José Paciano Laurel y García, CCLH (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino politician and judge. He was the president of the Second Philippine Republic, a Japanese puppet state when occupied during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been officially recognized by later administrations as former president of the Philippines.
José P. Laurel
|3rd President of the Philippines|
October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945
|Prime Minister||Jorge B. Vargas|
|Preceded by||Manuel L. Quezon (as President of government-in-exile)|
|Succeeded by||Sergio Osmeña|
|Commissioner of the Interior|
December 4, 1942 – October 14, 1943
|Presiding Officer, PEC||Jorge B. Vargas|
|Preceded by||Benigno Aquino Sr.|
|Succeeded by||Quintin Paredes|
|Commissioner of Justice|
December 24, 1941 – December 4, 1942
|Presiding Officer, PEC||Jorge B. Vargas|
|Preceded by||Teofilo L. Sison|
|Succeeded by||Teofilo L. Sison|
|Senator of the Philippines|
December 30, 1951 – December 30, 1957
|34th Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court|
February 29, 1936 – February 5, 1942
|Preceded by||George Malcolm|
|Succeeded by||Court reorganised|
|Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines|
|Senate President||Manuel L. Quezon|
|Preceded by||Francisco Enage|
|Succeeded by||Benigno S. Aquino|
|Senator of the Philippines from the 5th Senatorial District|
1925 – 1931
Served with: Manuel L. Quezon (1925–1931)
|Preceded by||Antero Soriano|
|Succeeded by||Claro M. Recto|
|Secretary of the Interior of the Philippines|
José Paciano Laurel García
March 9, 1891
Tanauan, Batangas, Captaincy General of the Philippines
|Died||November 6, 1959 (aged 68)|
|Resting place||Tanauan, Batangas, Philippines|
|Political party||Nacionalista Party (before 1942; 1945–1959)|
(m. 1911; died 1959)
|Children||José B. Laurel Jr.|
José S. Laurel III
Sotero Laurel II
|Education||University of the Philippines, Diliman (LLB)|
University of Santo Tomas (LLM)
Yale University (SJD)
José Paciano Laurel y García was born on March 9, 1891 in the town of Tanauan, Batangas. His parents were Sotero Laurel I and Jacoba García. His father had been an official in the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldo and a signatory to the 1898 Malolos Constitution.
While a teen, Laurel was indicted for attempted murder when he almost killed a rival suitor of the girl he stole a kiss from with a fan knife. While studying and finishing law school, he argued for and received an acquittal.
Laurel received his law degree from the University of the Philippines College of Law in 1915, where he studied under Dean George A. Malcolm, whom he would later succeed on the Supreme Court. He then obtained a Master of Laws degree from University of Santo Tomas in 1919. Laurel then attended Yale Law School, where he obtained his J.S.D. degree.
Laurel began his life in public service while a student, as a messenger in the Bureau of Forestry then as a clerk in the Code Committee tasked with the codification of Philippine laws. During his work for the Code Committee, he was introduced to its head, Thomas A. Street, a future Supreme Court Justice who would be a mentor to the young Laurel.
Upon his return from Yale, Laurel was appointed first as Undersecretary of the Interior Department, then promoted as Secretary of the Interior in 1922. In that post, he would frequently clash with the American Governor-General Leonard Wood, and eventually, in 1923, resign from his position together with other Cabinet members in protest of Wood's administration. His clashes with Wood solidified Laurel's nationalist credentials.
In 1925 Laurel was elected to the Philippine Senate. He would serve for one term before losing his re-election bid in 1931 to Claro M. Recto. He retired to private practice, but by 1934, he was again elected to public office, this time as a delegate to the 1935 Constitutional Convention. Hailed as one of the "Seven Wise Men of the Convention", he would sponsor the provisions on the Bill of Rights. Following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution and the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Laurel was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on February 29, 1936.
Laurel's Supreme Court tenure may have been overshadowed by his presidency, yet he remains one of the most important Supreme Court justices in Philippine history. He authored several leading cases still analyzed to this day that defined the parameters of the branches of government as well as their powers.
Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936), which is considered as the Philippine equivalent of Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803), is Laurel's most important contribution to jurisprudence and even the rule of law in the Philippines. In affirming that the Court had jurisdiction to review the rulings of the Electoral Commission organized under the National Assembly, the Court, through Justice Laurel's opinion, firmly entrenched the power of Philippine courts to engage in judicial review of the acts of the other branches of government, and to interpret the Constitution. Held the Court, through Laurel:
The Constitution is a definition of the powers of government. Who is to determine the nature, scope and extent of such powers? The Constitution itself has provided for the instrumentality of the judiciary as the rational way. And when the judiciary mediates to allocate constitutional boundaries, it does not assert any superiority over the other departments; it does not in reality nullify or invalidate an act of the legislature, but only asserts the solemn and sacred obligation assigned to it by the Constitution to determine conflicting claims of authority under the Constitution and to establish for the parties in an actual controversy the rights which that instrument secures and guarantees to them.
Another highly influential decision penned by Laurel was Ang Tibay v. CIR, 69 Phil. 635 (1940). The Court acknowledged in that case that the substantive and procedural requirements before proceedings in administrative agencies, such as labor relations courts, were more flexible than those in judicial proceedings. At the same time, the Court still asserted that the right to due process of law must be observed, and enumerated the "cardinal primary rights" that must be respected in administrative proceedings. Since then, these "cardinal primary rights" have stood as the standard in testing due process claims in administrative cases.
Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940) was a seemingly innocuous case involving a challenge raised by a private citizen to a traffic regulation banning kalesas from Manila streets during certain afternoon hours. The Court, through Laurel, upheld the regulation as within the police power of the government. But in rejecting the claim that the regulation was violative of social justice, Laurel would respond with what would become his most famous aphorism, which is to this day widely quoted by judges and memorized by Filipino law students:
Social justice is neither communism, nor despotism, nor atomism, nor anarchy, but the humanization of laws and the equalization of social and economic forces by the State so that justice in its rational and objectively secular conception may at least be approximated. Social justice means the promotion of the welfare of all the people, the adoption by the Government of measures calculated to insure economic stability of all the competent elements of society, through the maintenance of a proper economic and social equilibrium in the interrelations of the members of the community, constitutionally, through the adoption of measures legally justifiable, or extra-constitutionally, through the exercise of powers underlying the existence of all governments on the time-honored principle of salus populi est suprema lex. Social justice, therefore, must be founded on the recognition of the necessity of interdependence among divers and diverse units of a society and of the protection that should be equally and evenly extended to all groups as a combined force in our social and economic life, consistent with the fundamental and paramount objective of the state of promoting the health, comfort, and quiet of all persons, and of bringing about "the greatest good to the greatest number.
|Presidential styles of|
Jose P. Laurel
|Reference style||His Excellency|
|Spoken style||Your Excellency|
|Alternative style||Mr. President|
The presidency of Laurel understandably remains one of the most controversial in Philippine history. After the war, he would be denounced by the pro-American sectors as a war collaborator or even a traitor, although his indictment for treason was superseded by President Roxas' Amnesty Proclamation. However, despite being one of the most infamous figures in Philippine history, he is also regarded as a Pan-Asianist who supported independence. When asked if he was pro-American or pro-Japanese, his answer would be pro-Filipino.
When Japan invaded, President Manuel L. Quezon first fled to Bataan and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile. Quezon ordered Laurel, Vargas and other cabinet members to stay. Laurel's prewar, close relationship with Japanese officials (a son had been sent to study at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in Tokyo, and Laurel had received an honorary doctorate from Tokyo University), placed him in a good position to interact with the Japanese occupation forces.
Laurel was among the Commonwealth officials instructed by the Japanese Imperial Army to form a provisional government when they invaded and occupied the country. He cooperated with the Japanese, in contrast to Chief Justice Abad Santos, who was shot for refusing to cooperate. Because he was well-known to the Japanese as a critic of US rule, as well as having demonstrated a willingness to serve under the Japanese Military Administration, he held a series of high posts in 1942–1943. Under vigorous Japanese influence, the National Assembly selected Laurel to serve as President in 1943.
During Laurel's tenure as President, hunger was the main worry. Prices of essential commodities rose to unprecedented heights. The government exerted every effort to increase production and bring consumers' goods under control. However, Japanese rapacity had the better of it all. On the other hand, guerrilla activities and Japanese retaliatory measures brought the peace and order situation to a difficult point. Resorting to district-zoning and domiciliary searches, coupled with arbitrary arrests, the Japanese made the mission of Laurel's administration incalculably exasperating and perilous.
During his presidency, the Philippines faced a crippling food shortage which demanded much of Laurel's attention. Rice and bread were still available but the sugar supply was gone. Laurel also resisted Japanese demands that the Philippines issue a formal declaration of war against the United States. He later was forced to declare war on the USA and Great Britain as long as Filipinos would not have to fight.
On October 20, 1943 the Philippine-Japanese Treaty of Alliance was signed by Claro M. Recto, who was appointed by Laurel as his Foreign Minister, and Japanese Ambassador to Philippines Sozyo Murata. One redeeming feature was that no conscription was envisioned.
Shortly after the inauguration of the Second Philippine Republic, President Laurel, together with cabinet Ministers Recto and Paredes flew to Tokyo to attend the Greater East Asia Conference which was an international summit held in Tokyo, Japan from November 5 – 6, 1943, in which Japan hosted the heads of state of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The conference was also referred to as the Tokyo Conference.
The Conference addressed few issues of any substance, Eradication of Western Opium Drug Trade and to illustrate the Empire of Japan's commitments to the Pan-Asianism ideal and to emphasize its role as the "liberator" of Asia from Western colonialism.
Laurel declared the country under martial law in 1944 through Proclamation No. 29, dated September 21. Martial law came into effect on September 22, 1944 at 9 am.. Proclamation No. 30 was issued the next day, declaring the existence of a state of war between the Philippines and the United States and the United Kingdom. This took effect on September 23, 1944 at 10:00 A.M.
Due to the nature of Laurel's government and its connection to Japan, much of the population actively resisted his presidency, supporting the exiled Commonwealth government; as can be expected. However, this did not mean that his government did not have forces against the anti-Japanese resistance and the ongoing Philippine Commonwealth military.
On June 5, 1943, Laurel was playing golf at the Wack Wack Golf and Country Club in Mandaluyong when he was shot around four times with a .45 caliber pistol. The bullets barely missed his heart and liver. He was rushed by his golfing companions, among them FEU president Nicanor Reyes Sr., to the Philippine General Hospital where he was operated by the Chief Military Surgeon of the Japanese Military Administration and Filipino surgeons. Laurel enjoyed a speedy recovery.
Two suspects to the shooting were reportedly captured and swiftly executed by the Kempetai. Another suspect, a former boxer named Feliciano Lizardo, was presented for identification by the Japanese to Laurel at the latter's hospital bed, but Laurel then professed unclear memory. However, in his 1953 memoirs, Laurel would admit that Lizardo, by then one of his bodyguards who had pledged to give his life for him, was indeed the would-be-assassin. Still, the historian Teodoro Agoncillo in his book on the Japanese occupation, identified a captain with a guerilla unit as the shooter.
On July 26, 1945, the Potsdam Declaration served upon Japan an ultimatum to surrender or face utter annihilation. The Japanese government refused the offer. On August 6, 1945, Hiroshima, with some 300,000 inhabitants, was almost totally destroyed by an atomic bomb dropped from an American plane. Two days later, the Soviet Union declared war against Japan and invaded Manchuria. The next day, August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The Allied Forces' message now had a telling effect: Japan unconditionally surrendered to the Allied Powers on August 15, 1945.
Since April 1945, President Laurel, together with his family and Cabinet member Camilo Osías, Speaker Benigno Aquino Sr., Gen. Tomas Capinpin, and Ambassador Jorge B. Vargas, had been in Japan. Evacuated from Baguio shortly after the city fell, they traveled to Aparri and thence, on board Japanese planes, had been taken to Japan. Laurel was put in Sugamo prison then was later transferred to Nara for house arrest. On August 17, 1945, from Nara Hotel in Nara, Japan, President Laurel issued an Executive Proclamation which declared the dissolution of his regime.
President Laurel is the only Philippine president who served the three branches of government. He became a senator-congressman, associate justice and a president of the second republic.
On September 2, 1945, the Japanese forces formally surrendered to the United States. Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered Laurel arrested for collaborating with the Japanese. In 1946 he was charged with 132 counts of treason, but he was never brought to trial due to the general amnesty granted by President Manuel Roxas in 1948. Laurel ran for president against Elpidio Quirino in 1949 but lost in what future Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray considered as the dirtiest election in Philippine electoral history.
Laurel garnered the biggest votes and was elected to the Senate in 1951, under the Nacionalista Party. He was urged to run for President in 1953, but declined, working instead for the successful election of Ramon Magsaysay. Magsaysay appointed Laurel head of a mission tasked with negotiating trade and other issues with United States officials, the result being known as the Laurel–Langley Agreement.
Laurel considered his election to the Senate as a vindication of his reputation. He declined to run for re-election in 1957. He retired from public life, concentrating on the development of the Lyceum of the Philippines established by his family.
During his retirement, Laurel stayed in a 1957 3-storey, 7-bedroom mansion in Mandaluyong City, dubbed "Villa Pacencia" after Laurel's wife. The home was one of three residences constructed by the Laurel family, the other two being in Tanauan, Batangas and in Paco, Manila (called "Villa Peñafrancia"). In 2008, the Laurel family sold "Villa Pacencia" to Ex-Senate President Manny Villar and his wife Cynthia.
Japan's efforts to win Filipino loyalty found expression in the establishment (Oct. 14, 1943) of a "Philippine Republic", with José P. Laurel, former supreme court justice, as president. But the people suffered greatly from Japanese brutality, and the puppet government gained little support.
Jose P. Laurel also elected as Congressman prior to presidency. Please include in his political experience.
George A. Malcolm
| Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
Manuel L. Quezon
as president of the Philippines
| President of the Republic of the Philippines
October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945
as president of the Philippines
Jorge B. Vargas (de facto)
as Presiding Officer of the Philippine Executive Commission
| President of the Republic of the Philippines
October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945
as president of the Philippines
Presidential, legislative and local elections were held on November 11, 1941 in the Philippines. Incumbent President Manuel Luis Quezon won an unprecedented second partial term as President of the Philippines via a landslide. His running mate, Vice President Sergio Osmeña also won via landslide. The elected officials however, did not serve their terms from 1942 to 1945 due to World War II. In 1943, a Japanese-sponsored Republic was established and appointed José P. Laurel as president. From 1943 to 1945, the Philippines had two presidents. Quezon died in 1944 due to tuberculosis and was replaced by Sergio Osmeña.1941 Philippine presidential election
Presidential, legislative and local elections were held on November 11, 1941 in the Philippines. Incumbent President Manuel Luis Quezon won an unprecedented second partial term as President of the Philippines in a landslide. His running mate, Vice President Sergio Osmeña also won via landslide. The elected officials however, did not serve their terms from 1942 to 1945 due to World War II. In 1943, a Japanese-sponsored Republic was established and appointed Jose P. Laurel as president. From 1943 to 1945, the Philippines had two presidents. Quezon died in 1944 due to tuberculosis and was replaced by Sergio Osmeña.Denise Laurel
Denise Maria Sanz Laurel (born September 30, 1987), better known as Denise Laurel, is a Filipina actress and singer. She is the granddaughter of former vice president Salvador Laurel and great-granddaughter of former president José P. Laurel on her father's side; while on her mother's side, she is the great-granddaughter of Don Francisco "Paco" Sanz, former governor of Romblon and Palawan and the great grand niece of former president Manuel Roxas. She is best known for playing roles in various ABS-CBN dramas, such as Precious Hearts Romances series' Midnight Phantom and Kristine, Dahil Sa Pag-ibig, Annaliza and most recently Nasaan Ka Nang Kailangan Kita. She is also the Grand Winner of the second season of the Philippine edition of Your Face Sounds Familiar. Laurel is currently a member of Star Magic.Inauguration of José P. Laurel
The Inauguration of José P. Laurel as the third President of the Philippines and the first president of the Second Philippine Republic under Japan occurred on October 14, 1943. The inauguration marked the beginning of the first term of José P. Laurel as President.Jose Laurel Street
Jose Laurel Street, also known as J.P. Laurel Street, is a tree-lined street in the district of San Miguel in north-central Manila, Philippines. It runs parallel to the Pasig River from the Nagtahan Interchange south-westwards to General Solano Street. It is where Malacañan Palace and several other government buildings are located.
The street has had several different names throughout the years, including Calzada de San Miguel and Calzada de Malacañan, but by the 1870s, it was known as Calle Áviles. It was named after Don José Vicente de Áviles, el Conde de Áviles, who financed the extension of the street to Santa Mesa and the Sampaloc (Carriedo) Rotunda. A small plaza across Malacañan Palace was also named after Áviles. In 1959, the street was renamed to its present name in honor of a former resident of the palace and president, José Paciano Laurel.Other notable buildings along the street include Casa Roces, College of the Holy Spirit, the National Shrine of Saint Jude, the National Shrine of Saint Michael and the Archangels and the Philippine Commission on Women. Public access to Laurel Street is generally restricted for security reasons. The nearest Line 2 station is Legarda station.Jose P. Laurel Ancestral House (Manila)
The Jose P. Laurel Ancestral House (Filipino: Tahanan ni Jose P. Laurel) is a historic house in Manila, Philippines. It is one of the three houses owned by the President of the Second Philippine Republic, José P. Laurel. It is located in 1515 Peñafrancia Street (corner Santo Sepulcro Street) in Paco District (hence also known as "Villa Peñafrancia"). President Laurel purchased the house in 1926 and served as his residence, together with his wife Paciencia Hidalgo and their children, for 29 years before he transferred to his retirement home in Mandaluyong.Jose P. Laurel Highway
The Jose P. Laurel Highway officially the Manila–Batangas Road, is a 49-kilometer (30 mi), two-to-six lane, major highway running within the province of Batangas. The entire highway is designated as National Route 4 (N4) of the Philippine highway network.
The highway was named in the honor of Jose P. Laurel, who served as first president of the Second Philippine Republic.Jose P. Laurel Polytechnic College
The Jose P. Laurel Polytechnic College (Filipino: Jose P. Laurel Politeknikang Kolehiyo), or simply JPLPC, is a satellite campus of Batangas State University. It is located in Malvar, Batangas, Philippines. It is one of the two satellite campuses of Batangas State University, the other being Apolinario R. Apacible School of Fisheries.Formerly Jose P. Laurel, Sr. Memorial School of Arts and Trades, it was established on 15 June 1968 by the virtue of Republic Act No. 5417. Many years later on 21 May 1992, the school was elevated into a college and renamed Jose P. Laurel Polytechnic College through the Republic Act No. 7518. As authorized by Republic Act No. 9045, it was eventually integrated to Batangas State University as its satellite campus on 22 March 2001.Jose P. Laurel Residence
The Jose P. Laurel Residence or Villa Pacencia is a historic house located at 515 Shaw Boulevard in Mandaluyong, Metro Manila. The three-storey house was built in 1957 and was one of the three houses owned by the President of the Second Republic of the Philippines, José P. Laurel.
In 1965, two historical markers were installed at the house entrance. The first marker was placed by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines in recognition of the building as the official residence of Jose P. Laurel. The second marker notes of the First Indonesian President Sukarno's stay in the mansion during a Manila Conference on August 5, 1963.José Laurel III
José Sotero "Pepe" Laurel III y Hidalgo, (August 27, 1914 – January 6, 2003) also known as José S. Laurel III, was the aide-de-camp of President Jose P. Laurel during the World War II period. He later became ambassador of the Philippines to Japan.List of Presidents of the Philippines by date of birth
This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by date of birth that consists of the 16 heads of state in the history of the Philippines.List of presidents of the Philippines by education
This is a complete list of Philippine presidents by college education that consists of the 16 heads of state in the history of the Philippines.
Almost all presidents (except Emilio Aguinaldo and Joseph Estrada) completed a college degree program. College and postgraduate education have prepared presidents in their future roles as heads of state, architects of foreign policy, commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and managers of the entire government bureaucracy.
By law, under the Constitution of the Philippines, any Filipino citizen aged forty and above who can read and write and can meet residency requirements is eligible to run as President. However, in practice, popularity, political machinery, and financial resources are the key elements leading to a successful presidential candidate.Lyceum of the Philippines University
The Lyceum of the Philippines University (Filipino: Pamantasang Liseo ng Pilipinas, abbreviated LPU) is an institute of higher education located in Intramuros in the City of Manila, Philippines. It was founded in 1952 by Dr. José P. Laurel, who became the third president of the Philippines. He named the institution after lykeion, the grove in ancient Athens where Aristotle taught his pupils. LPU is the only university founded by a president of the republic. Its educational vision is founded on principles that its founder, José P. Laurel, set down. It opened its gates to its first students on July 7, 1952.
Two of the building's most prominent features are its entrance through the "Hall of Heroes", commonly known as "Mabini Hall", which exhibits busts of revered Philippine historical figures sculpted by the National Artist Guillermo Tolentino; and the famous "Lyceum Tower" which serves as Lyceum's trademark and stands witness to the university's history and continuing progress.
Many disciplines are taught in the university, with International relations (diplomacy, international trade), business, communication and International Hospitality (hotel and restaurant management, tourism) consistently being the university's flagship courses.
The LPU has affiliate/branch campuses in Makati, Batangas, Laguna and Cavite.Mendiola Street
Mendiola Street (simply known as "Mendiola") is a short thoroughfare in San Miguel, Manila, Philippines. The street is named after Enrique Mendiola, an educator, textbook author and member of the first Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines. As a street close to Malacañang Palace, the President of the Philippines' official residence, it has been the site of numerous and sometimes bloody demonstrations.
On the north end of the street is the Chino Roces Bridge, named in honor of Chino Roces, a well-known figure during the Philippines' Martial Law years. (An illuminated street sign above the intersection of Recto and Mendiola erroneously refers to the latter street as Chino Roces Avenue).
Mendiola Street starts at the intersection of Legarda Street and Claro M. Recto Avenue and ends at José P. Laurel Street, just outside Malacañang Palace. Four colleges and universities which forms a part of the University Belt are in Mendiola Street.
To protect Malacañang Palace, the part of Mendiola Street that starts at the sentinel gate in front of the College of the Holy Spirit and La Consolacion College Manila is closed to vehicles. Vehicles are diverted to Concepcion Aguila Street, a narrow side street that passes through residential areas of San Miguel district.Nagtahan Interchange
The Nagtahan Interchange, also known as the Nagtahan Flyover and the Mabini Flyover, is a three-level set of three intersecting flyovers in Manila, the Philippines which serves as the junction between Lacson Avenue, Legarda Street, Magsaysay Boulevard and Jose P. Laurel Street, as well as the nearby Mabini Bridge.SM Lanang Premier
SM Lanang Premier, also known locally as SM Lanang, is an indoor four-story shopping mall in Lanang, Davao City, Philippines along Jose P. Laurel Avenue and within S.P Dakudao loop. It is the first SM Supermall to be called "Premier". The mall is owned by Henry Sy, Sr. and managed by SM Prime Holdings. Construction of the mall started in 2011 and opened to the public on September 28, 2012, on the site of the former Lanang Golf and Country Club.
The mall has a gross floor area of 144,002 m2 (1,550,020 sq ft) making it the 3rd largest shopping mall in Mindanao after Gaisano Mall of Davao and SM CDO Downtown Premier. The mall has 273 stores along with several restaurants. The mall has the SM Store and SM Supermarket as anchor stores. It features six cinemas, an IMAX Theater, SMX Convention Center, SM Science Discovery Center (Now closed since 2015), a bowling center, and an Al fresco dining situated along the fountain court, located at the back of the mall. SM Lanang Premier is the 4th largest taxpayer in Davao City along with SM City Davao.Second Philippine Republic
The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas; Japanese: フィリピン共和国（きょうわこく）, translit. Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
President Manuel L. Quezon declared the national capital Manila an "open city", and left it under the rule of Jorge B. Vargas, as mayor. The Japanese entered the city on January 2, 1942, and established it as the capital. Japan fully captured the Philippines on May 6, 1942, after the Battle of Corregidor.
General Masaharu Homma decreed the dissolution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman in January 1942. KALIBAPI– Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Tagalog for the "Association for Service to the New Philippines") was formed by Proclamation No. 109 of the Philippine Executive Commission (Komisyong Tagapagpaganap ng Pilipinas), a piece of legislation passed on December 8, 1942, banning all existing political parties and creating the new governing alliance. Its first director-general was Benigno Aquino, Sr. The pro-Japanese Ganap Party, which saw the Japanese as the saviours of the archipelago, was absorbed into the KALIBAPI.Sotero Laurel
Sotero Cosme "Teroy" Hidalgo Laurel II (September 27, 1918 – September 16, 2009) was a Filipino politician and educator who served as a Senator from 1987 until 1992, including a period as President pro tempore from 1990 until 1991. Laurel was the son of the former President of the Philippines José P. Laurel and the older brother of former Vice President Salvador Laurel. Laurel was nicknamed "Teroy."Tanauan, Batangas
Tanauan, officially the City of Tanauan, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Tanauan), or simply known as Tanauan City, is a 2nd class city in the province of Batangas, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 173,366 people.It is incorporated as a city under Republic Act No. 9005, signed on February 2, 2001, and ratified on March 10, 2001.
With the continuous expansion of Metro Manila, the city is now part of Manila's conurbation which reaches Lipa in its southernmost part. The city shares its borders with Calamba, Laguna, to the north, Tagaytay, Cavite, to the northwest, Talisay to the west, Santo Tomas to the east, and the towns of Balete and Malvar to the south. It borders on Taal Lake to the west. The town is known for the Old Tanauan Church Ruins, the most important archaeological site in the municipality where human remains from the colonial era have been unearthed.
Among those born in Tanauan are revolutionary former Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini and former President José P. Laurel.