Joseph Carr

Joseph Francis Carr (October 22, 1879 – May 20, 1939) was an American sports executive in American football, baseball, and basketball. He is best known as the president of the National Football League from 1921 until 1939. He was also one of the founders and president of the American Basketball League (ABL) from 1925 to 1927. He was also the promotional director for Minor League Baseball's governing body from 1933 to 1939, leading an expansion of the minor leagues from 12 to 40 leagues operating in 279 cities with 4,200 players and attendance totaling 15,500,000.

A native and lifelong resident of Columbus, Ohio, Carr worked in his early years as a machinist for the Panhandle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and a sports writer for a Columbus newspaper. While working for the Panhandle Division, he founded the Famous Panhandle White Sox baseball team in approximately 1900. He also revived the Columbus Panhandles football team in 1907, manning the team with railroad employees. The Panhandles became one of the inaugural members of the American Professional Football Association (APFA), which was renamed the National Football League (NFL) in 1922.

From 1921 until his death in 1939, Carr served as president of the NFL. He oversaw the growth of the league from is origins, principally in small or medium-sized cities in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois into a national league with teams in major cities. During his tenure, many of the NFL's premier franchises were established, including the New York Giants, Pittsburgh Steelers, Philadelphia Eagles, Detroit Lions and Washington Redskins. Called the "Father of Professional Football", Carr was one of the 17 inaugural inductees into Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963.

Joe Carr
JosephCarr
Position:Head coach
Personal information
Born:October 22, 1879
Columbus, Ohio
Died:May 20, 1939 (aged 59)
Columbus, Ohio
Career history
As coach:
As administrator:
Career highlights and awards
  • Helms Pro Football Hall of Fame (1950)
  • Pro Football Hall of Fame (1963)

Early life

Carr was born Joseph Francis Karr on October 23, 1879, at his parents' home in the Irish neighborhood on the East End of Columbus, Ohio.[1][2] His father, Michael Karr, was a shoemaker who was born in Ireland in 1841 and immigrated to the United States in 1864.[3][4] His mother Margaret Karr was born in New York to Irish immigrant parents.[3] Carr had five older siblings, Bridget, James, John, Mary, and Michael,[3] and a younger brother, Edward.[4] In the late 1880s, Carr's father became a sewer contractor,[5] and in 1898 his mother died at age 58.[6] At some point prior to the 1900 Census, the family changed its name to "Carr".[4]

Carr was educated at St. Patrick School and later St. Dominic's School, both in Columbus[5] He left school at age 16 and became employed as a machinist.[7][4] By 1899, Carr was working as a machinist for the Panhandle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad.[6] In approximately 1900, Carr was also hired as an assistant sports editor and sports writer for the Ohio State Journal, one of the three major newspapers in Columbus at the time. He wrote about all sports, but his boxing stories were especially popular.[8] While working for the newspaper, he continued to also work as a machinist for the railroad.[9]

Columbus Panhandles

In 1900, Carr organized a baseball team made up of employees of the railroad's Panhandle Division. The team, known as the Famous Panhandle White Sox, played in the Capital City League and the Saturday Afternoon League in Columbus for several years.[10][11] According to the Chicago Tribune, Carr's Panhandle club "gained a reputation in semi-professional ranks throughout the country."[11]

In 1907, Carr began a long association with the sport of football. He obtained permission from the Panhandle Athletic Club to reorganize the Columbus Panhandles football team, a team that had been formed in 1900 or 1901 and disbanded in 1904.[12] He secured players from the railroad shop where he worked. The core of Carr's Panhandles teams were six Nesser brothers who worked at the shop and were excellent athletes.[13] To save on expenses, the players, who were railroad employees, used their passes to ride the train for free and practiced during the lunch hour on the railroad yards.[14] Over the next 13 years, the Panhandles became known as a traveling team, as Carr saved money on travel expenses and stadium rental by playing mostly road games.[15] In 1921, the Fort Wayne Journal called the Panhandles the "most renowned professional football aggregation in the country."[16]

Carr also continued his association with professional baseball while running the Panhandles, serving for several years as the secretary/treasurer and later president of the Ohio State League, a minor league baseball circuit.[17][18][19]

As early as 1917, Carr was one of the leading advocates of a plan to develop a national professional football league.[20] Sources are not in agreement as to what role, if any, he played in the formation of the American Professional Football Association (APFA), which later became the National Football League (NFL). However, once the APFA was formed in 1920, Carr's Panhandles played in the league's inaugural season.[21] The 1920 Panhandles team played only one home game and compiled a 2–7–2 record.[22]

NFL presidency

At the annual meeting of the APFA held in Akron, Ohio, on April 30, 1921, Carr was elected as the organization's president.[23] He was re-elected president in January 1922,[24] and he held that position for 18 years until his death in 1939.

Carr moved the APFA's headquarters to Columbus, drafted a league constitution and by-laws, gave teams territorial rights, developed membership criteria for the franchises, and issued standings for the first time, so that the APFA would have a clear champion. Carr also began cleaning up other problems. By 1925, he introduced a standard player's contract, fashioned after the ones being used in pro baseball, so players couldn't jump from one team to another. Carr also declared that players under contract from the previous season could not be approached by another team unless first declared a free agent, thus introducing the reserve clause to professional football.

Ban on use of college players

In the early 20th century, college football was the dominant version of the sport, and professional teams would sometimes pay college players to play for them, often under assumed names. The practice was considered questionable ethically, resulting in taint being associated with the professional game. In order to remove the taint, and to engender peaceful relations with the college game, Carr made it one of his first goals as league president to impose a strict ban the use of college football players.[25] Indeed, at the same meeting at which Carr was elected president, the APFA adopted a rule prohibiting teams from using players who had not completed their college course.[23]

Carr enforced the ban with vigor. During the 1921 APFA season, two or three college players from Notre Dame played for the Green Bay Acme Packers under assumed names. The incident resulted in the players losing their amateur status and being barred from further college football participation.[26] In January 1922, Carr responded with the severest possible action, kicking the Packers out of the APFA.[27] A few months later, a group headed by future Hall of Famer Curly Lambeau applied for and was granted the Green Bay franchise.

The 1925 Chicago Cardinals-Milwaukee Badgers scandal followed four years later. In December 1925, four high school students played for the Milwaukee Badgers in a game against the Chicago Cardinals. Carr responded by imposing stiff penalties. The Milwaukee club was fined $500 and given 90 days within which to "dispose of all its club assets at which time the management must retire from the league."[28] The Cardinals were fined $1,000 for their prior knowledge of the violation, and Cardinal player Art Foltz was temporary banned from the league for live for having "induced the boys to play".[28]

The issue arose again when Red Grange, star halfback of the University of Illinois football team, signed with the Chicago Bears. Grange played his final college game on November 21, signed with the Bears the next day, and appeared in his first professional game on November 26.[29] Two weeks later, Ernie Nevers signed a professional football contract for $50,000.[30] To help ease tensions and promote the professional game in the college circles, Carr established a rule prohibiting college players to sign with professional teams until after their class had graduated. These decisions gave the NFL credibility and much needed support from the colleges and universities from across the country.

Expansion of the APFA into a "national" league

Carr faced numerous challenges as the league's president. One of the principal challenges was expanding the league to a national scope. In 1920, 11 of the league's 14 teams were located in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, including franchises in small cities such as Akron, Decatur, Rock Island, Canton, Hammond and Muncie. Carr believed that the league needed to model itself after Major League Baseball with teams in the country's largest cities.[31] In 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League, reflecting Carr's goal of building a professional football league that was national in scope.

Another challenge was fostering stability in the league's membership. In 1921, the APFA had 21 teams. Through the 1920s, NFL franchises were constantly setting up and then folding. From 1920 through 1932, 19 teams lasted one year and 11 teams lasted two years. During his tenure as league president, Carr sought to recruit financially capable owners to operate teams in the nation's largest cities. He oversaw the establishment of successful teams in the nation's largest cities, including the following:

By 1937, the National Football League had reduced its membership to ten teams with nine of the ten teams located in major cities that also had Major League Baseball teams.[31] Only Green Bay, Wisconsin, lacked a major league baseball team. By placing teams in big cities, Carr gave the NFL gained the foundation of stability it needed to survive during the Great Depression.

1925 NFL championship controversy

In 1925, the Pottsville Maroons, a first year NFL team, played an exhibition game against a team of former Notre Dame stars including the famous "Four Horsemen". The game was played at Philadelphia's Shibe Park, which was within the protected territory of the Frankford Yellow Jackets, who were playing a league game just a few miles away at Legion Field. On three occasions prior to the game, Carr reportedly warned the Pottsville management not to play the game, "under all penalties that the league could inflict". Ignoring Carr's warnings, the game went on as scheduled. However, the Maroons stated that Carr knew of the game and had allowed it to take place. For this act, the Pottsville Maroons were fined $500 and had their franchise forfeited; as a result, the team was stripped of their NFL title, which was given to the Chicago Cardinals. However Carr's decision and handling of the situation is still being protested by many sports historians, as well as by the people of Pottsville, Pennsylvania, and controversy still lingers about who actually won the 1925 NFL Championship, since the Maroons had earlier beaten Chicago and were actually awarded the league championship before they were suspended.

American Basketball League

In 1925, Carr was one of the moving forces behind the formation of the American Basketball League (ABL), the first attempt to create a major professional basketball league in the United States. At the ABL's organizational meeting, held in Cleveland in April 1925, Carr was elected as the ABL's president and secretary.[34] In three years as the league's president, he helped establish clubs in Brooklyn, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Rochester, Cleveland, Fort Wayne and Chicago, and negotiated with the operators of the Philadelphia Arena and Madison Square Garden to install professional basketball teams in those facilities.[11]

Minor League Baseball

Carr returned to professional baseball in 1926 as president of the Columbus Senators, a minor league club playing in the American Association.[35][36] He remained president of the Senators until early 1931, when the club was sold to the St. Louis Cardinals, and Carr was replaced by future National Baseball Hall of Fame inductee Larry MacPhail.[11][37]

In January 1933, Carr was hired as the promotional director for the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, the governing body for Minor League Baseball.[38] He was also given a seat on the organization's executive committee and charged with developing "a program to rehabilitate minor league baseball."[11] In 1931, prior to Carr taking over, there were 12 minor leagues, and many of them were in serious financial trouble.[11] By 1939, Carr had overseen the expansion of Minor League Baseball to 40 leagues operating in 279 cities in 40 states employing 4,200 players and drawing an attendance in 1938 totaling 15,500,000.[39]

Family and later years

Carr married Josephine Marie Sullivan on June 27, 1911, at St. Dominic's Church in Columbus, Ohio.[40] They had two children, Mary Agnes, (born October 13, 1913)[41] and Joseph Francis Jr. (born October 1, 1915).[42]

In February 1939, Carr was unanimously reelected as president of the NFL, this time for a 10-year term. Carr reported at the time that the NFL attendance in 1938 had increased by 14% to 937,167 in 25 league games.[43] Three months after his reelection, on May 20, 1939, Carr suffered a heart attack and was taken to a Columbus hospital where he died several hours later.[11][44] Carr had a prior heart attack in September 1937,[45] resulting in a hospitalization lasting several weeks.[46]

Carr's funeral was held at the Holy Rosary Church in Columbus and was attended by leaders of the NFL. Carr was buried at St. Joseph Cemetery, located approximately 10 miles south of Columbus in Lockbourne, Ohio.[47][48]

Legacy

Following Carr's death, Chicago Bears owner George Halas paid tribute to Carr's steadying influence and said:

Professional football's remarkable growth and popularity today is not the result of the efforts of any one owner or group of owners. It is due entirely to Mr. Carr's fair and impartial administration of its affairs and his steadfast belief in the game.[11]

In June 1939, Halas proposed that the NFL's most valuable player award, which had been approved by the league's directors at their annual winter meeting, be named the Joe F. Carr Memorial Trophy.[49] Halas' proposal was adopted by the NFL the following month.[50]

The NFL Most Valuable Player Award was named for Carr starting in 1939 and continuing through the 1946 season, after which it was discontinued. The Touchdown Club of Columbus also presented a Joe F. Carr Trophy to the NFL Player of the Year annually from 1955 to 1978.

In 1950, the Helms Athletic Foundation established the Paul H. Helms Pro Football Hall of Fame (not to be confused with the Pro Football Hall of Fame established in 1962). Carr was one of the inaugural inductees into the Helms Pro Football Hall of Fame.[51]

In July 1962, a board was established to select up to 20 individuals as the inaugural inductees into the newly established Pro Football Hall of Fame. The sport editor of The Pittsburgh Press at the time predicted: "Its first choice could well be Joe Carr, the little man from Columbus, O., whose retiring nature was matched by his fiery belief in the future of professional football. Mr. Carr was the NFL's first president, a position he held until his death, and much of the league's success can be traced back to the solid foundation he laid."[52]

In January 1963, the inaugural group of inductees was announced with Carr being one of "the first 17 immortals" to be voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. He was one of six officials selected "for helping to guide the pro sport from its original role as a stepchild of the college game to its modern popularity".[53] He was described in a biographical portrait released by the Hall as the "Father of Professional Football" for his organizational work in the early days of professional football.[54] Other inaugural inductees included George Halas, Red Grange, Jim Thorpe, Bronko Nagurski, Curly Lambeau, and Bert Bell.[55]

In 1979, George Halas wrote that professional football in its infancy needed a man who could direct the development of our organization, help design rules and enforce them."[56] In Halas' view, Carr was that man: "He was a born organizer."[56]

In 2010, football historian Chris Willis published a biography of Carr titled, "The Man Who Built the National Football League: Joe F. Carr".[57]

References

  1. ^ Chris Willis (200). The Man Who Built the National Football League:Joe F. Carr. Scarecrow Press, Inc. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0810876701.
  2. ^ Ancestry.com. Ohio, Births and Christenings Index, 1774-1973 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. Original data: "Ohio Births and Christenings, 1821-1962." Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009, 2011. Index entries derived from digital copies of original and compiled records.
  3. ^ a b c 1880 Census entry for Michael Karr and family. Son Joseph age 7 months, born the prior October. Year: 1880; Census Place: Columbus, Franklin, Ohio; Roll: 1017; Family History Film: 1255017; Page: 411D; Enumeration District: 039; Image: 0164. Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line].
  4. ^ a b c d 1900 Census entry for Michael Carr and family. Son Joseph F. born October 1879. Year: 1900; Census Place: Columbus Ward 9, Franklin, Ohio; Roll: 1268; Page: 2B; Enumeration District: 0077; FHL microfilm: 1241268. Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census [database on-line].
  5. ^ a b Willis 2010, p. 9.
  6. ^ a b Willis 2010, p. 14.
  7. ^ Willis 2010, p. 13.
  8. ^ Willis 2010, pp. 15-16.
  9. ^ Census entry for Joseph F. Carr, age 30, employed as a machinist in a railroad shop. Year: 1910; Census Place: Columbus Ward 4, Franklin, Ohio; Roll: T624_1181; Page: 12A; Enumeration District: 0077; FHL microfilm: 1375194. Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census [database on-line].
  10. ^ Willis 1910, p. 16.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Carr, President of Pro Football League, Dead". Chicago Tribune. May 21, 1939. p. Part 2, pages 1–2.
  12. ^ Some sources indicate that Carr became affiliated with the Panhandles football team in 1904, but Chris Willis in his authoritative biography of Carr found that his involvement with the football club began in 1907.
  13. ^ Willis 1910, pp. 28-32.
  14. ^ Willis 2010, p. 33.
  15. ^ Joe Horrigan (1984). "Joe Carr" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association. 6 (5–6): 1–4.
  16. ^ "Renowned Columbus Panhandles are Pro's Foes Sunday". Fort Wayne Sentinel. November 8, 1921. p. 10.
  17. ^ "Columbus Player on the League Meeting Tuesday". The Marion (OH) Star. February 23, 1910. p. 6.
  18. ^ "Official Schedule of the Ohio State League". Portsmouth (OH) Daily Times. April 23, 1915. p. 14.
  19. ^ "May Expand To Eight Clubs: President Joe Carr Foresees Fine Season For Ohio State League". The Courier-Journal. January 10, 1916. p. 7.
  20. ^ "Professional Football: League May Be Organized Including Ohio Cities". The Enquirer, Cincinnati. January 4, 1917. p. 7.
  21. ^ Willis, 2010, p. 133-134.
  22. ^ "1920 Columbus Panhandles". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  23. ^ a b "College Players Will Be Barred By Professionals". The Pittsburgh Press. May 2, 1921. p. 21.
  24. ^ "Football Men Draw Drastic Laws to Protect Collegians". Democrat and Chronicle. January 29, 1922. p. 43.
  25. ^ "Defends Professional Game: C. F. Carr Says Paid Athletes Are Upholding Football". The Enquirer, Cincinnati. November 3, 1923. p. 14.
  26. ^ Frank Smith (December 15, 1921). "Straight From the Shoulder". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 16.
  27. ^ "Packers Dropped From Pro League". The Post-Crescent. January 31, 1922. p. 10.
  28. ^ a b "Football Clubs Penalized When Break League Rule". Florence Morning News. December 30, 1925. p. 3.
  29. ^ ""Red" Plays the Same Old Game". The Decatur Daily Review. November 26, 1925. p. 1.
  30. ^ "Ernie Nevers to Get $50,000 for 'Pro' Football". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. December 12, 1925. p. 8.
  31. ^ a b c Chris Willis (2003). "Joe Carr VisionU" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association. 25 (5): 1–3.
  32. ^ "Pro Football Heads Oust Green Bay". The Republican and Times. February 1, 1922. p. 7.
  33. ^ "Art Rooney Seeks Pro Football Franchise". The Pittsburgh Press. May 3, 1933. p. 27.
  34. ^ "American Basketball League Is Formed By Cleveland Meeting". The Huntington (IN) Press. April 26, 1925. p. 6.
  35. ^ "untitled". The Indianapolis Star. December 24, 1926. p. 16.
  36. ^ "untitled". The Enquirer, Cincinnati. April 9, 1927. p. 16.
  37. ^ "Senators Acquire Pitcher Stryker". The Indianapolis Star. January 5, 1931. p. 13.
  38. ^ "Minor League Head Urges Preps Continue Baseball". The News-Palladium. January 26, 1933. p. 9.
  39. ^ Jim Emerson (April 30, 1939). "Minor League Baseball Now In Healthiest State -- Carr". The Times, Hammond, Indiana (UP story). p. 39.
  40. ^ Willis, 2010, p. 49-50.
  41. ^ Willis, 2010, p. 62.
  42. ^ Willis, 2010, p. 73.
  43. ^ "Carr Elected For 10 Years". El Paso Herald-Post. February 10, 1939. p. 11.
  44. ^ "Grid Mogul Dead: Carr Dies in Columbus". The Pittsburgh Press. May 21, 1939. p. Sports 1.
  45. ^ "Joe F. Carr Stricken With Heart Attack". The Des Moines Register. September 22, 1937. p. 16.
  46. ^ "Carr Is Improving". The Enquirer, Cincinnati. October 30, 1937. p. 12.
  47. ^ "Sportsmen to Attend When Joe Carr, Professional Football President, Is Buried". The Enquirer, Cincinnati. May 23, 1939. p. 18.
  48. ^ "Joseph Francis Carr". Find-a-Grave.com. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  49. ^ "Trophy Is Proposed To Honor Memory Of Pro Grid Chief". The Enquirer, Cincinnati. June 5, 1939. p. 13.
  50. ^ "Storck Named President". The Pittsburgh Press. July 23, 1939. p. 16.
  51. ^ "Helms Foundation Starts Football Hall of Fame". The Arizona Republic. August 3, 1950. p. 26.
  52. ^ Chester L. Smith (July 27, 1962). "NFL Hall of Fame Designed To Allow For Changing Times". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 20.
  53. ^ "'Milestone Men' of Pro Game: All-Time Grid 'Dream Backfield' Heads 17 Hall of Fame Nominees". The Daily Courier (UPI story). January 29, 1963. p. 7.
  54. ^ "Portraits of First Pro Hall Inductees". The Daily Courier (UPI story). January 29, 1963. p. 7.
  55. ^ "Canton (O.) Awaits Pro Football Hall Opening Saturday". The Pittsburgh Press. September 5, 1963. p. 42.
  56. ^ a b George Halas (November 22, 1979). "Halas reminisces about birth of professional football". Kokomo (Ind.) Tribune. p. 28.
  57. ^ Chris Willis (2010). The Man Who Built the National Football League. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810876701.

Further reading

External links

1839 in Ireland

Events from the year 1839 in Ireland.

1925 All-Pro Team

The 1925 All-Pro Team consists of American football players chosen by various selectors as the best players at their positions for the All-Pro team of the National Football League (NFL) for the 1925 NFL season.

1925 Chicago Cardinals season

The 1925 Chicago Cardinals season resulted in the Cardinals winning their first NFL championship. The 1925 championship is contested and never awarded by the NFL after the Pottsville Maroons were suspended.

The end of the Cardinals season was centered on two historic, but controversial, situations. The first was a team scandal with the Milwaukee Badgers. The scandal involved a Chicago player, Art Folz, hiring a group of high school football players to play for the Milwaukee Badgers, against the Cardinals. This would ensure an inferior opponent for Chicago. The game was used to help prop up their win–loss percentage and as a chance of wresting the 1925 championship away from the first place Pottsville Maroons. When NFL president Joseph Carr learned high school players had been used in a league game, he told reporters the 58–0 Cardinals win would be stricken from the record. However, the league had never got around to removing it and the game is still a part of the NFL records. Cardinals' owner Chris O'Brien was also fined $1,000 by Carr for allowing his team play a game against high schoolers, even though O'Brien claimed that he was unaware of the players' status. Finally Badgers' owner, Ambrose McGuirk, was ordered to sell his Milwaukee franchise within 90 days. Folz, for his role, was barred from football for life.

However, by the summer of 1926, the $1,000 fine against O'Brien was rescinded, probably since the amount would have put the Cardinals out of business. McGuirk though had already sold his Badgers franchise to Johnny Bryan, a fullback with the Chicago Bears. Two of the high school football players used in scandal even earned high school all-star recognition at the end of their season. Art Folz reportedly told the high schoolers that the game was a "practice game" and would in no part affect their amateur status.The Milwaukee scandal did have implications for the 1925 NFL Championship and the second controversy. In December 1925, the Pottsville Maroons had their title removed by the NFL and given to the Cardinals for playing in an unsanctioned game against the Notre Dame All-Stars. To this day, Pottsville residents and supporters still demand to know why Chicago was awarded the title even though they too were found by Carr to have violated the NFL's rules. According to Bob Carroll of the Professional Football Researchers Association, "The Cardinals didn't defy the league", Carroll said. "Pottsville did. It was a great team, but the owner made a mistake." However, it is still not entirely known if O'Brien knew of the high school players on the Badgers team.For his part, Cardinals owner Chris O'Brien refused to accept the championship title for his team. At the owners' meeting after the season was over, he argued that his team did not deserve to take the title over a team which had beaten them fairly. It appears that his reasons for scheduling the Milwaukee and Hammond games had been not to take the title, but rather to convince the cross-town Chicago Bears to play his team again – the Bears, with Red Grange in their roster, were a very lucrative draw. The NFL said it would revisit the issue later, but never did. It was only later, under the ownership of Charles Bidwill and his son Bill Bidwill, that the Cardinals began claiming the championship title.

1925 NFL Championship controversy

The 1925 National Football League Championship, claimed by the Chicago Cardinals, has long been the subject of controversy. The controversy centers on the suspension of the Pottsville Maroons by NFL commissioner Joseph Carr, which prevented them from taking the title.

The Maroons were one of the dominant teams of the 1925 season, and after defeating the Chicago Cardinals on December 6, came away with the best record in the league. However, Carr suspended and removed the team from the NFL after they played an unauthorized exhibition game in Philadelphia, on the grounds that they had violated the territorial rights of the Frankford Yellow Jackets. Chicago played and won two more games against weak NFL opponents, but were sanctioned because a Chicago player, Art Folz, hired four Chicago high school football players to play for the Milwaukee Badgers under assumed names to ensure a Cardinals victory.

Pottsville supporters argue that the suspension was illegitimate because the League did not then grant exclusive territory rights and that, in any event, they had verbal League approval to play the game in Philadelphia. Further, they argue that the Maroons, who were reinstated the next year, would have had the best record had they not been suspended. Others claim that Chicago were the legitimate champions based on the rules of the time. In 1963, the NFL investigated and rejected Pottsville's case, and in 2003 refused to reopen the case. Both the NFL and the Pro Football Hall of Fame continue to list the Cardinals as the 1925 NFL champion.

1939 NFL season

The 1939 NFL season was the 20th regular season of the National Football League. Before the season, NFL president Joseph Carr died, and Carl Storck was named to replace him.

An NFL game was televised for the first time when NBC broadcast a Brooklyn Dodgers–Philadelphia Eagles game. The experimental broadcast was broadcast only to viewers in New York and Albany; regular broadcasting of NFL games would not begin until 1951.

The season ended when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New York Giants in the NFL Championship Game.

Aaron Pott

Aaron Pott is a winemaker. Upon graduation from the University of California, Davis, he took a position at Newton Vineyard in Napa Valley. He left Newton for a position as winemaker at Château Troplong-Mondot, a Premier Grand Cru Classé in Saint-Émilion, France. Pott left Château Troplong Mondont after a year to become director at Château La Tour Figeac, a Grand Cru Classé located in Saint-Emilion. He spent five years there and in the process earned a degree in Viticulture from the Université de Bourgogne in Dijon, France. Pott returned to the United States after six years, becoming head winemaker in charge of international brands for Beringer Wine Estates of the Napa Valley. In 2004, he accepted a position as winemaker and general manager at Quintessa Estate in the Napa Valley.

In 2007, Pott teamed up with his wife Claire to create Pott Wine, a Napa Valley label, produced in part, from the couple’s 76-acre (310,000 m2) vineyard property on Mt. Veeder. He continues to consult to a limited number of Napa Valley producers, among them Quixote Winery, Stagecoach Vineyard, Blackbird Vineyards, Seven Stones Winery, Fisher Vineyards, Greer Wines, Martin Estate, St. Helena Winery, and Joseph Carr.

American Basketball League (1925–55)

The American Basketball League (ABL) was an early professional basketball league. During six seasons from 1925–26 to 1930–31, the ABL was the first attempt to create a major professional basketball league in the United States. Joseph Carr, who was, in 1925, the president of the recently founded, three year old National Football League, organized the ABL from nine of the best independent pro teams from the East and the Midwest. George Halas of the NFL Chicago Bears was the owner of the Chicago Bruins, and department store magnate Max Rosenblum, a part owner of the NFL's Cleveland Bulldogs, financed the Cleveland Rosenblums. Future NFL (Washington Redskins) owner George Preston Marshall, the owner of a chain of laundries, was owner of the Washington Palace Five. Other teams were the Boston Whirlwinds, Brooklyn Arcadians, Buffalo Bisons, Detroit Pulaski Post Five, Fort Wayne Caseys, and Rochester Centrals. With the exception of 1927–28, the ABL season was divided into two halves, with the winner of the first half playing the winner of the second half for the championship. Five games into the 1926–27 season, the Original Celtics were admitted to replace the Brooklyn franchise, and won 32 of the remaining 37 games, then shifted to New York the following season.

For the 1927–28 season, the ABL had an Eastern (New York, Philadelphia, Rochester and Washington) and Western (Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit and Fort Wayne) division, with the two best teams in each division going to playoffs, and a championship between the playoff winners. Playing in Madison Square Garden, the New York Celtics had a 40–9 record in the regular season and won the championship. At season's end, the champions were voted out of the league by the other owners. The ABL played three more seasons and then, with only five teams playing at the end of 1930–31, folded during the Great Depression.After more than two years, the league was reorganized in 1933, but as an East Coast league, with teams in Pennsylvania and New York City metro area.The league did take some measure to help modernize the game. One of the major issues that had plagued basketball was players jumping from team to team. To combat this, players signed contracts with teams, sometimes for amounts like $1,500 a month, not a bad pay for a time when the average laborer was making $15 a week. Backboard were mandatory, and new rules, such as three second lane violations, and foul outs were implemented. Another rule the ABL implemented was the collegiate rule, which eliminated the double dribble. This was also done to encourage many of the game's top college stars to play in the league.The 1925–26 season saw Cleveland, the second half winner, defeat Brooklyn, winner of the first half of the season, three games to none. The Boston Celtics dropped out of the league. The Celtics were one of the top teams at the time, but refused to join the ABL, instead opting to be an "at Large" member. This conflict resulted in Boston dropping out, and refusing to take part in the second half of the season. One of the early stars for the league was Cleveland's Honey Russell whose 7.4 points was the second highest average in the league. Cleveland drew well, bringing in nearly 10,000 fans a game, while Brooklyn could only draw around 2,000.

Art Folz

Arthur F. Folz a.k.a. Art Foltz (March 31, 1903 – August 18, 1965) was a professional American football player who played with the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League (NFL) from 1923 to 1925. He is best known for his role in the 1925 Chicago Cardinals–Milwaukee Badgers scandal, where Folz hired a group of high school football players from his alma mater, Chicago's Engelwood High School, to play for the Milwaukee Badgers, against the Cardinals. During the recruitment, Folz reportedly told the high schoolers that the game was a "practice game" and would in no part affect their amateur status.

The plan would ensure an inferior opponent for Chicago. The game was then used to help prop up their win-loss percentage and as a chance of wrestling away the 1925 NFL Championship away from the first place Pottsville Maroons. For his involvement, Folz was barred from playing football in the NFL for life by NFL President Joseph Carr. However, in 1926, Folz's lifetime ban was lifted, probably to prevent him from joining the first American Football League; even so, he chose not to return to pro football.

The scandal also played a role in the 1925 NFL Championship controversy.

Billy Gibson (boxing)

William J. Gibson (1876–1947) was a boxing promoter and manager for Benny Leonard (a former Lightweight champion), Gene Tunney (a former Heavyweight champion), Paulino Uzcudun, and featherweight Louis Kaplan. He was also the owner of the short-lived New York Brickley Giants of the National Football League. Gibson began his career in boxing as a promoter in Bronx. He teamed up with Leonard in 1914 and was his manager up until the 1917 lightweight championship. In 1923, Gibson became the manager of Tunney, who would go on to win the heavyweight title. Gibson retired in 1928.Gibson also served as matchmaker and manager at Madison Square Garden for two years. In 1921, Gibson put his financial backing behind Charles Brickley, who formed the NFL's New York Brickley Giants for one season in 1921. In 1925, the NFL was in need of a franchise in large city market, that could be used to showcase the league. NFL President, Joseph Carr traveled to New York to offer Gibson another franchise. Gibson who lost money heavily on the New York Brickley Giants, refused the offer. However, he referred Carr to his friend, Tim Mara, who established the modern day New York Giants that year.Gibson died of natural causes on July 21, 1947. He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 2009.

Columbus Panhandles

The Columbus Panhandles were a professional American football team based in Columbus, Ohio. The club was founded in 1901 by workers at the Panhandle shops of the Pennsylvania Railroads. They were a part of the Ohio League from 1904 before folding after one season. Three years later, the team tried again and playing the Ohio League from 1907 to 1919, not winning a championship, before becoming charter members of the American Professional Football Association (APFA) which became the National Football League (NFL).

The Panhandles are credited with playing in the first NFL game against another NFL opponent. They have zero NFL championships, but Joseph Carr, the team's owner from 1907 to 1922, is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame for his work as NFL president.

Draft (sports)

A draft is a process used in some countries and sports to allocate certain players to teams. In a draft, teams take turns selecting from a pool of eligible players. When a team selects a player, the team receives exclusive rights to sign that player to a contract, and no other team in the league may sign the player.

The best-known type of draft is the entry draft, which is used to allocate players who have recently become eligible to play in a league. Depending on the sport, the players may come from college, high school or junior teams or teams in other countries. An entry draft is intended to prevent expensive bidding wars for young talent and to ensure that no one team can sign contracts with all of the best young players and make the league uncompetitive. To encourage parity, teams that do poorly in the previous season usually get to choose first in the postseason draft, sometimes with a "lottery" factor to discourage teams from deliberately losing.

Other types of drafts include the expansion draft, in which a new team selects players from other teams in the league; and the dispersal draft, in which a league's surviving teams select players from the roster of a newly defunct franchise.

Drafts are usually permitted under anti-trust or restraint of trade laws because they are included in collective bargaining agreements between leagues and labor unions representing players. These agreements generally stipulate that after a certain number of seasons, a player whose contract has expired becomes a free agent and can sign with any team. They also require minimum and sometimes maximum salaries for newly drafted players.

US National Football League President Joseph Carr instituted a draft in 1935 as a way to restrain teams' payrolls and reduce the dominance of the league's perennial contenders. It was adopted by the precursor of the National Basketball Association in 1947; by the National Hockey League in 1963; and by Major League Baseball in 1965, although draft systems had been used in baseball since the 19th century.Drafts are uncommon outside the U.S. and Canada, and most professional football clubs obtain young players through transfers from smaller clubs or by developing youth players through their own academies. The youth system is operated directly by the teams themselves, who develop their players from childhood. Parity in these leagues is instead maintained through promotion and relegation, which automatically expels the weakest teams from a league in exchange for the strongest teams in the next lower league.

Frank Carr (footballer)

Francis Joseph "Frank" Carr (21 April 1919 – July 2010) was an English professional footballer who played as an inside forward in the Football League for York City, and was on the books of Rotherham United without making a league appearance.

Joe F. Carr Trophy

The Joe F. Carr Trophy was the first award given in the National Football League (NFL) to recognize a most valuable player for each season. It was first awarded in 1938, known then as the Gruen Trophy, and renamed in 1939 in honor of NFL commissioner Joseph Carr. The Gruen Trophy, sponsored by Gruen Watch Co., was first awarded in 1937 to Dutch Clark of the Detroit Lions. However, both contemporary and modern sources consider the 1938 award the first retroactive Joe F. Carr Trophy, and thus the first NFL MVP award. Players were chosen by a panel of sportswriters who distributed first and second place votes. It was awarded until the 1946 season, and it remains the only MVP award the NFL has officially sanctioned.

Joseph Carr (disambiguation)

Joseph Carr (1879–1939) was the U.S. National Football League president, 1921–1939.

Joseph or Joe Carr may also refer to:

Joseph Carr (music publisher) (1739–1819), 19th century Baltimore music publisher

Joe Carr (1922–2004), Irish amateur golfer

Joe Carr (Ghanaian footballer), former Ghanaian international goalkeeper

Joe Carr (Texas musician) (1951–2014), American roots and country musician and author

Joe C. Carr (1907–1981), Tennessee politician, Tennessee Secretary of State, 1941–1944, 1945–1949, and 1957–1977

Joe S. Carr, member of the Tennessee House of Representatives

Joe "Fingers" Carr, stage name used by piano player Lou Busch

J. Comyns Carr (1849–1916), English drama and art critic

J. L. Carr (1912–1994), English novelist

Joe Carr (Scottish footballer) (1931–2015), Scottish footballer

Joseph Milton Carr (1858–1929), merchant and politician in Ontario, Canada

Joseph Bradford Carr (1828–1895), U.S. soldier and politician, New York Secretary of State, 1879–1885

Joseph Carr (music publisher)

Joseph Carr (London, 1739 – Baltimore, Maryland, October 20, 1819) was an American music publisher. He was the father of Thomas and Benjamin, and was one of the most influential publishers in the early history of the United States.

Joseph Milton Carr

Joseph Milton Carr (December 24, 1858 – August 26, 1929) was a merchant and politician in Ontario, Canada. He represented Parry Sound in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1902 to 1904 as a Liberal.The son of Thomas Carr and Adeline Alexander, he was born in Sweaburg and was educated in Woodstock. In 1880, he married Mary Street. Carr operated a general store in Powassan but moved his business to Cobalt in 1905 after silver was discovered there. His business was destroyed by fire and he became involved in mining. Carr later retired, living in Hamilton and Barrie until his wife's death around 1924, when he moved back to Powassan. He suffered heart problems and later died at the Toronto General Hospital at the age of 70.

Thomas Carr (archbishop of Melbourne)

Thomas Joseph Carr (10 May 1839 – 6 May 1917) was the second Roman Catholic archbishop of Melbourne, Australia.

Thomas Carr (publisher)

Thomas Carr (London, 1780 – Philadelphia, April 15, 1849) was an American music publisher, composer, and organist. He was the son of Joseph Carr and the brother of Benjamin.

Thomas Carr College

Thomas Carr College is an Australian Catholic co-educational day school in Tarneit . It is named after Thomas Joseph Carr, the second Roman Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne. In 2006, the principal since the College's founding, Paul D'Astoli, was transferred and was succeeded by Bruce Runnalls. Currently the College's principal is Mr Andrew Watson.

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