, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 87–116
  16. ^ a b Wolf, Joseph Heinrich (1844). Das Haus Wittelsbach. Bayern's Geschichte (in German). p. 281.
  17. ^ a b Becker, Wilhelm Martin (1964), "Georg II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 6, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 217; (full text online)
  18. ^ a b Flathe, Heinrich Theodor (1881), "Johann Georg I. (Kurfürst von Sachsen)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 376–381
  19. ^ His full title was: Joseph I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Gorizia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Slovene March, of Port Naon and Salines, etc. etc.

Bibliography

  • F. Krones von Marchiand, Grundriss der Oesterreichischen Geschichte (1882)
  • F. Wagner, Historia Josephi Caesaris (1746)
  • J. C. Herchenhahn, Geschichte der Regierung Kaiser Josephs I (1786–1789)
  • C. van Noorden, Europäische Geschichte im achtzehnten Jahrhundert (1870–1882).

External links

Media related to Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor at Wikimedia Commons

Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 26 July 1678 Died: 17 April 1711
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Leopold I
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Teschen
King of Croatia

1705–1711
Succeeded by
Emperor Charles VI
King in Germany
1690–1711
with Leopold I (1690–1705)
King of Hungary
1687–1711
with Leopold I (1687–1705)
1690 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1690 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Augsburg on January 23.

1707 in Sweden

Events from the year 1707 in Sweden

1711 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1711 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place on October 12.

Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1770–1809)

Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (Maria Anna Ferdinanda Josepha Charlotte Johanna; 21 April 1770 – 1 October 1809) was an Archduchess of Austria by birth, and an Abbess at the Theresian Convent in Prague.

Archduke Leopold Joseph of Austria

Archduke Leopold Joseph of Austria may refer to:

Archduke Leopold Joseph of Austria (1682–1684), son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

Archduke Leopold Joseph of Austria (1700–1701), son of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor

Augustus III of Poland

Augustus III (Polish: August III Sas, Lithuanian: Augustas III; 17 October 1696 – 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (German: Friedrich August II).

The only legitimate son of Augustus II of Poland, he followed his father's example by joining the Roman Catholic Church in 1712. In 1719 he married Maria Josepha, daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, and became Elector of Saxony on his father's death in 1733. As a candidate for the Polish crown, he secured the support of Emperor Charles VI by assenting to the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, designed to preserve the integrity of the Habsburg inheritance, and that of Russian Empress Anna by supporting Russia's claim to Courland. Chosen king by a small minority of electors on 5 October 1733, he drove his rival, the former Polish king Stanisław I, into exile. He was crowned in Kraków on 17 January 1734, and was generally recognised as king in Warsaw in June 1736.Augustus gave Saxon support to Austria against Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession (1742) and again in the Seven Years' War (1756), both of which resulted in Saxony being conquered and occupied by Prussia. His last years were marked by the increasing influence of the Czartoryski and Poniatowski families, and by the intervention of Catherine the Great in Polish affairs. His rule deepened the anarchy in Poland and increased the country's dependence on its neighbours. The Russian Empire, which had assisted him in his bid to succeed his father, prevented him from installing his family on the Polish throne, supporting instead the aristocrat Stanisław August Poniatowski. During his reign, Augustus spent little time in Poland and was more interested in ease and pleasure than in affairs of state; this notable patron of the arts left the administration of Saxony and Poland to his chief adviser, Heinrich von Brühl, who in turn left Polish administration chiefly to the powerful Czartoryski family.The reign of Augustus witnessed one of the greatest periods of disorder in Polish history.

Johann Rudolf Huber

Johann Rudolf Huber (April 21, 1668 – February 28, 1748) was an eminent Swiss portrait artist. Among his famous subjects were Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Albrecht von Haller .

Joseph I

Joseph I may refer to:

Joseph I of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch in 1266–1275 and 1282–1283

Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (1678–1711)

Joseph I (Chaldean Patriarch) (reigned 1681–1696)

Joseph I of Portugal (1750–1777)

Joseph Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who reigned in Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813) as Joseph I

Joseph I of Bulgaria (1877–1915)

Kings of Poland family tree

This is a family tree of the Kings of Poland.

Maria Amalia

Maria Amalia may refer to:

Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies (1782–1866), Queen of the French from 1830–1848, consort to Louis-Philippe I

Maria Amalia of Saxony (1724–1760), a princess of Saxony, Queen Consort of Spain and Naples as wife of Charles III

Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria, (1746–1804), born Archduchess of Austria & Princess of Hungary; Duchess of Parma, Piacenza & Guastalla by marriage

Maria Amalia of Austria (1701–1756), was the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, wife of Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Melina Mercouri (born Maria Amalia Mercouri, 1920–1994), Greek actress, singer, and the first female Minister for Culture in Greece

Maria Amalia of Austria

Maria Amalia of Austria (Maria Amalie Josefa Anna; 22 October 1701 – 11 December 1756) was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Bohemia, Electress and Duchess of Bavaria etc. as the spouse of Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor. By birth, she was an Archduchess of Austria as the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Maria Amalia had seven children with her husband Charles, only four of whom lived through to adulthood. Her son became Maximilian III, Elector of Bavaria. Her youngest daughter Maria Josepha married the eldest son and heir of Maria Theresa, Emperor Joseph II, but died, childless, of smallpox after two years. Another daughter, Maria Antonia, married her first cousin, Frederick Christian, who was Prince-elector of Saxony for less than three months in 1763. Her middle surviving daughter Maria Anna Josepha Augusta became Margravine of Baden-Baden.

Maria Josepha of Austria

Maria Josepha of Austria (Maria Josepha Benedikta Antonia Theresia Xaveria Philippine, Polish: Maria Józefa; 8 December 1699 – 17 November 1757) was the last Queen of Poland by marriage to Augustus III. From 1711 to 1717, she was heir presumptive to the Habsburg Empire. Her sister Maria Amalia of Austria became Electress of Bavaria.

Maximilian, Hereditary Prince of Saxony

Prince Maximilian of Saxony (Maximilian Maria Joseph Anton Johann Baptist Johann Evangelista Ignaz Augustin Xavier Aloys Johann Nepomuk Januar Hermenegild Agnellis Paschalis; Dresden, 13 April 1759 – Dresden, 3 January 1838) was a German prince and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the sixth but third and youngest surviving son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and the composer Princess Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria.

Mindelheim

Mindelheim is a town in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. The town is the capital of the Unterallgäu district. At various points in history it was the chief settlement of an eponymous state.

Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony

Maria Amalia of Saxony (26 September 1757 – 20 April 1831) was a daughter of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and his wife Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria. She became the Duchess of Zweibrücken by her 1774 marriage to Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken.

Princess Sophia Hedwig of Denmark

Princess Sophia Hedwig of Denmark and Norway (28 August 1677 – 13 March 1735) was a Danish princess, the daughter of King Christian V and his queen-consort, Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel.

Theresa Benedicta of Bavaria

Theresa Benedicta of Bavaria (Theresa Benedikta Maria; 6 December 1725 – 29 March 1743) was a Princess of Bavaria.

Treaty of Altranstädt (1707)

For the Swedish-Saxon peace treaty that dethroned Augustus the Strong as Polish king, see Treaty of Altranstädt (1706).The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor on 31 August 1707. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia.

Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg (21 April 1673 – 10 April 1742) was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, Archduchess consort of Austria etc. as the spouse of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Ancestors of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
16. Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria[11] (= 22)
8. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor[7]
17. Maria Anna of Bavaria[11] (= 23, ≠9)
4. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor[6]
18. William V, Duke of Bavaria[12] (= 26)
9. Maria Anna of Bavaria[7] (≠ 17, 23)
19. Renata of Lorraine[12] (= 27)
2. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
20. Philip II of Spain[13]
10. Philip III of Spain[8]
21. Anna of Austria[13]
5. Maria Anna of Austria[6]
22. Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria[14] (= 16)
11. Margaret of Austria[8]
23. Maria Anna of Bavaria[14] (= 17, ≠9)
1. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
24. Philip Louis, Count Palatine of Neuburg[15]
12. Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg[9]
25. Anna of Cleves[15]
6. Philip William, Elector Palatine[6]
26. William V, Duke of Bavaria[16] (= 18)
13. Magdalene of Bavaria[9]
27. Renata of Lorraine[16] (= 19)
3. Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
28. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt[17]
14. George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt[10]
29. Magdalene of Brandenburg[17]
7. Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt[6]
30. John George I, Elector of Saxony[18]
15. Sophia Eleonore of Saxony[10]
31. Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia[18]
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