Joseph Bonaparte

Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe di Buonaparte (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe di ˌbwɔnaˈparte], Spanish: José Bonaparte; 7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I). After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.

Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph-Bonaparte
Portrait as King of Spain by François Gérard, 1808
King of Spain and the Indies
Reign6 June 1808 – 11 December 1813
PredecessorFerdinand VII
SuccessorFerdinand VII
King of Naples and Sicily
Reign30 March 1806 – 6 June 1808
PredecessorFerdinand IV
SuccessorJoachim I
Born7 January 1768
Corte, Corsica, Republic of Genoa
Died28 July 1844 (aged 76)
Florence, Tuscany
Spouse
Julie Clary (m. 1794)
IssueZénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte
Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte
Full name
French: Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte
Italian: Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte
Spanish: José Napoleón Bonaparte
HouseBonaparte
FatherCarlo Buonaparte
MotherLetizia Ramolino
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Early years and personal life

Joseph was born in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic. In the year of his birth, Corsica was invaded by France and conquered the following year. His father was originally a follower of the Corsican Patriot leader, Pasquale Paoli, but later became a supporter of French rule.

As a lawyer, politician, and diplomat, Joseph served in the Cinq-Cents and was the French ambassador to Rome. On 30 September 1800, as Minister Plenipotentiary, he signed a treaty of friendship and commerce between France and the United States at Morfontaine, alongside Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu, and Pierre Louis Roederer.

In 1795 Joseph was a member of the Council of Ancients, where he used his position to help his brother overthrow the Directory four years later.

The Château de Villandry had been seized by the French Revolutionary government; and, in the early 19th century, Joseph's brother, the Emperor Napoleon, acquired the château for him.

King of Naples

Upon the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1805, Ferdinand IV of Naples had agreed a treaty of neutrality with Napoleon but, a few days later, declared his support for Austria and permitted a large Anglo-Russian force to land in his kingdom. Napoleon, however, was soon victorious and, with the War of the Third Coalition having been shattered on 5 December at the Battle of Austerlitz, Ferdinand found himself exposed to French wrath.

André Masséna (Fontaine et Gros)
Although Joseph was in nominal command, it was André Masséna who led the invasion of Naples in 1806.

On 27 December 1805, Napoleon issued a proclamation from the Schönbrunn declaring Ferdinand to have forfeited his kingdom and that a French invasion would soon follow ensuring 'that the finest of countries is relieved from the yoke of the most faithless of men.'[1] On 31 December Napoleon commanded Joseph to leave Paris and move to Rome, where he would be assigned at the head of the army sent to dispossess Ferdinand of his throne. Although Joseph was the nominal commander-in-chief of the expedition, Marshal Masséna was in effective command of operations, with General St. Cyr second. However St. Cyr, who had previously held the senior command of French troops in the region, soon resigned in protest at being made subordinate to Masséna and left for Paris. An outraged Napoleon ordered St. Cyr to return to his post at once.[2]

On 8 February 1806 the French invasion force of forty-thousand men crossed into Naples. The centre and right of the army under Masséna and General Reynier advanced south from Rome while Giuseppe Lechi led a force down the Adriatic coast from Ancona. On his brother's recommendation, Joseph attached himself to Reynier.[3] The French advance faced little resistance. Even before any French troops had crossed the border, the Anglo-Russian forces had beaten a prudent retreat, the British withdrawing to Sicily, the Russians to Corfu. Thus abandoned by his allies, King Ferdinand had also already set sail for Palermo on 23 January. Queen Maria-Carolina lingered a little longer in the capital but, on 11 February, also fled to join her husband.

The first obstacle the French encountered was the fortress of Gaeta, its governor, Prince Louis of Hesse-Philippsthal, refusing to surrender his charge. This did not however result in any meaningful delay of the invaders, Masséna simply detaching a small force to besiege the garrison before continuing south, where Capua opened its gates after only token resistance.[4] On 14 February Masséna took possession of Naples and, the following day, Joseph staged a triumphant entrance into the city.[5] Reynier was then quickly dispatched to seize control of the Strait of Messina and on 9 March inflicted a crushing defeat on the Neapolitan Royal Army at the Battle of Campo Tenese, effectively destroying it as a fighting force and securing the entire mainland for the French.

Joseph Bonaparte (by Wicar)
Portrait of Joseph Bonaparte, King of Naples, by Jean-Baptiste Wicar (1762 – 1834).

On 30 March 1806 Napoleon issued a decree installing Joseph as King of Naples and Sicily, the decree reading as follows:

"Napoleon, by the Grace of God and the constitutions. Emperor of the French and King of Italy, to all those to whom these presents come, greetings. The interests of our people, the honour of our Crown, and the tranquillity of the Continent of Europe requiring that we should assure, in a stable and definite manner, the lot of the people of Naples and of Sicily, who have fallen into our power by the right of conquest, and who constitute a part of the Grand Empire, we declare that we recognise, as King of Naples and of Sicily, our well-beloved brother, Joseph Napoleon, Grand Elector of France. This Crown will be hereditary, by order of primogeniture, in his descendants male, legitimate, and natural, etc."[6]

Italia 1810
Napoleonic Italy in 1810, Naples being the same extent under Joseph (1806 - 1808).
Julie Clary
Julie Clary, Queen of Naples, with her daughter Zenaide Bonaparte in 1807, by Robert Lefèvre (1755–1830).

Joseph's arrival in Naples was warmly greeted with cheers and he was eager to be a monarch well liked by his subjects. Seeking to win the favour of the local elites, he maintained in their posts the vast majority of those who had held office and position under the Bourbons and was anxious to not in any way appear a foreign oppressor. With a provisional government set up in the capital, Joseph then immediately set off, accompanied by General Lamarque, on a tour of his new realm. The principal object of the tour was to assess the feasibility of an immediate invasion of Sicily and the expulsion of Ferdinand and Maria-Carolina from their refuge in Palermo. But, upon reviewing the situation at the Strait of Messina, Joseph was forced to admit the impossibility of such an enterprise, the Bourbons having carried off all boats and transports from along the coast and concentrated their remaining forces, alongside the British, on the opposite side.[7] Unable to possess himself of Sicily, Joseph was nevertheless master of the mainland and he continued his progress through Calabria and on to Lucania and Apulia, visiting the main villages and meeting the local notables, clergy and people, allowing his people to grow accustomed to their new king and enabling himself to form first-hand a picture of the condition of his kingdom.[8]

Upon returning to Naples, Joseph received a deputation from the French Senate congratulating him upon his accession. The King then set about forming a ministry staffed by many competent and talented men with whom he was determined to pursue a reforming agenda and confer upon Naples all the benefits of the French Revolution, without its excesses. Saliceti was appointed Minister of Police, Roederer Minister of Finance, Miot Minister of the Interior and General Dumas Minister of War. Marshal Jourdan was also confirmed as Governor of Naples, an appointment made by Napoleon, and served as Joseph's foremost military adviser.

Joseph then embarked on an ambitious programme of reform and regeneration aimed at raising Naples to the level of a modern state in the mould of Napoleonic France. Monastic orders were suppressed, their property nationalised and their funds confiscated to steady the royal finances.[9] Feudal privileges and taxes were abolished, however the nobility was compensated by an indemnity in the form of a certificate which could be exchanged in return for lands nationalised from the Church.[10] Moreover, provincial intendants were instructed to engage those dispossessed former monks who had the inclination in the work of public education, and to ensure that elderly monks no longer able to support themselves were moved into communal establishments founded for their care.[11] A college for the education of young girls was also established in each province and a central college at Aversa was founded to which the daughters of public functionaries, and the ablest from the provincial schools, were admitted under the personal patronage of Queen Julie.[12]

The practice of forcibly recruiting prisoners into the army was also abolished and, to counter the perennial plague of robbers and brigands who infested the mountains and preyed upon travellers, military commissions were established with the power to judge and execute, without appeal, all those brigands arrested with arms in their possession.[13] Public works programmes were also instituted to give employment to the poor and improvement to the kingdom, with practicable highways being built all the way to Reggio and the project of a Calabrian road, which under the Bourbons had existed for decades only as the pretext for a tax levied each year ostensibly for its construction, was completed by Joseph within the year.[14] In the second year of his reign, Joseph also had installed the first system of public street-lighting in Naples itself, modelled on that then operating in Paris.[10]

Although the kingdom was not at that time furnished with a constitution, and thus Joseph's will as monarch reigned supreme, there is yet no instance of him ever adopting a measure of policy without prior discussion of the matter in the Council of State and the passing of a majority vote in favour his course of action by the counsellors.[15] Joseph thus presided over Naples in the best traditions of Enlightened absolutism, doubling the revenue of the crown from seven to fourteen million ducats in his brief two-year reign while all the time seeking to lighten the burdens of his people rather than increase them.[16]

Joseph ruled Naples for two years before being replaced by his sister's husband, Joachim Murat. Joseph was then made King of Spain in August 1808, soon after the French invasion.

King of Spain

Pepe botella
Propaganda caricature depicting Joseph Bonaparte in Spain

Joseph somewhat reluctantly left Naples, where he was popular, and arrived in Spain where he was extremely unpopular. Joseph came under heavy fire from his opponents in Spain, who tried to smear his reputation by calling him Pepe Botella (Joe Bottle) for his alleged heavy drinking, an accusation echoed by later Spanish historiography, despite the fact that Joseph was abstemious. His arrival sparked the legitimate Spanish revolt against French rule, and the beginning of the Peninsular War. Thompson says the Spanish revolt was, "a reaction against new institutions and ideas, a movement for loyalty to the old order: to the hereditary crown of the Most Catholic kings, which Napoleon, an excommunicated enemy of the Pope, had put on the head of a Frenchman; to the Catholic Church persecuted by republicans who had desecrated churches, murdered priests, and enforced a "loi des cultes"; and to local and provincial rights and privileges threatened by an efficiently centralized government.[17]

Joseph temporarily retreated with much of the French Army to northern Spain. Feeling himself in an ignominious position, Joseph then proposed his own abdication from the Spanish throne, hoping that Napoleon would sanction his return to the Neapolitan Throne he had formerly occupied. Napoleon dismissed Joseph's misgivings out of hand, and to back up the raw and ill-trained levies he had initially allocated to Spain, the Emperor sent heavy French reinforcements to assist Joseph in maintaining his position as King of Spain. Despite the easy recapture of Madrid, and nominal control by Joseph's government over many cities and provinces, Joseph's reign over Spain was always tenuous at best, and constantly resisted by pro-Bourbon guerrillas. Joseph and his supporters never established complete control over the country.

King Joseph's Spanish supporters were called josefinos or afrancesados (frenchified). During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition, partly because Napoleon was at odds with Pope Pius VII at the time. Despite such efforts to win popularity, Joseph's foreign birth and support, plus his membership of a Masonic lodge,[18] virtually guaranteed he would never be accepted as legitimate by the bulk of the Spanish people. During Joseph's rule of Spain, Mexico and Venezuela declared independence from Spain. The king had virtually no influence over the course of the ongoing Peninsular War: Joseph's nominal command of French forces in Spain was mostly illusory, as the French commanders theoretically subordinate to King Joseph insisted on checking with Napoleon before carrying out Joseph's instructions.

King Joseph abdicated and returned to France after the main French forces were defeated by a British-led coalition at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. During the closing campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition Napoleon left his brother to govern Paris with the title Lieutenant General of the Empire. As a result he was again in nominal command of the French Army at the Battle of Paris.

He was seen by Bonapartists as the rightful Emperor of the French after the death of Napoleon's own son Napoleon II in 1832, although he did little to advance his claim.

United States

Joseph lived primarily in the United States (where he sold the jewels he had taken from Spain) in the period 1817–1832,[19] initially in New York City and Philadelphia, where his house became the centre of activity for French expatriates, but later moved to an estate, formerly owned by Stephen Sayre, called Point Breeze in Bordentown, New Jersey. Joseph's home was located near the confluence of Crosswicks Creek and the Delaware River. He considerably expanded Sayre's home and created extensive gardens in the picturesque style. When his first home was destroyed by fire in January 1820 he converted his stables into a second grand house. At Point Breeze, Joseph entertained many of the leading intellectuals and politicians of his day.

According to legend, during this period he had an encounter with the mythological Jersey Devil.

Reputedly some Mexican revolutionaries offered to crown him Emperor of Mexico in 1820, but he declined.[19]

Joseph Bonaparte returned to Europe, where he died in Florence, Italy, and was buried in the Les Invalides building complex in Paris.[20]

Family and Issue

He married Marie Julie Clary daughter of François Clary on 1 August 1794 in Cuges-les-Pins, France. They had three daughters:

He claimed the two surviving daughters as his heirs. He also sired two children with Maria Giulia, the Countess of Atri:

  • Giulio (1806– )
  • Teresa (1808– ).

Joseph had two American daughters born at Point Breeze, his estate in Bordentown, New Jersey, by his mistress, Annette Savage ("Madame de la Folie"):

  • Pauline Anne; died young.
  • Catherine Charlotte (1822–1890); married Col. Zebulon Howell Benton of Jefferson County, New York, and had issue:[21] Louis Joseph Benton (1848-1940) and son Frederick Joseph Benton (1901-1967)[22]

Freemasonry

Joseph Bonaparte was admitted in Marseille's lodge la Parfaite Sincérité in 1793.[23][24][25] He was asked by his brother Napoleon to monitor freemasonry as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France (1804–1815).[26][27][28][29] With Cambacérès he managed the post-revolution rebirth of the Order in France.[26][30][31][32]

Gallery

Joseph Bonaparte (by Wicar)

Portrait by Jean-Baptiste Wicar, 1808

Grandes armes du Royaume de Naples2

Coat of arms as King of Naples

Grand Coat of Arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain

Coat of arms as King of Spain

Royal Monogram of Joseph I of Spain

Royal Monogram as King of Spain

80 Reales en or à l'effigie de Joseph Napoléon

Spanish gold coin from 1811

Titles and styles

  • 7 January 1768 – circa 1795: Nobile Giuseppe Buonaparte
  • circa 1795 – 1804: Citoyen Joseph Bonaparte
  • 1804 – 30 March 1806: His Imperial Highness, Prince Joseph-Napoleon, French Prince & Grand Elector of the French Empire
  • 30 March 1806 – 6 June 1808: His Majesty By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the State, King of Naples.
  • 6 June 1808 – 11 December 1813: His Majesty By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the State, King of the Spains and the Indies.
  • 1815–1833 (styled, not officially) His Imperial Highness the Count of Survilliers

Legacy

Fictional portrayals

The romantic web between Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Julie Clary and Désirée Clary was the subject of the 1951 novel Désirée, by Annemarie Selinko.

The novel was filmed as Désirée in 1954, with Marlon Brando as Napoleon, Jean Simmons as Désirée, and Cameron Mitchell as Joseph Bonaparte.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Confidential Correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his Brother Joseph, Vol. 1, 80.
  2. ^ The Confidential Correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his Brother Joseph, Vol. 1, 82.
  3. ^ The Confidential Correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his Brother Joseph, Vol. 1, 81.
  4. ^ J. S. C. Abbott, A History of Joseph, King of Naples, 104.
  5. ^ J. S. C. Abbott, A History of Joseph, King of Naples, 105.
  6. ^ J. S. C. Abbott, A History of Joseph, King of Naples, 105-6.
  7. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 15.
  8. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 16.
  9. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 22.
  10. ^ a b Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 29.
  11. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 23.
  12. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 24.
  13. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 24; J. S. C. Abbott, A History of Joseph, King of Naples, 113.
  14. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 25.
  15. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 34-5.
  16. ^ Biographical Sketch of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, Count de Survilliers, 35.
  17. ^ J. M. Thompson, Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall (1951) 244-45
  18. ^ Ross, Michael The Reluctant King, 1977, pp. 34–35
  19. ^ a b "Joseph Bonaparte at Point Breeze". Flat Rock. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  20. ^ Kwoh, Leslie (10 June 2007). "Yes, a Bonaparte feasted here". Star Ledger. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  21. ^ The Growth of a Century: as Illustrated in the History of Jefferson County
  22. ^ 1880 and 1910 US CENSUS Pennsylvania population via Ancestry.com
  23. ^ La franc-maçonnerie Jean Massicot (Desnoël ed.)
  24. ^ Les Francs-maçons et leur religion Jacques Duchenne (Publibook ed.)
  25. ^ Revue d'histoire de Bayonne, du pays basque et du Bas-Adour, Numéro 159, page 176
  26. ^ a b Franc-maçonnerie et politique au siècle des lumières: Europe-Amérique page 55 – article Le binôme franc-maçonnerie-Révolution – José Ferrer Benimeli (Presses Univ de Bordeaux ed., 2006)
  27. ^ Histoire de la franc-maçonnerie en France Jean André Faucher and Achille Ricker (Nouvelles éditions latines ed., 1967)
  28. ^ Histoire du Grand Orient de France page 338, Achille Godefroy Jouaust, (Brissard et Teissier ed. 1865)
  29. ^ Chronique de la Franc-maçonnerie en Corse: 1772-1920 page 66 - Charles Santoni ( A. Piazzola ed., 1999)
  30. ^ Les francs-maçons: Des inconditionnels de l'espoir page 22 François Deschatres (L’Harmattan ed. 2012)
  31. ^ Histoire de la franc-maçonnerie en France – page 231 Jean André Faucher and Achille Ricker
  32. ^ Essai sur l'origine et l'histoire de la franc-maçonnerie en Guadeloupe - Guy Monduc (G. Monduc ed., 1985)

Further reading

External links

Joseph Bonaparte
Born: 7 January 1768 Died: 28 July 1844
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ferdinand IV
King of Naples
1806 – 1808
Succeeded by
Joachim I
Preceded by
Ferdinand VII
King of Spain
1808 – 1813
Succeeded by
Ferdinand VII
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Napoléon II
— TITULAR —
Emperor of the French
King of Italy

22 July 1832 – 28 July 1844
Succeeded by
Louis I
Australian marine parks

Australian marine parks (formerly Commonwealth marine reserves) are marine protected areas located within Australian waters and are managed by the Australian government. These waters generally extend from three nautical miles off the coast to the outer limit of Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone at 200 nautical miles while marine protected areas located closer in-shore are the responsibility of the states or the Northern Territory.

Battle of Ocaña

The Battle of Ocaña was fought on 19 November 1809 between French forces under Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia and King Joseph Bonaparte and the Spanish army under Juan Carlos de Aréizaga, which suffered its greatest single defeat in the Peninsular War. General Juan Carlos de Aréizaga's Spanish army of 51,000 lost nearly 19,000 killed, wounded, prisoners and deserters, mostly due to the French use of their cavalry. Tactically, the battle was a Cannae-like encirclement of the Spanish army. The strategic consequences were also devastating, as it destroyed the only force capable of defending southern Spain; the area was overrun over the winter in the Andalusia campaign.

Battle of Vitoria

At the Battle of Vitoria (21 June 1813) a British, Portuguese and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan near Vitoria in Spain, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War.

Berkeley River

The Berkeley River is a river in the Kimberley of Western Australia.The river flows for 135 km to the Timor Sea via the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf near Reveley Island and Cape St Lambert.

The river rises from the Tadrida Scarp and flows in a north-easterly direction through the Drysdale River National Park and the Oombulgarri Indigenous Reserve before discharging into the Timor Sea. The river has two tributaries, the De Lancourt River and Casuarina Creek.

The traditional owners of the areas around the river are the Miwa people.The river was named in 1911 by the explorer Charles Price Conigrave, the first European to discover the river. He named the river after his brother Berkeley Fairfax Conigrave.It is regularly visited by Ocean Dream Charters while on Kimberley coastal cruises.

Carlotism

Carlotism was a political movement that took place in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata between 1808 and 1812; it intended to make Carlota Joaquina, Infanta of Spain and Queen Consort of Portugal, its monarch.

After Napoleon's invasion of Spain, Fernando VII, Carlota's younger brother, was forced to abdicate and give the throne to Joseph Bonaparte. Most Spanish did not consider him a legitimate king and Carlota, an ambitious woman, seemed like a possible option to keep the royal line safe.

Carlota was living in Brazil by then, after the nobility of Portugal moved from Portugal to the Americas because of Napoleón's invasion of Portugal.

Carlotism found strong resistance from many parties involved: the viceroys, other Spanish authorities in the Americas, part of the Criollos, and the British. The plans were never applied, and supporters of it would later turn to independence.

Charles Joseph Bonaparte

Charles Joseph Bonaparte (; June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a French-American lawyer and political activist for progressive and liberal causes. Originally from Baltimore, Maryland, he served in the cabinet of the 26th U.S. President, Theodore Roosevelt.

Bonaparte was the U.S. Secretary of the Navy and later the U.S. Attorney General. During his tenure as the attorney general, he created the Bureau of Investigation which later grew and expanded by the 1920s under the director J. Edgar Hoover, (1895–1972), as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). It was so renamed in 1935. He was a great-nephew of French Emperor Napoleon I.Bonaparte was one of the founders, and for a time the president, of the National Municipal League. He was also a long time activist for the rights of black residents of his city.

Fish River (Northern Territory)

The Fish River is a river in the Northern Territory of Australia. It is a tributary of the Daly River which ultimately flows into the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf which is part of the Timor Sea.

Its catchment covers an area of 1,748.15 km². None of the land within the river's watershed, which is covered by woodlands and melaleuca forest, has been cleared of its vegetation.

Gen. Philemon Dickinson House

Gen. Philemon Dickinson House is located in Trenton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States.

The original frame house was built by the Rutherford family about 1760. General Philemon Dickinson (1739-1809) bought it in July 1776, as a rural retreat along the Delaware River, and named it "The Hermitage." He lived here with his wife Mary Cadwalader and children, Mary and Samuel. The frame house was torn down about 1905, but a much larger stone-and-stucco addition built in 1784 still stands. The addition was extensively remodeled in the Italianate style in the mid-19th century.During his partial term as U.S. Senator from New Jersey (1790–93), Dickinson hosted First Lady Martha Washington as a houseguest (May 17–19, 1791). President John Adams was frequently entertained during the summer of 1798, when yellow fever in Philadelphia caused the federal government to evacuate to Trenton, although he lodged at a nearby hotel. Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton were reportedly guests, along with Frenchmen General Rochambeau, Joseph Bonaparte, and Louis Philippe (later King of France).

In the early-20th century, the street grid was expanded around the house (note that the building sits at an angle to Colonial Avenue). The house has been converted into apartments.

The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 17, 1974. Trenton Historical Society lists it as one of the top ten endangered buildings in the city.

Glen Arm, Maryland

Glen Arm is an unincorporated community in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States.Glen Arm lies along what is now Glen Arm Road, which was once part of Old Harford Road, one of the early routes used for conveying agricultural products from parts of Harford and Baltimore Counties and southern Pennsylvania to the port of Baltimore. Glen Arm was also served until 1958 by the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1921, at the railroad's crossing of Glen Arm Road, what generally is recognized as the nation's first train-actuated railroad crossing signal was installed by the railroad's Superintendent of Signals, Charles Adler, Jr. Adler later designed early traffic-actuated traffic lights for the City of Baltimore, and also invented the system of flashing warning lights used on aircraft.Glen Arm was once the home to a Grumman aircraft manufacturing plant. Today, the building serves as the American headquarters of and a warehouse for Ulla Popken women's clothing.Ravenshurst, a historic Carpenter Gothic-style home in Glen Arm, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. It was destroyed by fire in 1985.In the 1990s Glen Arm was the center of the Towson Glen Arm music and art collective.A notable resident of Glen Arm was Charles Joseph Bonaparte (1851-1921), whose country estate Bella Vista was in the area. Bonaparte, a great nephew of the French emperor Napoleon, served as United States Secretary of War and United States Attorney General under President Theodore Roosevelt. As Attorney General, Bonaparte established the Bureau of Investigation, which later became the FBI.

Joseph B. Cheadle

Joseph Bonaparte Cheadle (August 14, 1842 – May 28, 1904) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.

Born in Perrysville, Indiana, Cheadle attended the common schools.

He entered Asbury (now De Pauw) University, Greencastle, Indiana, but upon the organization of the Seventy-first Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, enlisted as a private in Company K and served until the close of the Civil War.

He returned home and entered upon the study of law.

He was graduated from the Indianapolis Law College in 1867.

He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Newport, Indiana.

He continued in practice until 1873, when he entered upon newspaper work.

Cheadle was elected as a Republican to the Fiftieth and Fifty-first Congresses (March 4, 1887 – March 3, 1891).

He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1890, and for nomination to the Fifty-third and Fifty-fourth Congresses in 1892 and 1894.

He was affiliated with the Democratic Party in 1896.

He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1896 and 1898 on the Democratic and Populist tickets.

He was editor of the American Standard in 1896.

He died in Frankfort, Indiana, May 28, 1904.

He was interred in Greenlawn Cemetery.

Joseph Bonaparte Gulf

Joseph Bonaparte Gulf (14°06′S 128°50′E) is a large body of water off the coast of the Northern Territory and Western Australia and part of the Timor Sea. It was named after Joseph Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon and King of Naples (1806-1808) and then Spain (1808-1813) by French explorer and naturalist Nicholas Baudin in 1803. It is also often referred to in Australia as the "Bonaparte Gulf".

Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte

Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces. During this period, the country was considered a client state of the First French Empire.

That part of Spain which continued to resist French occupation remained loyal to Ferdinand VII and allied with Britain and Portugal to expel Napoleon's armies from Spain. Allied victories at Salamanca and Vitoria meant the defeat of the Bonapartist régime and the expulsion of Napoleon's troops. The Treaty of Valençay recognized Ferdinand VII as the legitimate king of Spain.

Mortefontaine, Oise

Mortefontaine is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.

The castle of Mortefontaine was bought by Joseph Bonaparte, elder brother of Napoléon Bonaparte in 1798. The Convention of 1800 (also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine), a treaty of friendship between France and the United States of America, was signed here in 1800. Here again were negotiated the preliminaries of the Peace of Amiens on March 25, 1802.

Napoleon II

Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832), Prince Imperial, King of Rome, known in the Austrian court as Franz from 1814 onward, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.

By Title III, article 9 of the French Constitution of the time, he was Prince Imperial, but he was also known from birth as the King of Rome, which Napoleon I declared was the courtesy title of the heir apparent. His nickname of L'Aiglon ("the Eaglet") was awarded posthumously and was popularized by the Edmond Rostand play, L'Aiglon.

When Napoleon I tried to abdicate on 4 April 1814, he said that his son would rule as Emperor. However, the coalition victors refused to acknowledge his son as successor, and Napoleon I was forced to abdicate unconditionally some days later. Although Napoleon II never actually ruled France, he was briefly the titular Emperor of the French in 1815 after the second fall of his father. When his cousin Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte became the next emperor by founding the Second French Empire in 1852, he called himself Napoleon III to acknowledge Napoleon II and his brief reign.

Prince of Canino and Musignano

The Princes of Canino and Musignano formed the genealogically senior line of the Bonaparte family following the death of Joseph Bonaparte in 1844. The line was founded by one of Emperor Napoleon's younger brothers, Lucien Bonaparte. It became extinct in the male line in 1924. The dynastic Bonapartist pretenders descend in the male line from Prince Jérôme Napoléon, Napoleon's youngest brother.

Canino and Musignano are two neighbouring villages in the Province of Viterbo in Italy. They were bestowed on Lucien Bonaparte by papal authority on 18 August 1814 (Prince of Canino) and on 21 March 1824 (Prince of Musignano).

Teatro del Fondo

The Teatro del Fondo is a theatre in Naples, now known as the Teatro Mercadante. It is located on Piazza del Municipio #1, with the front facing the west side of Castel Nuovo and near the Molo (Dock) Siglio. Together with the Teatro San Carlo, it was originally one of the two royal opera houses of the 18th and 19th-century city.

It opened in 1779 as the 'Teatro del Real Fondo di Separazione', with comic operas sung mainly in Tuscan. The Mozart operas Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro and Così fan tutte were performed there (1812-1815) and also a number of French operas under the patronage and influence of Joseph Bonaparte, King of Naples (1806-1808). The theatre was later used by Gioachino Rossini, who became the music director of the royal theatres, Giovanni Pacini and Gaetano Donizetti and many other leading composers.

After a period of relative inactivity, in 1871 it was renamed the Real Teatro Mercadante, after Saverio Mercadante, whereupon opera productions once again flourished at the theatre.

It is now part of the Teatro Stabile Napoli.

Treaty of Lunéville

The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801. The signatory parties were the French Republic and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. The latter was negotiating both on his own behalf as ruler of the hereditary domains of the Habsburg Monarchy and on behalf of other rulers who controlled territories in the Holy Roman Empire. The signatories were Joseph Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl, the Austrian foreign minister.

The Austrian army had been defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June 1800 and then by Jean Victor Moreau at the Battle of Hohenlinden on 3 December. Forced to sue for peace, the Austrians signed another in a series of treaties. The treaty, along with the Treaty of Amiens of 1802), marked the end of the Second Coalition against the French First Republic. The United Kingdom was the sole nation still at war with France for another year.

Victoria Bonaparte

The Victoria Bonaparte, an interim Australian bioregion, is located in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, comprising 7,301,242 hectares (18,041,760 acres).The bioregion draws its name from the Victoria River and the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf.

Victoria River (Northern Territory)

The Victoria River is a river in the Victoria Bonaparte bioregion of the Northern Territory, Australia.

Ancestors of Joseph Bonaparte
16. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
(1663–1703)
8. Sebastiano Nicola Buonaparte
(1683–1720/60)
17. Maria Colonna Bozzi
(1668–1704)
4. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
(1713–1763)
18. Carlo Tusoli
9. Maria Anna Tusoli
(1690–1760)
19. Isabella
2. Carlo Maria Buonaparte
(1746–1785)
10. Giuseppe Maria Paravicini
5. Maria Saveria Paravicini
(1715–bef. 1750)
22. Angelo Agostino Salineri
11. Maria Angela Salineri
23. Francetta Merezano
1. Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain; King of Naples and Sicily; Comte de Survilliers
(1768–1844)
24. Giovanni Girolamo Ramolino
(1645–?)
12. Giovanni Agostino Ramolino
25. Maria Laetitia Boggiano
6. Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino (1723–1755)
26. Andrea Peri
(1669–?)
13. Angela Maria Peri
27. Maria Maddalena Colonna d'Istria
3. Maria Letizia Ramolino
(1750–1836)
28. Giovanni Antonio Pietrasanta
14. Giuseppe Maria Pietrasanta
29. Paola Brigida Sorba
7. Angela Maria Pietrasanta (1725–1790)
15. Maria Giuseppa Malerba
Emperor and immediate family
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Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)
Legitimist pretenders (1830–present)
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Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present)
Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924)
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