José de Espronceda

José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado (25 March 1808 – 23 May 1842)[2] was a Romantic Spanish poet, one of the most representative authors of the 19th century.[3] He was influenced by Eugenio de Ochoa, Federico Madrazo, Alfred Tennyson, Richard Chenevix Trench and Diego de Alvear.[4]

José de Espronceda
José de Espronceda (detalle)
José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado

25 March 1808
Died23 May 1842 (aged 34)
Madrid, Spain
Resting placeCementerio de San Justo
OccupationPoet, writer and journalist
ChildrenBlanca Espronceda de Escosura (1834–1900)
  • Camilo de Espronceda (father)


House where Espronceda was born
House where Espronceda was born

Espronceda was born in Almendralejo, at the Province of Badajoz.[5] As a youth, he studied at the Colegio San Mateo at Madrid, having Alberto Lista as a teacher. When he was 15 years old, he formed a secret society named "Los Numantinos" alongside his friends Ventura de la Vega and Patricio de la Escosura, conspiring against Ferdinand VII and intending to avenge the death of Rafael del Riego. For this, he was imprisoned in a monastery and exiled.[6] Afterward, he left Spain and lived in Lisbon, Belgium, France, England and Holland. On his return to Spain in 1833, he became active in the extreme left-wing of Spanish political culture. Espronceda is also known for his affair with Teresa Mancha, for whom he wrote "Canto a Teresa" (from El diablo mundo). He died of diphtheria in 1842.

In 1902, his body was moved to Panteón de Hombres Ilustres, Spain.[7]

Literary production

Having been inspired to a literary career by his teacher Alberto Lista, Espronceda began to write the historical poem El Pelayo during his stay in the monastery. The poem was never completed. Later he wrote the novel Sancho Saldaña. His other important works include El estudiante de Salamanca, whose main character is Don Félix de Montemar, El mendigo, ¡Guerra!, Al dos de mayo and El diablo mundo,[3] long lyric poems, the latter remained unfinished. Also important were A Jarifa en una orgía, El verdugo,[3] El canto del cosaco, La canción del pirata[3] and Himno al sol. Many of his works display the tendencies of Romanticism, and along with José Zorrilla he is considered Spain's most important Romantic poet, as well as the most rebellious.


  1. ^ "El escritor José de Espronceda". Museo del Prado (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  2. ^ Navas-Ruiz, Ricardo. "José de Espronceda y Delgado". Diccionario biográfico España (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia.
  3. ^ a b c d Espín Templado, María del Pilar. "Presentación". Cervantes Virtual (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  4. ^ Espín Templado, María del Pilar. "Amistades de José de Espronceda". Cervantes Virtual (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  5. ^ Cortón, Antonio (1906). Espronceda (PDF). Madrid: Casa Editorial Velásquez. p. 8.
  6. ^ Schmidt, Jr., Frederick W. (2002). Littel, McDougal (ed.). Abriendo puertas: Antologia de literatura en espanol. 1. Houghton Mifflin School. ISBN 9780618272600.
  7. ^ Espín Templado, María del Pilar. "Biografía de José de Espronceda". Cervantes Virtual (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2017.


  • Marrast, Robert (1974). José de Espronceda et son temps. Littérature, societé, politique au temps du romantisme. Paris: Editions Klincksieck.
  • "De Gibraltar a Lisboa, viaje histórico". El Pensamiento. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles. LXXII (8): 174–177. 31 August 1841.
  • "Un recuerdo". El Pensamiento. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles. LXXII (3): 60–64. 15 June 1841.
  • "Política general". El Pensamiento. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles. LXXII (1): 12–15. 15 May 1841.
  • de la Escosura, Patricio (1879). Discurso...Madrid. p. 79.
  • Casalduero, Joaquín (1967). Espronceda (2nd ed.). Madrid.
  • Zorrilla, José (1882–1883). Recuerdos del tiempo viejo. I. Madrid. pp. 46–50.

External links

1808 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1808.

1837 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

1840 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

1842 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1842.

1842 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).


Almendralejo is a town in the Province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. It is situated 45 km south-east of Badajoz, on the main road and rail route between Mérida and Seville. As of 2010, it has a population of 33,975. It was the site of a battle and massacre in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War.

Cuéllar Castle

Cuéllar Castle or The Castle of the Dukes of Alburquerque is the most emblematic monument in the town of Cuéllar, located in the province of Segovia, autonomous community of Castile and León, in Spain. It was declared Bien de Interés Cultural (Property of Cultural Interest) on 3 June 1931.

The castle is conserved in good condition, and it has been built in different architectural styles between the 13th and 18th century. Much of the castle in the Gothic and Renaissance styles. The military building was extended and transformed in the 16th century, turning it into the palace of the Duke of Alburquerque. During its different building stages, masters such as Juan Guas, Hanequin of Brussels and her son Hanequin de Cuéllar, Juan, Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón, and Juan Gil de Hontañón "el mozo" or Juan de Álava have worked on the castle.

Among its historical owners, stands out Álvaro de Luna and Beltrán de la Cueva, as well as the successive Dukes of Alburquerque. Distinguished guests on it were some Castilian monarchs, as Juan I and his wife the Queen Leonor de Aragón y de Sicilia, that died on it, or María de Molina, that took refuge on this castle when her Kingdom was rejecting her. Also stands out figures as the painter Francisco Javier Parcerisa, or the writer José de Espronceda, the generals Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo and Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, who set his garrison barracks in this castle during the Spanish War of Independence.

The Dukes of Alburquerque lived in this castle for centuries until they moved to Madrid to be close to the court. Thereafter they used the castle for leisure and holidays, abandoning the building slowly. In the late 19th century the castle was almost completely abandoned, and was the victim of robberies. In 1938 a political prison was created within the castle, and later a sanatorium for prisoners affected by tuberculosis. It was used as a prison until 1966.

In 1972, the Department of Fine Arts carried out an intensive restoration, and made it the home of a Vocational Education school, which continues to this day.

Diego Martínez Torrón

Diego Martínez Torrón (born October 1950) is a professor of Spanish Literature at the University of Córdoba, Spain, and a writer, author of essays, poetry and novels. He has been a speaker at many of the major universities in Europe and the United States. A specialist in nineteenth and twentieth century Spanish literature he has published numerous books on Spanish Romanticism, with interpretive contributions and unpublished texts. He has edited the most faithful edition of the complete works of authors such as José de Espronceda and the Duque de Rivas. He has also written about Lista and Quintana and the work of Spanish progressive liberals from the early nineteenth century to the end of the period of Romanticism. He has studied the poetic thought of Juan Ramón, Octavio Paz and José Bergamin. He has also dedicated numerous studies to the works of Cervantes. He has studied the narrative of Álvaro Cunqueiro, Juan Benet, Azorín and has a book pending publication about Valle-Inclán. His concept of literary methodology stems from a new, non-Marxist approach to the binomial ideology and literature.

His concept of poetic works is based on what he has called the aesthetic of simplicity: he seeks the emotion of the reader with a simple yet refined style, full of lyricism and thought, which transparently offers an almost philosophical worldview, on topics such as love, the issue most frequently addressed in his work, death and the concept of art itself, poetic creation and beauty. In his recent novel Éxito (Success) he offers a testimony to the vision of his generation from the beginning of counter-culture to the present day. Major Spanish writers have provided forwards for his creative works, which have been included in several Spanish and American anthologies. His poetic works have been translated into Italian and his narrative to English.

El escritor José de Espronceda

El escritor José de Espronceda is an oil painting of 1842 by Antonio María Esquivel kept at Museo del Prado. It is a portrait of poet José de Espronceda.

There is a replica at the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid and Ateneo de Madrid thanks to Manuel Arroyo.

El estudiante de Salamanca

The Student of Salamanca (Spanish: El estudiante de Salamanca) is a work by Spanish Romantic poet José de Espronceda. It was published in fragments beginning in 1837; the complete poem was published in 1840 in the volume Poesías. Parts of it are poetry, other parts drama. It is a variation of the Don Juan legend, with its central character don Félix de Montemar playing the part of Don Juan.

El poeta

El poeta is a Spanish opera composed by Federico Moreno Torroba. It premiered at the Teatro de la Zarzuela in Madrid, Spain on June 19, 1980, starring Plácido Domingo, Ángeles Gulín, and Carmen Bustamante. The idea of a new opera had originally been suggested to Moreno Torroba by Domingo. El poeta would be the 89-year-old composer's last major work for the stage.

Eusebio Asquerino

Eusebio Asquerino (1822–1892) was a Spanish poet and playwright of the romantic era.

His book, Poesías ('Poems', 1870), has a style influenced by José de Espronceda and José Zorilla and some of his work, such as 'A Lincoln' ('To Lincoln', 1865) or 'El obrero' ('The Worker', 1869) reveal progressive leanings.

His plays, written in collaboration with his brother Eduardo, include Doña Urraca (1865), La judía de Toledo ('The Jewess of Toledo', 1843), Casada, vírgen y mártir ('Newlywed, Virgin and Martyr', 1843'), Españoles sobre todo ('Spaniards Above All', 1844) and Los tesoros del rey ('Treasures of the King', 1850).


Extremadura (, Spanish: [e(ɣ)stɾemaˈðuɾa]; Extremaduran: Estremaúra [eʰtːɾemaˈuɾa]; Fala: Extremaúra; Portuguese: Estremadura) is an autonomous community of the western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the Statute of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish.

It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called Gobierno de Extremadura.

The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

Geoffrey Brereton

Geoffrey Brereton (1906 – 1979) was a scholar and critic of French literature and Spanish literature.

Geoffrey Brereton studied French and Spanish at Oxford University and took a doctorate thesis in Paris on José de Espronceda. He taught and practised journalism, then at the outbreak of the Second World War joined the BBC French Service in Algiers, as writer and eventually director.His first scholarly publication, Jean Racine: A Critical Biography, has been described as the best full study of Racine's life and works in English. He also wrote a Short History of French Literature (1954), an Introduction to the French Poets (1956), and edited the Penguin Book of French Verse, vol. 2 (1958).

Initially funded by a Leverhulme Fellowship, the last part of his research was spent studying the French classical theatre and saw the publication of Principles of Tragedy (1968), French Tragic Drama (1973) and French Comic Drama (1977).

All of his work as author, editor, translator and reviewer was done as a freelance, and rarely saw direct academic recognition.

List of Spanish-language poets

This is a list of notable poets who have written in the Spanish language.

Romanticism in Spanish literature

Romanticism arrived late and lasted only for a short but intense period, since in the second half of the 19th century it was supplanted by Realism, whose nature was antithetical to that of Romantic literature.

Spanish literature

Spanish literature generally refers to literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain. Its development coincides and frequently intersects with that of other literary traditions from regions within the same territory, particularly Catalan literature, Galician intersects as well with Latin, Jewish, and Arabic literary traditions of the Iberian peninsula. The literature of Spanish America is an important branch of Spanish literature, with its own particular characteristics dating back to the earliest years of Spain’s conquest of the Americas (see Latin American literature).

The Roman conquest and occupation of the Iberian peninsula beginning in the 3rd century BC brought a Latin culture to Spanish territories. The arrival of Muslim invaders in 711 CE brought the cultures of the Middle and Far East. In Medieval Spanish literature, the earliest recorded examples of a vernacular Romance-based literature mix Muslim, Jewish, and Christian culture. One of the notable works is the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid, written in 1140. Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages includes popular poems and the courtly poetry of the nobles. During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurred and literary production increased greatly. In the Renaissance important topics were poetry, religious literature, and prose. In the Baroque era of the 17th century important works were the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and Baltasar Gracián. A notable author was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, famous for his masterpiece Don Quixote de la Mancha.

In the Enlightenment era of the 18th century, notable works include the prose of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and José Cadalso; the lyric of Juan Meléndez Valdés, Tomás de Iriarte and Félix María Samaniego), and the theater, with Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Ramón de la Cruz and Vicente García de la Huerta. In Romanticism (beginning of the 19th century) important topics are: the poetry of José de Espronceda and other poets; prose; the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra (Duke of Rivas), José Zorrilla, and other authors. In Realism (end of the 19th century), which is mixed with Naturalism, important topics are the novel, with Juan Valera, José María de Pereda, Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Armando Palacio Valdés, and Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; poetry, with Ramón de Campoamor, Gaspar Núñez de Arce, and other poets; the theater, with José Echegaray, Manuel Tamayo y Baus, and other dramatists; and the literary critics, emphasizing Menéndez Pelayo.

In Modernism several currents appear: Parnasianism, Symbolism, Futurism, and Creationism. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by the U.S. in 1898 provoked a crisis in Spain. A group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), made changes to literature's form and content. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field. Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañon, Manuel Azaña, Eugeni d'Ors, and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. Around 1920 a younger group of writers—mostly poets—began publishing works that from their beginnings revealed the extent to which younger artists were absorbing the literary experimentation of the writers of 1898 and 1914. Poets were closely tied to formal academia. Novelists such as Benjamín Jarnés, Rosa Chacel, Francisco Ayala, and Ramón J. Sender were equally experimental and academic.

The Spanish Civil War had a devastating impact on Spanish writing. Among the handful of civil war poets and writers, Miguel Hernández stands out. During the early dictatorship (1939–1955), literature followed dictator Francisco Franco's reactionary vision of a second Spanish golden age. By the mid-1950s, just as with the novel, a new generation which had only experienced the Spanish civil war in childhood was coming of age. By the early 1960s, Spanish authors moved towards a restless literary experimentation. When Franco died in 1975, the important work of establishing democracy had an immediate impact on Spanish letters. Over the next several years a wealth of young new writers, among them Juan José Millás, Rosa Montero, Javier Marías, Luis Mateo Díez, José María Merino, Félix de Azúa, Cristina Fernández Cubas, Enrique Vila-Matas, Carme Riera, and later Antonio Muñoz Molina and Almudena Grandes, would begin carving out a prominent place for themselves within the Spanish cultural field.

Vek Perevoda

Vek Perevoda (Russian: Век Перевода, “The Age Of Translation”) is a website devoted to history and practice of the Russian poetical translation from the end of the 19th century up to the present time. The website was founded in 2003 by the famous Russian writer and translator Eugen V. Witkowsky. At first it was based on the materials of the anthology “Strophes Of The Century, part 2”, collected by Witkowksy since the 1960s. Conceptually, the site is a constantly updated anthology and guide. Vek Perevoda is the largest web-project in Russian devoted to foreign poetry; the works of more than 1000 Russian translators are published there. The anthology of the same name is being issued by the founder since 2005.

This website contains Russian translations of the poetical works from dozens of foreign languages including Quechua, Welsh, Romansh, Kashubian, Scottish Gaelic and other languages previously almost unknown in Russia. Among the most significant publications are: the first complete Russian translation of the “Bateau ivre” by Arthur Rimbaud (1910); translation of the works by José de Espronceda; sonnets of Michelangelo translated by Vyacheslav Ivanov etc.

Domain is registered in the United States.

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