Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (10 March 1788 – 26 November 1857) was a Prussian poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist. Eichendorff was one of the major writers and critics of Romanticism. Ever since their publication and up to the present day, some of his works have been very popular in Germany.
Eichendorff first became famous for his 1826 novella Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts (freely translated: Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing) and his poems. The Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing is a typical Romantic novella whose main themes are wanderlust and love. The protagonist, the son of a miller, rejects his father's trade and becomes a gardener at a Viennese palace where he subsequently falls in love with the local duke's daughter. As, with his lowly status, she is unattainable for him, he escapes to Italy - only to return and learn that she is the duke's adopted daughter, and thus within his social reach. With its combination of dream world and realism, Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing is considered to be a high point of Romantic fiction. One critic stated that Eichendorff's Good-for-Nothing is the "personification of love of nature and an obsession with hiking." Thomas Mann called Eichendorff's Good-for-Nothing a combination of "the purity of the folk song and the fairy tale."
Many of Eichendorff's poems were first published as integral parts of his novellas and stories, where they are often performed in song by one of the protagonists. The novella Good-for-Nothing alone contains 54 poems.
Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff
|Born||Joseph Karl Benedikt Freiherr (Baron) von Eichendorff|
10 March 1788
Ratibor, Prussian Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia
|Died||26 November 1857 (aged 69)|
Neisse, Prussian Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia
|Occupation||Novelist, poet, essayist|
|Genre||Novellas, fairy tales, poetry|
|Notable works||Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing, The Marble Statue|
Eichendorff, a descendant of an old noble family, was born in 1788 at Schloß Lubowitz near Ratibor (now Racibórz, Poland) in Upper Silesia, at that time part of the Kingdom of Prussia. His parents were the Prussian officer Adolf Freiherr von Eichendorff (1756-1818) and his wife, Karoline née Freiin von Kloche (1766-1822), who came from an aristocratic Roman Catholic family. Eichendorff sold the family estates in Deutsch-Krawarn, Kauthen, and Wrbkau and acquired Lubowitz Castle from his mother-in-law. The castle's Rococo reconstruction, which was begun by her, was very expensive and almost bankrupted the family. Young Joseph was close to his older brother Wilhelm (1786-1849). From 1793-1801 they were home-schooled by tutor Bernhard Heinke. Joseph began writing diaries as early as 1798, witnesses to his budding literary career. The diaries present many insights into the development of the young writer, ranging from simple statements about the weather to notes about finances to early poems. At a young age, Eichendorff was already well aware of his parents' financial straits. On 19 June 1801, the thirteen-year old noted in his diary: "Father travelled to Breslau, on the run from his creditors," adding on 24 June, "mom become terribly faint." With his brother Wilhelm, Joseph attended the Catholic Matthias Gymnasium in Breslau (1801-1804). While previously preferring chapbooks, he was now introduced to the poetry of Matthias Claudius and Voltaire's La Henriade, an epic poem about the last part of the wars of religion and Henry IV of France in ten songs. In 1804 his sister Luise Antonie Nepomucene Johanna was born (died 1883), who was to become a friend of Austrian writer Adalbert Stifter. After their final exams, both brothers attended lectures at the University of Breslau and the Protestant Maria-Magdalena-Gymnasium. Eichendorff's diary from this time shows that he valued formal education much less than the theatre, recording 126 plays and concerts visited. His love for Mozart also goes back to these days. Joseph himself seems to have been a talented actor and his brother Wilhelm a good singer and guitar player.
Together with his brother Wilhelm, Joseph studied law and the humanities in Halle an der Saale (1805–1806), a city near Jena, which was a focal point of the Frühromantik (Early Romantics). The brothers frequently attended the theatre of Lauchstädt, 13 km where the Weimar court theatrical company performed plays by Goethe. In October 1806 Napoleon's troops took Halle and teaching at the university ceased. To complete their studies, Wilhelm and Joseph went to the University of Heidelberg in 1807, another important centre of Romanticism. Here Eichendorff befriended romantic poet Heinrich Otto von Loeben (1786-1825), met Achim von Arnim (1781-1831) and possibly Clemens Brentano (1778-1842). In Heidelberg, Eichendorff heard lectures by Joseph Görres, a leading member of the Heidelberg Romantic group, a "hermitic magician" and "formative impression", as Eichendorff later explained. In 1808 the brothers finished their degrees, after which they undertook an educational journey to Paris, Vienna, and Berlin. In Berlin they came into closer contact with Romantic writers such as Achim von Arnim, Clemens Brentano, Adam Müller, and Heinrich von Kleist. In order to further their professional prospects, they travelled to Vienna in 1810, where they concluded their studies with a state examination diploma. Wilhelm procured employment in the Austrian civil service, while Joseph went back home to help his father with managing the estate.
From Eichendorff's diaries we know about his love for a girl, Amalie Schaffner, and another love affair in 1807-08 during his student days in Heidelberg with one Käthchen Förster. His deep sorrow about the unrequitted love for the nineteen-year-old daughter of a cellarman inspired Eichendorff to one of his most famous poems, Das zerbrochene Ringlein (The Broken Ring).
In his deep desperation over this unhappy infatuation, Eichendorff craved death in military exploits as mentioned in his poem Das zerbrochene Ringlein:
Ich möchte’ als Reiter fliegen
I fain would mount a charger
|—Translated by Geoffrey Herbert Chase|
Although Chase's translation weakens the second line from blut’ge Schlacht (bloody battle) to "in fight" this, actually, happens to be much closer to the historical truth, since Eichendorff's participation in the Lützow Free Corps seems to be a myth - in spite of some authorities asserting the contrary. In 1813, when conflict flared up again, Eichendorff tried to join the struggle against Napoleon, however he lacked the funds to purchase a uniform, gun, or horse, and, when he finally managed to get the money necessary, the war was all but over.
His parents, in order to save the indebted family estate, hoped that Eichendorff would marry a wealthy heiress, however he fell in love with Aloysia von Larisch (1792-1855), called ‚Luise’, the seventeen-year-old daughter of a prominent, yet impoverished Catholic family of nobles. The betrothal took place in 1809, the same year Eichendorff went to Berlin to take up a profession there. In 1815, the couple was married in Breslau's St. Vinzenz church and that same year Eichendorff's son Hermann was born, followed in 1819 by their daughter Therese. In 1818, Eichendorff's father died and in 1822 his mother. The death of his mother resulted in the final loss of all the family's estates in Silesia.
During the period, infant mortality was very high. Both Eichendorff's brother Gustav (born 1800) and his sister Louise Antonie (born 1799) died in 1803 at a very young age, as did two of Eichendorff's daughters between 1822 and 1832. The poet expressed the parental sorrow after this loss in the famous cycle "Auf meines Kindes Tod". One of the poems in this series conveys an especially powerful sense of loss in this era:
Die Winde nur noch gehen
Only the winds are wandering
|—Translated by Margarete Münsterberg|
With his literary figure of the Good-for-Nothing Eichendorff created the paradigm of the wanderer. The motif itself had been central to romanticism since Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and Ludwig Tieck undertook their famous Pfingstwanderung (Whitsun excursion) in the Fichtelgebirge in 1793, an event that began the Romantic movement. Travels through Germany, Austria, and France rounded off Eichendorff's education, however, he himself was not much of a hiker. Apart from some extensive marches on foot during his school and college days (for example from Halle to Leipzig, in order to see popular actor Iffland), he only undertook one lengthy tour, traversing for seventeen days the Harz mountains with his brother in 1805, a trip partly undertaken using the stagecoach, as witnessed by his diary. Eichendorff was less of a romantic wanderer, but rather displaced again and again by changes of location necessitated by his official activities. The following trips, mainly undertaken by coach or boat, are documented:
Eichendorff worked in various capacities as Prussian government administrator. His career began in 1816 as unpaid clerk in Breslau. In November 1819, he was appointed assessor and in 1820 consistorial councilor for West and East Prussia in Danzig, with an initial annual salary of 1200 thalers. In April 1824, Eichendorff was relocated to Königsberg as "Oberpräsidialrat" (chief administrator) with an annual salary of 1600 thalers. In 1821, Eichendorff was appointed school inspector and, in 1824, "Oberpräsidialrat" in Königsberg. In 1831, he moved his family to Berlin, where he worked as Privy Councilor for the Foreign Ministry until his retirement in 1844.
Eichendorff's brother Wilhelm died in 1849 in Innsbruck. That same year, there was a Republican uprising and the Eichendorff's fled to Meißen and Köthen, where a little house was purchased for his daughter Therese (now a von Besserer-Dahlfingen) in 1854. In 1855, he was much affected by the death of his wife. In September he traveled to Sedlnitz for the christening of his grandchild. Shortly after he made his very last trip, dying of pneumonia on 26 November 1857 in Neiße. He was buried the next day with his wife.
The two writers who had the greatest early influence on Eichendorff's artistic development were Friedrich Schlegel, who established the term romantisch (romantic) in German literature, and Joseph Görres. While the writers who gathered around Schlegel inclined more to philosophy and aesthetic theory, the adherents of Görres became mainly known as writers of poetry and stories. Both movements, however, greatly influenced intellectual life in Germany by emphasising the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental over classical precepts. One of their fundamental ideas was the "unity of poetry and life".
Eichendorff shared Schlegel's view that the world was a naturally and eternally "self-forming artwork", Eichendorff himself used the metaphor that "nature [was] a great picture book, which the good Lord has pitched for us outside." Arnim's and Brentano's studies and interpretations of the Volkslied (folk song) deeply influenced Eichendorff's own poetry and poetology.
Arnim's and Brentano's anthology Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder, a collection of songs about love, soldiers, wandering, as well as children's songs, was an important source for the Romantic movement. Similar to other early 19th-century anthologists such as Thomas Percy, Arnim and Brentano edited and rewrote the poems in they collected. "Everything in the world happens because of poetry, to live life with an increased sense and history is the expression of this general poetry of the human race, the fate performs this great spectacle," is what Arnim said in a letter to Brentano (9 July 1802).
Although Eichendorffs poetry includes many metric forms ranging from very simple elegiac couplets and stanzas to sonnets, his main artistic focus was on poems imitating folk songs. A comparison of forms shows that Eichendorff's lyricism is "directly influenced by Brentano and Arnim".
Following the model of Des Knaben Wunderhorn, Eichendorff uses simple words ('naturalness'), adding more meaning ('artificiality') than dictionary definitions would indicate. In this sense, "His words are rich in connotative power, in imaginative appeal and in sound."
Certain expressions and formulas used by Eichendorff, which are sometimes characterised by critics as pure cliché, actually represent a conscious reduction in favour of emblematics. In Görres’ poetology "nature is speaking" us. But before it can happen, the wonderful song sleeping in each thing must be woken up by the poet's word: One notable example used by Eichendorff is the Zauberwort (magic word) - and one of Eichendorff's most celebrated poems, the four-line stanza Wünschelrute (divining rod), is about finding such a Zauberwort:
Schläft ein Lied in allen Dingen,
A song's asleep in everything
The titles of Eichendorff’s poems show that, besides the motif of wandering, the two other main motifs of his poetry were the passing of time (transience) and nostalgia. Time, for Eichendorff, is not just a natural phenomenon but, as Marcin Worbs elaborated: "Each day and each of our nights has a metaphysical dimension." The morning, on the other hand, evokes the impression that "all nature had been created just in this very moment," while the evening often acts as a mysterium mortis with the persona poderiung on transience and death. Eichendorff's other main motif, nostalgia, is described by some critic as a phenomenon of infinity. However, there is a number of different interpretations. According to Helmut Illbruck: The "simple-minded Taugenichts (...) feels continually homesick and can never come to rest." Katja Löhr distinguishes between nostalgia as an emotion consisting of two components — longing and melancholy: "The inner emotion of longing is to long for, the inner emotion of melancholy is to mourn. As an expression of deep reflection, longing corresponds with intuition (Ahnen), grieving with memory." Theodor W. Adorno, who set out to rescue Eichendorff from his misled conservative admirers, attested: "He was not a poet of the homeland, but rather a poet of homesickness". In sharp contrast, Natias Neutert saw in Eichendorff's nostalgia a dialectical unity of an "unstable equilibrium of homesickness and wanderlust at once".
For a long time it had been argued that Eichendorff's view of Romanticism had been subordinate to religious beliefs. More recently, however, Christoph Hollender has pointed that Eichendorff's late religious and political writings were commissioned works, while his poetry represents a highly personal perspective.
Eichendorff summed up the Romantic epoch stating that it "soared like a magnificent rocket sparkling up into the sky, and after shortly and wonderfully lighting up the night, it exploded overhead into a thousand colorful stars."
"While other authors (such as Ludwig Tieck, Caroline de la Motte Fouqué, Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim) adapted the themes and styles of their writing to the emerging realism, Eichendorff "stayed true to the emblematic universe of his literary Romanticism right through to the 1850s,"  Adorno stated: "Unconsciously Eichendorff’s unleashed romanticism leads right up to the threshold of modernism".
With approximately 5000 musical settings, Eichendorff is the most popular German poet set into music."The magical, enchanting lyricism of his poetry almost seems to be music itself," as it is praised. His poems have been set to music by many composers, including, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf, Richard Strauss, Hans Pfitzner, Hermann Zilcher, Alexander Zemlinsky, Max Reger, and even Friedrich Nietzsche.
Institut für Germanistik, D-93040 Regensburg
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1857.Dryander
Dryander is a family name. It originates as a 16th-century Humanist name, literally meaning (in Ancient Greek) "oak-man". It was used by people whose original name was Eichmann ("oak-man"), Eichholz ("oak-wood"), de Enzinas ("of the holm-oaks") etc., notable people with the surname include:
Athaulphus Dryander (1490–1563), adopted name of Adolf Eichholz, German humanist and jurist
Johann Dryander (Eichmann) (1500–1560), German physician and scholar
Franciscus Dryander (1518–1552), adopted name of Francisco de Enzinas, Spanish humanist
Jacobus Dryander (c. 1520 – 1547), adopted name of Diego de Enzinas, Spanish scholar
Jonas Carlsson Dryander (also "Johann Dryander"), Swedish botanist (1748–1810)
Johann Friedrich Dryander (1756–1812), German painter
Ernst Dryander (later "von Dryander"), German theologist and politician (1843–1922)
Gottfried von Dryander (1876–1951), German jurist and politicianDryander is also
a literary character in the novel Dichter und ihre Gesellen from German author Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (1788–1857)Egon Kornauth
Egon Kornauth (14 May 1891 – 28 October 1959) was an Austrian composer and music teacher.
Kornauth was born in Olmütz, Moravia. A cellist and pianist from his youth, he went in 1909 to Vienna, where he studied with Robert Fuchs, Guido Adler, Franz Schreker (with whom he quarrelled) and Franz Schmidt.After teaching music theory at Vienna University from 1919, Kornauth embarked on an international career as pianist, accompanist and conductor that took him to Indonesia (1926-9) and to South America (1934-5). In 1940 he resumed a teaching career in war-time Vienna and Salzburg. He joined the Nazi-sponsored Reichsmusikkammer, but continued to support his teacher Adler, who was held under house arrest as a Jew, until the latter's death in 1941. In post-war Austria, Kornauth became director of the Salzburg Mozarteum (1946-7), and was elected to the Austrian Arts Senate in 1954. He died in Vienna in 1959.Kornauth composed extensively and won a number of prizes including the Austrian State Prize (1913) (for his Viola Sonata op.3), the Gustav Mahler Foundation prize (1919), and the Austrian Würdigungspreis (1951). His style was however conventional; when the English composer Humphrey Searle visited Vienna in the 1930s he was displeased to find that the only modern music played by the main orchestras was that of Schmidt "or lesser composers like ... Kornauth." Kornauth himself recognised in his 1958 autobiography that "epigonism was inherent in my personality." Most of Kornauth's output consists of lieder, chamber music and piano pieces, but there are also five orchestral suites amongst other larger scale pieces.A recording of some of Kornauth's piano works by Jonathan Powell was released by Toccata Classics in 2013.Eickendorf, Salzlandkreis
Eickendorf is a former municipality in the district of Salzlandkreis, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since January 2008, it is part of the municipality Bördeland.
The village is located in the Magdeburg Börde region, known for its fertile Loess (Chernozem) soils. As a yardstick for soil quality, a "Reich Standard Farm" was set up in Eickendorf according to the 1934 Soil Assessment Act, whereby a soil value of 100 was established. It then became the basis of comparison for the tax rating of farms in Germany.
The settlement of Hekenthorp in the Eastphalian lands of Saxony was first mentioned in an 1176 deed. Ruled by several comital dynasties, after the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years' War the estates became part of the secularised Duchy of Magdeburg, held by the Hohenzollern rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia. Eickendorf was the ancestral seat of the Eichendorff noble family, whose most prominent member is the poet Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (1788–1857).Forseti (band)
Forseti was a German neofolk band formed in Jena in 1997 and disestablished in 2005. The band is known for its musical settings of German romantic poetry.Gustav Leutelt
Gustav Leutelt (21 September 1860 – 17 February 1947) was a German Bohemian poet and writer. Most of his poetry concerned the area around his birthplace of Josefsthal causing him to be described as a "poet of the Jizera Mountains."Isegrim
Isegrim or Isegrimm (also Isengrin, Ysengrin, Ysengrimus) may refer to:
Isengrim, the wolf character in Reynard the Fox
Ysengrin, a wolf-like character in Gunnerkrigg Court
Ysengrimus a 12th-century series of fables about Ysengrimus the Wolf and Reinardus the Fox
Der Isegrimm, a poem by Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff
Isegrimm, a patriotic novel by Willibald Alexis, published 1864
Izegrim (band), formerly Isegrim, a female fronted death/thrash metal band from the Netherlands
Isengrim, a number of hobbits in Tolkien's legendarium
Michael Isengrin, 16th century printer in Basel, see Horapollo
Wolfpack Isegrim, a German wolfpack of World War IIJoseph Christian Freiherr von Zedlitz
Joseph Christian Freiherr von Zedlitz (Baron Joseph Christian von Zedlitz; February 28, 1790 in Jánský Vrch Castle, Javorník (today in the Czech Republic) – March 16, 1862 in Vienna, Austria) was an Austrian dramatist and epic poet.
His wife died 1836, and 1837 he was nominated by the foreign service to work for the Foreign Office. He was sent as representative of the Austrian imperial court to the principalities of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Nassau, Braunschweig, Oldenburg and Reuss.
He was also a good friend of Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff.Jännerwein
Jännerwein is an Austrian folk music and neofolk group formed in Salzburg in 2007.Lebrecht Blücher Dreves
Lebrecht Blücher Dreves (12 September 1816 – 19 December 1870) was a German poet and translator of poetry from Hamburg.
The Prussian general Blucher was his baptismal sponsor, whence his name. At age nineteen he submitted a volume of poems for the judgment of Adelbert von Chamisso and Gustav Schwab, and both expressed favourable opinions. This was followed shortly by another volume entitled Lyrische Anklange (Lyrical Melodies), grafted on the music of his favourites, Chamisso, Ludwig Uhland, Heinrich Heine, Friedrich Rückert, Schwab, and others. Over the next three years he studied jurisprudence, gaining the degree of doctor of laws summa cum laude. Another volume, entitled Vigilien (Vigils), followed, and in 1843 he published anonymously a third volume, Schlichte Lieder (Unpretentious Songs) embodying his battle-songs, Lieder eines Hanseaten. He converted to Catholicism in 1846, and took a job as notary out of financial difficulties. He also wrote the two-act comedy Der Lebensretter (The Life-Saver) inscribing it: "A manuscript printed for (improvised) private theatricals".
His Lieder der Kirche (Church Hymns) paved his way to becoming a translator of hymns (2d ed., 1868). He also wrote a History of the Catholic Congregations in Hamburg and Altona. He likewise translated the Nachtigallenlied by the anonymous author known as "Pseudo-Bonaventura" and Rimbert Vita Ansgari. He undertook the task of editing (in 1867) sources regarding the history of his native city in the Annuae Missionis Hamburgensis 1589-1781. About this time he revised and republished his own poetical works, in which work he was aided by the poet Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff who had become his good friend. He moved to Feldkirch in the Vorarlberg, and became friendly with the poet Father Gall Morel. His son, Dr. G. Dreves, became editor of the Analecta hymnica medii aevi, a large collection of medieval hymnology. Dreves died in Feldkirch.List of compositions by Ethel Smyth
This is a list of musical compositions by Dame Ethel Smyth (1858–1944). Works are listed within each genre by year of composition, or if the year of composition is not known by year of publication or first performance. For operas and some other notable works the date and theatre of first performance is also given.List of compositions by Nikolai Medtner
This is a list of compositions by Nikolai Medtner by genre.List of compositions by Zdeněk Fibich
Below is a List of compositions by Zdeněk Fibich sorted by genre, H. number, opus number, date of composition, original and English titles. H. numbers are from Zdeněk Fibich: Tematický katalog (Zdeněk Fibich: Thematic Catalogue) by Vladimír Hudec (Prague, 2001).Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi
Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi is a Latin phrase, literally "What is permissible for Jove is not permissible for a bull". The locus classicus (origin) for the phrase is the novella Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts (1826) by Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, although it is not entirely clear that Eichendorff coined the phrase himself. In his play Heauton Timorumenos, Terence, a playwright of the Roman Republic, coined a similar phrase, Aliis si licet, tibi non licet ("to others it is permitted; to you it is not permitted").
The phrase is often translated as "Gods may do what cattle may not". It indicates the existence of a double standard (justifiable or otherwise), and essentially means "what is permitted to one important person or group, is not permitted to everyone."Racibórz
For the community in Saxony, Germany, see Radibor. For the village in northern Poland, see Racibórz, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.Racibórz [raˈt͡ɕibuʂ] (German: Ratibor, Czech: Ratiboř, Silesian: Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland. It is the administrative seat of Racibórz County.
With Opole, Racibórz is one of the historic capitals of Upper Silesia, being the residence of the Dukes of Racibórz from 1172 to 1521.Skrzeczkowice
Skrzeczkowice (German: Eichendorf) is a sołectwo in the northern part Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It was an independent village but became administratively part of Jastrzębie-Zdrój in 1975. It has na area of 248,84 ha (historically it was 326 ha) and on December 31, 2012 it had 728 inhabitants.The name of the village is possessive in origins derived from personal name Skrzek. Since the 14th century the name had been scribed as Skrzetzkowitz, Skrzeczkowicz, Skreczkowitz. The German name Eichendorf, after a German poet (Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff), appeared in 1907, which was a result of the arrival of German settlers in 1904.Vilém Blodek
Vilém Blodek, born Vilém František Plodek (October 3, 1834, Prague – May 1, 1874, Prague), was a Czech composer, flautist, and pianist.Wünschelrute
Wünschelrute (dowsing rod) is one of the most famous poems by Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, major poet of the German Hochromantik ("High Romantics").Łubowice, Silesian Voivodeship
Łubowice [wubɔˈvit͡sɛ] (German: Lubowitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Rudnik, within Racibórz County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It is known as the birthplace of the German Romantic poet Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff.