José Zorrilla

José Zorrilla y Moral (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse θoˈriʎa]) was a Spanish poet and dramatist.

José Zorrilla
Jose zorrilla
BornJosé Zorrilla y Moral
21 February 1817
Valladolid, Spain
Died23 January 1893 (aged 75)
Madrid, New Castile, Spain
OccupationPoet, playwright
Literary movementRomanticism
Notable worksDon Juan Tenorio
SpouseFlorentina O’Reilly, Juana Pacheco

Firma de José Zorrilla


Zorrilla was born in Valladolid to a magistrate in whom Ferdinand VII placed special confidence. He was educated by the Jesuits at the Real Seminario de Nobles in Madrid, wrote verses when he was twelve, became an enthusiastic admirer of Walter Scott and Chateaubriand, and took part in the school performances of plays by Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca.[1]

In 1833 he was sent to study law at the University of Toledo, but after a year of idleness, he fled to Madrid, where he horrified the friends of his absolutist father by making violent speeches and by founding a newspaper which was promptly suppressed by the government. He narrowly escaped transportation to the Philippines, and passed the next few years in poverty.[1]

The death of the satirist Mariano José de Larra brought Zorrilla into notice. His elegiac poem, read at Larra's funeral in February 1837, introduced him to the leading men of letters. In 1837 he published a book of verses, mostly imitations of Alphonse de Lamartine and Victor Hugo, which was so favourably received that he printed six more volumes within three years.[1]

After collaborating with Antonio García Gutiérrez on the play Juán Dondolo (1839) Zorrilla began his individual career as a dramatist with Cada cual con su razón (1840), and during the next five years he wrote twenty-two plays, many of them extremely successful. His Cantos del trovador (1841), a collection of national legends written in verse, made Zorilla second only to José de Espronceda in popular esteem.[1]

National legends also supply the themes of his dramas, which Zorilla often constructed by adapting older plays that had fallen out of fashion. For example, in El Zapatero y el Rey he recasts El montanés Juan Pascual by Juan de la Hoz y Mota; in La mejor Talon la espada he borrows from Agustín Moreto y Cavana's Travesuras del estudiante Pa-atoja. His famous play Don Juan Tenorio is a combination of elements from Tirso de Molina's Burlador de Sevilla and from Alexandre Dumas, père's Don Juan de Marana (which itself derives from Les Âmes du purgatoire by Prosper Mérimée). However, plays like Sancho García, El Rey loco, and El Alcalde Ronquillo are much more original. He considered his last play, Traidor, inconfeso y mártir (1845) his best play.[1]

Upon the death of his mother in 1847 Zorrilla left Spain, resided for a while at Bordeaux, and settled in Paris, where his incomplete poem Granada was published in 1852. In a fit of depression, he emigrated to America three years later, hoping, he claimed, that yellow fever or smallpox would kill him. During eleven years in Mexico he wrote very little. He returned to Spain in 1866, to find himself half-forgotten and considered old-fashioned.[1]

Friends helped Zorilla obtain a small post, but the republican minister later abolished it. He was always poor, especially for the 12 years after 1871. The publication of his autobiography, Recuerdos del tiempo viejo in 1880, did nothing to alleviate his poverty. Though his plays were still being performed, he received no money from them.[2]

Finally, in his old age, critics began to reappraise his work, and brought him new fame. He received a pension of 30,000 reales, a gold medal of honor from the Spanish Academy, and, in 1889, the title of National Laureate.[2] He died in Madrid on 23 January 1893.

In his early years, Zorrilla was known as an extraordinarily fast writer. He claimed he wrote El Caballo del Rey Don Sancho in three weeks, and that he put together El Puñal del Godo in two days. This may account for some of the technical faults—redundancy and verbosity—in his works. His plays often appeal to Spanish patriotic pride, and actors and audiences have enjoyed his effective dramaturgy. Don Juan Tenorio is his best-known work.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d e f  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zorrilla y Moral, José" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1043–1044.
  2. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911.

External links

1981–82 Copa del Rey

The 1981–82 Copa del Rey was the 80th staging of the Spanish Cup, the annual domestic cup competition in the Spanish football. The tournament was attended by 136 teams from the main categories of Spaniard football.

The tournament began on 30 August 1981 and ended on 13 April 1982 with the final, held in Nuevo José Zorrilla Stadium, in Valladolid. This field was opened two months earlier and was baptized as Stadium of Pneumonia because it was always cold there.Real Madrid CF won their 15th title with a 2–1 victory over Sporting de Gijón, team that played their second consecutive final.

The defending champions, FC Barcelona, was defeated 1–0 (on aggregate score) by Atlético de Madrid in the round of 16.

1982 Copa del Rey Final

The 1982 Copa del Rey Final was the 80th final of the King's Cup. The final was played at Estadio Nuevo José Zorrilla in Valladolid, on 13 April 1982, being won by Real Madrid C.F., who beat Sporting de Gijón 2–1.

2009–10 Real Valladolid season

The 2009–10 season is Real Valladolid's third consecutive season in La Liga. José Luis Mendilibar began the season as team's coach, but he was sacked on 1 February 2010 after the draw against Almería. Onésimo Sánchez became the new team coach and, after the defeat against Villarreal in Nuevo José Zorrilla, he was also sacked on 5 April. The directive discovered on 6 April the new team coach, Javier Clemente.

2010–11 Real Valladolid season

The 2010–11 Spanish football season is Real Valladolid's first season in the second level in Spanish football since the historical 2006–07 season, in which the team promoted to La Liga with 88 points. After the salvation attempt of the previous season, Javier Clemente was sacked on 23 June 2010, before the pre-season. Antonio Gómez, Rafael Benítez's former assistant and the former coach of Albacete B, was the new team coach for the 2010–11 season but he was sacked on 29 November 2010 after the defeat against Cartagena in Nuevo José Zorrilla. Javier Torres Gómez was the provisional manager between 29 November and 5 December, earning a point at Barcelona Atlètic's Mini Estadi. After that, Abel Resino was named new team coach in the afternoon of 5 December.

2011–12 Real Valladolid season

The 2011–12 Spanish football season was Real Valladolid's second season in the second level in Spanish football after being defeated 3–2 on aggregate against Elche in La Liga promotion play-off in June 2011. This season will be the 31st of Real Valladolid in the second level in Spanish football. The general coordinator during last season, Chuti Molina, left his work on 14 June, becoming Real Murcia general director. On 17 June, Real Valladolid made official Abel Resino's detachment as he did not renew his contract as team manager. On 4 July, Carlos Suárez announced he had bought 59% of the club shareholding, becoming shareholder of Real Valladolid, and therefore the owner of the entity. At the same time he confirmed that he will not step down as chairman and, from the next day, news about the sporting aspect will be known. Earlier on 6 July, the club became official the incorporation of the Serbian manager Miroslav Đukić for the next 3 seasons. During that day, it also was confirmed that José Antonio García Calvo, general director, left his work.Real Valladolid qualified in 3rd position in Segunda División, behind both Deportivo and Celta de Vigo, with 82 points. It was the first time in the history that any team with 80+ points wasn't directly promoted to La Liga. Deportivo de La Coruña beat Real Valladolid's points record, getting 91 points in the whole season. The record was established by José Luis Mendilibar's team in 2007 when Real Valladolid scored 88 points and were champions.The team had to play the Promotion play-off again, and got the promotion to 2012–13 La Liga by winning 3–0 on aggregate to Córdoba in the Semifinal and by 2–1 to AD Alcorcón in the Final.

2012–13 Real Valladolid season

The 2012–13 Real Valladolid season was the club's first season in La Liga since its relegation at the end of the 2009–10 season. The club's manager in the previous season, Miroslav Đukić, continued with the team.

2018–19 Real Valladolid season

During the 2018–19 season, Real Valladolid are participating in La Liga and Copa del Rey.

Ciudad Deportiva del Real Valladolid

The Ciudad Deportiva del Real Valladolid, commonly known as Campos Anexos al Estadio José Zorrilla, is the training ground and academy base of the Spanish football club Real Valladolid. It was opened in 1988.Located few metres west of the Estadio José Zorrilla, it is used for youth and senior teams trainings.

Don Juan Tenorio

Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantasy Drama in Two Parts), is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla. It is the more romantic of the two principal Spanish-language literary interpretations of the legend of Don Juan. The other is the 1630 El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra (The Trickster of Seville and the Guest of Stone), which is attributed to Tirso de Molina. Don Juan Tenorio owes a great deal to this earlier version, as recognized by Zorrilla himself in 1880 in his Recuerdos del tiempo viejo (Memories of the Old Times), although the author curiously confuses de Molina with another writer of the same era, Agustín Moreto.

Don Juan Tenorio (1898 film)

Don Juan Tenorio is a 1898 Mexican silent drama film directed by Salvador Toscano who was Mexico’s first filmmaker and is also the first film adaptation of Don Juan Tenorio a play by José Zorrilla.

Estadio José Zorrilla

Estadio José Zorrilla [esˈtaðjo xoˈse θoˈriʎa] is a football stadium in Valladolid, Spain. The stadium holds 26,512 people.

The stadium was built in 1982 and is named after poet José Zorrilla y Moral. Prior to this, they played in the old Estadio José Zorrilla.

The first match to be played at the stadium was a Spanish Liga match 20 February 1982 between Real Valladolid and Athletic Bilbao which ended in a 1–0 victory for Valladolid, the only goal being scored in the 84th minute by Jorge Alonso. The 1982 Copa del Rey Final was played at the stadium on 13 April, with Real Madrid defeating Sporting de Gijón 2–1.

During the 1982 FIFA World Cup, three Group D matches (Czechoslovakia-Kuwait, France-Kuwait and France-Czechoslovakia) were played at the Estadio Zorrilla. Various incidents have happened at this stadium, most notably a Spanish Fascist March meant to commemorate the Francoist Forces' retaking of Valladolid from the Spanish Republic. The March, which happened on March 15 2014, ended with 12 people killed and 86 arrested.

Pop Superstar Michael Jackson performed a sold-out show on September 6, 1997 during his HIStory World Tour.

Plans are currently under way to expand the stadium to 40,000 spectators. The project is known as Valladolid Arena [baʎaˈðolið aˈɾena].

In 2016, the stadium hosted the Copa del Rey de Rugby final between SilverStorm El Salvador and VRAC Entrepinares. 26,500 spectators attended to the game beating the record of attendance to a rugby union match in Spain.

Estadio José Zorrilla (1940)

Estadio José Zorrilla was a multi-use stadium in Valladolid, Spain. It was initially used as the stadium for Real Valladolid matches. The first match took place on 3 November 1940 with a 4-1 win over Arenas Club de Getxo. The capacity of the stadium was 18,000 spectators, although this was extended for the last game of the 1980-81 season to 22,000 with the use of temporary seating for a match against Real Madrid. It was replaced by the current Estadio José Zorrilla in 1982, although the reserve team, Real Valladolid B, carried on using the ground until 1984. The site is now occupied by a branch of the El Corte Inglés department store.

Juan Lombía

Juan Lombía (1806 in Zaragoza – 1851 in Madrid) was a Spanish actor, author and theatre impresario. As an author, he only remembered today for his 1808 El sitio de Zaragoza, a one-act prologue dedicated to the Dos de Mayo Uprising. As impresario at Teatro de la Cruz, he was responsible for the staging of numerous works by José Zorrilla, among them Don Juan Tenorio.

Kuwait at the FIFA World Cup

Kuwait have appeared in the finals of the FIFA World Cup on one occasion in 1982.

Margarita la tornera

Margarita la tornera (Margarita the Gatekeeper) is an opera in three acts composed by Ruperto Chapí to a libretto by Carlos Fernández Shaw, based on a dramatic poem by José Zorrilla. It premiered on 24 February 1909 at the Teatro Real in Madrid in a performance conducted by the composer. An acclaimed recording of the opera came out in 1999 with Plácido Domingo and Elisabete Matos.

Real Valladolid

Real Valladolid Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., or simply Real Valladolid (pronounced [reˈal βaʎaðoˈlið]) or Valladolid, is a football club based in Valladolid, Spain, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, from where the nickname Pucela is derived. The colors that identify the club are the violet and white, used in the form of streaks in his uniform holder from its foundation on 20 June 1928. It plays in La Liga, holding home games at the Estadio José Zorrilla, which seats 26,512 spectators.

Valladolid's honors include a single trophy of great relevance, the defunct Copa de la Liga 1983/84. It has been runner-up in the Copa del Rey on two occasions (1949/50 and 1988/89), and has participated in two editions of the UEFA Cup (1984/85 and 1997/98) and also one edition of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (1989/90). The team subsidiary, the Real Valladolid B, currently play in the Segunda División B.

Valladolid is the most successful football club in Castile and León by honors and history, with a total of 43 seasons in the First Division, 35 in the Second and 10 in the Third. Historically, Valladolid is the 13th best team in Spain by overall points. Two of its players have risen with the Pichichi Trophy: Manuel Badenes and Jorge da Silva; and ten were internationals with the Spain national football team.

On 3 September 2018, it was announced Brazilian former international footballer Ronaldo Nazario had become the majority shareholder after purchasing a 51% controlling stake in the club.

Traidor, inconfeso y mártir

Traidor, inconfeso y mártir (English: Traitor, unconfessed and a martyr) is a Spanish play by José Zorrilla that was published in 1849. Though Traidor is not Zorrilla's most well-known play, the playwright considered it to be his best work.Traidor, inconfesto y martir is a historical drama in Romantic Spanish style. The play is loosely based on a historical incident during which Gabriel de Espinosa was tried and convicted for impersonating King Sebastian of Portugal.Traidor's setting is less elaborate than that of many other plays written during the Romantic period because Zorilla was more preoccupied with the character development of the play's protagonist and hero, Gabriel Espinosa.


Zorrilla is a Spanish surname. Notable people with the surname include:

José Zorrilla y Moral (1817–1893), Spanish writer

Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla (1607–1648), Spanish dramatist

Juan Zorrilla de San Martín (1855–1931), Uruguayan poet

Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla (1833–1895), Spanish Prime Minister

Zorrilla Theatre

The Teatro Zorrilla or Zorrilla Theatre, also known as the Duláang Zorrilla sa Maynila ("Zorrilla Theater in Manila") in Tagalog, was a prominent theater in the Philippines. Once located along Calle Iris (now a part of C.M. Recto Avenue), Manila, the theater was named after José Zorrilla (1817 - 1893), a Spanish poet and playwright. The building, which had a seating capacity of 900 people, was officially opened on 17 August 1893, and it was the venue for Spanish-language and Tagalog-language stage performances.

Theologians and
Visual artists

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.