José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset (Spanish: [xoˈse oɾˈteɣa i ɣaˈset]; 9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher and essayist. He worked during the first half of the 20th century, while Spain oscillated between monarchy, republicanism, and dictatorship. His philosophy has been characterized as a "philosophy of life" that "comprised a long-hidden beginning in a pragmatist metaphysics inspired by William James, and with a general method from a realist phenomenology imitating Edmund Husserl, which served both his proto-existentialism (prior to Martin Heidegger's)[1] and his realist historicism, which has been compared to both Wilhelm Dilthey and Benedetto Croce."[4]

José Ortega y Gasset
Ortega y Gasset in the 1920s
Born9 May 1883
Died18 October 1955 (aged 72)
Alma materUniversity of Deusto
Complutense University of Madrid
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
Existential phenomenology[1]
Lebensphilosophie (philosophy of life)[1]
Neo-Kantianism (early)[1]
Main interests
History, reason, politics
Notable ideas
Metaphysics of vital reason[1]


José Ortega y Gasset was born 9 May 1883 in Madrid. His father was director of the newspaper El Imparcial, which belonged to the family of his mother, Dolores Gasset. The family was definitively of Spain's end-of-the-century liberal and educated bourgeoisie. The liberal tradition and journalistic engagement of his family had a profound influence in Ortega y Gasset's activism in politics.

Ortega was first schooled by the Jesuit priests of San Estanislao in Miraflores del Palo, Málaga (1891–1897). He attended the University of Deusto, Bilbao (1897–98) and the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid (now Complutense University of Madrid) (1898–1904), receiving a doctorate in Philosophy. From 1905 to 1907, he continued his studies in Germany at Leipzig, Nuremberg, Cologne, Berlin and, above all Marburg. At Marburg, he was influenced by the neo-Kantianism of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, among others.

On his return to Spain in 1908, he was appointed professor of Psychology, Logic and Ethics at the Escuela Superior del Magisterio de Madrid[5] and in October 1910 he was named full professor of Metaphysics at Complutense University of Madrid, a vacant seat previously held by Nicolás Salmerón.

In 1917 he became a contributor to the newspaper El Sol, where he published, as a series of essays, his two principal works: España invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain) and La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses). The latter made him internationally famous. He founded the Revista de Occidente in 1923, remaining its director until 1936. This publication promoted translation of (and commentary upon) the most important figures and tendencies in philosophy, including Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, and Bertrand Russell.

Elected deputy for the Province of León in the constituent assembly of the Second Spanish Republic, he was the leader of a parliamentary group of intellectuals known as Agrupación al Servicio de la República[6] ("The Grouping at the Service of the Republic"), which supported the platform of Socialist Republican candidates,[7] but he soon abandoned politics, disappointed.

Leaving Spain at the outbreak of the Civil War, he spent years of exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina until moving back to Europe in 1942.[5] He settled in Portugal by mid-1945 and slowly began to make short visits to Spain. In 1948 he returned to Madrid, where he founded the Institute of Humanities, at which he lectured.[8] Upon his return to Spain, he often privately expressed his hostility to the Franco regime, stating that the government did not deserve anyone's confidence and that his beliefs were "incompatible with Franco."[9]



The Revolt of the Masses is Ortega's best known work. In this book he defends the values of meritocratic liberalism reminiscent of John Stuart Mill against attacks from both communists and right-wing populists.[10] Ortega likewise shares Mill's fears of the "tyranny of the majority" and the "collective mediocrity" of the masses, which threaten individuality, free thought, and protections for minorities.[10] Ortega characterized liberalism as a politics of "magnanimity."[10]

Ortega's rejection of the Spanish Conservative Party under Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and his successors was unequivocal, as was his distrust of the Spanish monarchy and Catholic Church.[10][11] However, again in a manner similar to Mill, Ortega was open-minded toward certain socialists and non-Marxist forms of socialism, and even complimented Pablo Iglesias Posse as a "lay saint."[12] Under the influence of German social democrats such as Paul Natorp and Hermann Cohen, he adopted a communitarian ontology and could be critical of capitalism, particularly the laissez-faire variant, declaring that "nineteenth-century capitalism has demoralized humanity" and that it had "impoverished the ethical consciousness of man."[13]

"Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia"

For Ortega y Gasset, philosophy has a critical duty to lay siege to beliefs in order to promote new ideas and to explain reality. To accomplish such tasks, the philosopher must—as Husserl proposed—leave behind prejudices and previously existing beliefs, and investigate the essential reality of the universe. Ortega y Gasset proposes that philosophy must overcome the limitations of both idealism (in which reality centers around the ego) and ancient-medieval realism (in which reality is outside the subject) to focus on the only truthful reality: "my life"—the life of each individual. He suggests that there is no "me" without things, and things are nothing without me: "I" (human being) cannot be detached from "my circumstance" (world). This led Ortega y Gasset to pronounce his famous maxim "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" ("I am I and my circumstance") (Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914)[14] which he always put at the core of his philosophy.

For Ortega y Gasset, as for Husserl, the Cartesian 'cogito ergo sum' is insufficient to explain reality. Therefore, the Spanish philosopher proposes a system wherein the basic or "radical" reality is "my life" (the first yo), which consists of "I" (the second yo) and "my circumstance" (mi circunstancia). This circunstancia is oppressive; therefore, there is a continual dialectical interaction between the person and his or her circumstances and, as a result, life is a drama that exists between necessity and freedom.

In this sense Ortega y Gasset wrote that life is at the same time fate and freedom, and that freedom "is being free inside of a given fate. Fate gives us an inexorable repertory of determinate possibilities, that is, it gives us different destinies. We accept fate and within it we choose one destiny." In this tied down fate we must therefore be active, decide and create a "project of life"—thus not be like those who live a conventional life of customs and given structures who prefer an unconcerned and imperturbable life because they are afraid of the duty of choosing a project.


With a philosophical system that centered around life, Ortega y Gasset also stepped out of Descartes' cogito ergo sum and asserted "I live therefore I think". This stood at the root of his Kantian-inspired perspectivism,[1] which he developed by adding a non-relativistic character in which absolute truth does exist and would be obtained by the sum of all perspectives of all lives, since for each human being life takes a concrete form and life itself is a true radical reality from which any philosophical system must derive. In this sense, Ortega coined the terms "razón vital" ("vital reason" or "reason with life as its foundation") to refer to a new type of reason that constantly defends the life from which it has surged and "raciovitalismo", a theory that based knowledge in the radical reality of life, one of whose essential components is reason itself. This system of thought, which he introduces in History as System, escaped from Nietzsche's vitalism in which life responded to impulses; for Ortega, reason is crucial to create and develop the above-mentioned project of life.

Historical reason

For Ortega y Gasset, vital reason is also "historical reason", for individuals and societies are not detached from their past. In order to understand a reality we must understand, as Dilthey pointed out, its history. In Ortega's words, humans have "no nature, but history" and reason should not focus on what is (static) but what becomes (dynamic).


Ortega y Gasset's influence was considerable, not only because many sympathized with his philosophical writings, but also because those writings did not require that the reader be well-versed in technical philosophy.

Among those strongly influenced by Ortega y Gasset were Luis Buñuel, Manuel García Morente, Joaquín Xirau, Xavier Zubiri, Ignacio Ellacuría, Emilio Komar, José Gaos, Luis Recasens, Manuel Granell, Francisco Ayala, María Zambrano, Agustín Basave, Máximo Etchecopar, Pedro Laín Entralgo, José Luis López-Aranguren, Julián Marías, John Lukacs, Pierre Bourdieu, Paulino Garagorri, Olavo de Carvalho, Vicente Ferreira da Silva, Vilém Flusser and Félix Martí-Ibáñez.

The Ortega hypothesis, based on a quote in The Revolt of the Masses, states that average or mediocre scientists contribute substantially to the advancement of science.

German grape breeder Hans Breider named the grape variety Ortega in his honor.[15]

The American philosopher Graham Harman has recognized Ortega y Gasset as a source of inspiration for his own object-oriented ontology.

La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses) has been translated into English twice. The first, in 1932, is by a translator who wanted to remain anonymous,[16] generally accepted to be J.R. Carey.[17] The second translation was published by the University of Notre Dame Press in 1985, in association with W.W. Norton & Co. This translation was by Anthony Kerrigan (translator) and Kenneth Moore (editor), with an introduction by Saul Bellow.

Mildred Adams is the translator (into English) of the main body of Ortega's work, including Invertebrate Spain, Man and Crisis, What is Philosophy?, Some Lessons in Metaphysics, The Idea of Principle in Leibniz and the Evolution of Deductive Theory, and An Interpretation of Universal History.

Influence on the Generation of '27

Ortega y Gasset had considerable influence on writers of the Generation of '27, a group of poets that arose in Spanish literature in the 1920s.


Much of Ortega y Gasset's work consists of course lectures published years after the fact, often posthumously. This list attempts to list works in chronological order by when they were written, rather than when they were published.

  • Meditaciones del Quijote (Meditations on Quixote, 1914)
  • Vieja y nueva política (Old and new politics, 1914)
  • Investigaciones psicológicas (Psychological investigations, course given 1915–16 and published in 1982)
  • Personas, obras, cosas (People, works, things, articles and essays written 1904–1912: "Renan", "Adán en el Paraíso" – "Adam in Paradise", "La pedagogía social como programa político" – "Pedagogy as a political program", "Problemas culturales" – "Cultural problems", etc., published 1916)
  • El Espectador (The Spectator, 8 volumes published 1916–1934)
  • España invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain, 1921)
  • El tema de nuestro tiempo (The theme of our time, 1923)
  • Las Atlántidas (The Atlantises, 1924)
  • La deshumanización del arte e Ideas sobre la novela (The dehumanization of art and Ideas about the novel, 1925)
  • Espíritu de la letra (The spirit of the letter 1927)
  • Mirabeau o el político (Mirabeau or the politician, 1928–1929)
  • ¿Qué es filosofía? (What is philosophy? 1928–1929, course published posthumously in 1957)
  • Kant (1929–31)
  • ¿Qué es conocimiento? (What is knowledge? Published in 1984, covering three courses taught in 1929, 1930, and 1931, entitled, respectively: "Vida como ejecución (El ser ejecutivo)" – "Life as execution (The executive being)", "Sobre la realidad radical" – "On radical reality" and "¿Qué es la vida?" – "What is Life?")
  • La rebelión de las masas (The Revolt of the Masses, 1930)
  • Rectificación de la República; La redención de las provincias y la decencia nacional (Rectification of the Republic: Redemption of the provinces and national decency, 1931)
  • Goethe desde dentro (Goethe from within, 1932)
  • Unas lecciones de metafísica (Some lessons in metaphysics, course given 1932–33, published 1966)
  • En torno a Galileo (About Galileo, course given 1933–34; portions were published in 1942 under the title "Esquema de las crisis" – "Outline of crises"; Mildred Adams's translation was published in 1958 as Man and Crisis.)
  • Prólogo para alemanes (Prologue for Germans, prologue to the third German edition of El tema de nuestro tiempo. Ortega himself prevented its publication "because of the events of Munich in 1934". It was finally published, in Spanish, in 1958.)
  • History as a System (First published in English in 1935. the Spanish version, Historia como sistema, 1941, adds an essay "El Imperio romano" – "The Roman Empire").
  • Ensimismamiento y alteración. Meditación de la técnica. (Self-absorption and alteration. Meditation on the technique, 1939)
  • Ideas y creencias (Ideas and beliefs: on historical reason, a course taught in 1940 Buenos Aires, published 1979 along with Sobre la razón histórica)
  • Teoría de Andalucía y otros ensayos – Guillermo Dilthey y la idea de vida (The theory of Andalucia and other essays: Wilhelm Dilthey and the idea of life, 1942)
  • Sobre la razón histórica (On historical reason, course given in Lisbon, 1944, published 1979 along with Ideas y Crencias)
  • Prólogo a un Tratado de Montería (Preface to a treatise on the Hunt [separately published as Meditations on the Hunt], created as preface to a book on the hunt by Count Ybes published 1944)
  • Idea del teatro. Una abreviatura (The idea of theatre. An abbreviated version, lecture given in Lisbon April 1946, and in Madrid, May 1946; published in 1958, La Revista Nacional de educación num. 62 contained the version given in Madrid.)
  • La Idea de principio en Leibniz y la evolución de la teoría deductiva (The Idea of principle in Leibniz and the evolution of deductive theory, 1947, published 1958)
  • Una interpretación de la historia universal. En torno a Toynbee (An interpretation of universal history. On Toynbee, 1948, published in 1960)
  • Meditación de Europa (Meditation on Europe), lecture given in Berlin in 1949 with the Latin-language title De Europa meditatio quaedam. Published 1960 together with other previously unpublished works.
  • El hombre y la gente (Man and people, course given 1949–1950 at the Institute of the Humanities, published 1957; Willard Trask's translation as Man and People published 1957; Partisan Review published parts of this translation in 1952)
  • Papeles sobre Velázquez y Goya (Papers on Velázquez and Goya, 1950)
  • Pasado y porvenir para el hombre actual (Past and future for present-day man, published 1962, brings together a series of lectures given in Germany, Switzerland, and England in the period 1951–1954, published together with a commentary on Plato's Symposium.)
  • Goya (1958)
  • Velázquez (1959)
  • Origen y epílogo de la filosofía (Origin and epilogue of philosophy, 1960),
  • La caza y los toros (Hunting and bulls, 1960)
  • Meditations on hunting (1972) translated into English by Howard B. Westcott

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Holmes, Oliver, "José Ortega y Gasset", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
  2. ^ José Ortega y Gasset called Dilthey "the most important philosopher in the second half of the nineteenth century" in his Concord and Liberty (David K. Naugle, Worldview: The History of a Concept, William B. Eerdmans, 2002, p. 82).
  3. ^ Graham 1994 p. 159: "Since 1923 Ortega had probably written (at least edited) anonymous articles for Espasa-Calpe on James, Peirce, and Schiller."
  4. ^ John T. Graham. A Pragmatist Philosophy of Life in Ortega y Gasset. (University of Missouri Press, 1994), p. vii.
  5. ^ a b Datos biográficos
  6. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia Spanish Version: Agrupación_al_Servicio_de_la_República Microsoft Corporation Spanish Version [1]. Archived 2009-10-31.
  7. ^ Holmes, Oliver. "José Ortega y Gasset". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  8. ^ Philosophy Professor: Jose Ortega Y Gasset Archived 16 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Dobson, Andrew (19 November 2009). An Introduction to the Politics and Philosophy of José Ortega Y Gasset. Cambridge University Press. p. 38.
  10. ^ a b c d Dobson, Andrew (19 November 2009). An Introduction to the Politics and Philosophy of José Ortega Y Gasset. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–72.
  11. ^ Enkvist, Inger (2002). "José Ortega y Gasset - The Spanish philosopher who saw life as an intellectual adventure". CFE Working Paper Series. 18: 16.
  12. ^ Dobson, Andrew (19 November 2009). An Introduction to the Politics and Philosophy of José Ortega Y Gasset. Cambridge University Press. pp. 46–47.
  13. ^ Dobson, Andrew (19 November 2009). An Introduction to the Politics and Philosophy of José Ortega Y Gasset. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52–55.
  14. ^ Ortega y Gasset, José. Obras Completas, Vol. I. Ed. Taurus/Fundación José Ortega y Gasset, Madrid, 2004, p. 757.
  15. ^ Wein-Plus Glossar: Ortega, accessed 6 March 2013
  16. ^ José Ortega y Gasset (1930/1950), The Revolt of the Masses, reprint, New York: New American Library, p. 4.
  17. ^ as referenced by the Project Gutenberg eBook of U.S. Copyright Renewals, 1960 January – June.


External links

1929 in philosophy

1929 in philosophy

Adolfo Salazar

Adolfo Salazar Ruiz de Palacios (6 March 1890 - 27 September 1958) was a Spanish music historian, music critic, composer, and diplomat of the first half of the twentieth century. He was the preeminent Spanish musicologist of the Silver Age. Fluent in Spanish, French, and English, he was an intellectual and expert of the artistic and cultural currents of his time, and a brilliant polemicist. He maintained a close connection with other prominent Spanish intellectuals and musicians including José Ortega y Gasset, Jesús Bay y Gay, and Ernesto Halffter. In his writings, he was a defender of the French musical aesthetic of Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy.

He composed over twenty works for orchestra, string quartet, solo piano, voice and piano, chorus, and guitar. While his compositions are significant in the context of the 1920s Spanish musical avant-garde, today his critical writings are deemed of greater importance. He is most known for his insightful commentary and analysis in his eighteen years as music critic (1918-1936) for the Madrid daily El Sol.

Institución Libre de Enseñanza

La Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE) or The Free Institution of Education was an educational project developed in Spain for over half a century (1876–1936). The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism, first introduced to the Complutense University of Madrid by Julián Sanz del Río, and which, despite being subsequently ejected from that university, was to have a significant impact on intellectual life in Restoration Spain.

The institution was founded in 1876 by a group of disaffected university professors, including Francisco Giner de los Ríos, Gumersindo Azcarate, Teodoro Sainz Rueda and Nicolás Salmerón, among others, who distanced themselves from the main university campus of Madrid to achieve academic freedom. They declined to adjust their teaching to any official religious dogma or the moral and political imposition of the time. Consequently, they had to continue their educational work outside the state sector by creating a secular private educational institution, starting with university level instruction and later extending their activities to primary and secondary education.

They supported and seconded the intellectual ideas of Joaquín Costa, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), José Ortega y Gasset, Gregorio Marañón, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Antonio Machado, Joaquín Sorolla, Augusto González Linares, Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Federico Rubio, among others involved in educational, cultural and social renewal.

José Espasa Anguera

José Espasa Anguera (1840 in Pobla de Ciérvoles (Lérida) – July 4, 1911 in Barcelona) was a Spanish publisher. He is most famous for having been the driving force behind the prestigious Enciclopedia Espasa.

Coming from a very humble rural family, and still a child, he had to move to Barcelona. There he first was a laborer in a demolition site for the walls of Barcelona. When he was 18 he accepted a job as a paper delivery boy. He was fascinated with the book trade, and learned as much as he could about it. In 1860, he risked his modest savings to establish a small subscription center, the precursor of the Espasa-Calpe publishing house. In this period (1860–77), under the trade name Espasa Hermanos (Espasa Brothers), published the Diccionari de la llengua catalana (Dictionary of the Catalan Language) by Laberinia. In 1875, the Poesias catalanas (Catalan Poems) by Federico Soler, were published, and became the most notable Catalan poetry publication of the era. Mr. Espasa went on to hire the most popular writers of the day. In 1881, he reached an agreement with his brother-in-law, Manuel Salvat to form a new company, Espasa y Compañía (Espasa and Company; 1881–97). In 1886, they left their spacious location on Aribau Street to a much larger building on Cortes Street. In 1897, Salvat left the venture, which until 1908, operated under the name “José Espasa” and then until the death of Senior Espasa as “Espasa é Hijos” (Espasa and Sons). Espasa's dream of "a Great (Spanish) Encyclopedia" took shape in 1905, first with the publication of weekly instalments, and, from 1908 onwards, in volumes. The magnitude of this enterprise eventually overwhelmed the publishing house and in 1925 they associated with Calpe; the head offices were moved to Madrid, and the direction of the company was given to José Ortega y Gasset.Espasa's legacy lives on today as the Espasa-Calpe publishing house—a major publisher of Spanish reference books.

José Gaos

José Gaos (26 December 1900 in Gijón, Spain – 10 June 1969 in Mexico City) was a Spanish philosopher who obtained political asylum in Mexico during the Spanish Civil War and became one of the most important Mexican philosophers of the 20th century.

Gaos grew up in Valencia and Oviedo in Spain. His dissertation dealt with the problem of psychologism. He then became philosophy professor in León, at the University of Zaragoza and, since 1933, at the University of Madrid. In 1938, during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), he relocated to Mexico and taught as professor at the National Autonomous University of Mexico/UNAM. He was influenced by neo-scholasticism, neo-Kantianism and Husserl's phenomenology, in addition to German philosophers like Martin Heidegger and Nicolai Hartmann and, first and foremost, by his teacher, the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset. Other teachers were philosophers Manuel García Morente and Xavier Zubiri.

Gaos also was a prolific translator of German philosophy, contributing to the translation projects of the School of Madrid that had been set up by Ortega. Gaos translated to Spanish the books of philosophers such as: Martin Heidegger (the first Spanish translation of Being and Time), John Dewey, Søren Kierkegaard, G. W. F. Hegel, Max Scheler, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Edmund Husserl.

His collected works (Obras completas) are edited by the UNAM in Mexico City, where also the Gaos-Archive is located.

José Ortega Spottorno

José Ortega Spottorno (November 13, 1916 – February 18, 2002) was a Spanish journalist and publisher. Born in Madrid to famous philosopher José Ortega y Gasset and Rosa Spottorno Topete, José Ortega Spottorno was the founder of affordable paperback publishing firm Alianza Editorial and the Spanish daily newspaper El País, which quickly became the bestselling Spanish newspaper, a crown it holds to this day. He was survived by his wife, Simone Ortega, and three children, one of whom works as a journalist for El País.

Julián Marías

Julián Marías Aguilera (17 June 1914 – 15 December 2005) was a Spanish philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement. He was a pupil of the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset.

Mass society

Mass society is any society of the modern era that possesses a mass culture and large-scale, impersonal, social institutions. A mass society is a "society in which prosperity and bureaucracy have weakened traditional social ties". Descriptions of society as a "mass" took form in the 19th century, referring to the leveling tendencies in the period of the Industrial Revolution that undermined traditional and aristocratic values.

In the work of early 19th century political theorists such as Alexis de Tocqueville, the term was used in discussions of elite concerns about a shift in the body politic of the Western world pronounced since the French Revolution. Such elite concerns centered in large part on the "tyranny of the majority", or mob rule.

In the late 19th century, in the work of Émile Durkheim, the term was associated with society as a mass of undifferentiated, atomistic individuals. In 20th century neo-Marxist accounts, such as those of the Frankfurt School, mass society was linked to a society of alienated individuals held together by a culture industry that served the interests of capitalism.

Conservative accounts in the 20th century critiqued mass society from a different perspective. José Ortega y Gasset, for instance, lamented the decline of high culture in mass society.

Melquíades Álvarez (politician)

Melquíades Álvarez Gónzalez-Posada (Gijón, May 17, 1864 - Madrid, August 22, 1936) was a Spanish Republican politician, founder and leader of the Reformist Republican Party (Partido Republicano Reformista), commonly known just as Reformist Party and President of the Congress of Deputies between 1922 and 1923.

He studied Law at the University of Oviedo and collaborated with Asturian liberal newspapers. In 1898 he was elected to the Congress as Liberal candidate and was appointed Professor of Roman Law at the University of Oviedo. In 1899, he turned into Republican and in 1906 he was elected Republican congressman. He was one of the organizers of the Liberal Block in 1908 against the Conservative Prime Minister Antonio Maura and of the Republican-Socialist Conjunction in 1909. In 1912, he founded with Gumersindo de Azcárate and José Ortega y Gasset the Reformist Party and the League for the Spanish Political Education. In the 1914 elections, 11 Reformist congressmen were elected. It had also a great success in the municipal elections in Asturias. During the Second Republic he founded the Democratic Liberal Republican Party (Partido Republicano Liberal Democrático), but its electoral results were poor: two deputies in 1932 and ten in 1933, when they supported the right-wing government backed by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). After the beginning of the Civil War, the revolutionary militias imprisoned and killed him.

Ortega (grape)

Ortega is a grape variety used for white wine. It was created in 1948 by Hans Breider at the Bayerischen Landesanstalt für Wein-, Obst- und Gartenbau in Würzburg and was released with varietal protection in 1981. It is a cross between Müller-Thurgau and Siegerrebe. Breider chose to name the variety in honour of the Spanish poet and philosopher José Ortega y Gasset.

Ortega ripens early, is not sensitive to frost and reaches quite high must weights, typically 20 degrees Oechsle higher than Müller-Thurgau. It is therefore often used for sweet wines, which are considered to improve with cellaring. Ortega wines have aromas of Muscat and peach and are high in extract.Ortega is also used as a table grape.

In 2016, there were 475 hectares (1,170 acres) of Ortega in Germany, with a decreasing tendency.

Ortega y Gasset Awards

The Ortega y Gasset Journalism Awards are named after the Spanish philosopher and journalist José Ortega y Gasset. The awards were created by the newspaper El País in 1984.

Every year, these awards are given to those whose work has shown "a remarkable defense of freedom, independence, honesty and professional rigor as essential virtues of journalism". The awards were originally divided in four categories:

Periodismo impreso (printed journalism)

Periodismo digital (digital journalism)

Periodismo gráfico (graphic journalism)

Trayectoria profesional (career award)As of 2016, the new categories are:

Mejor Historia e Investigación Periodística (Best Story or Journalistic Investigation)

Mejor Cobertura Multimedia (Best Multimedia Coverage)

Mejor Fotografía (Best photography)

Trayectoria profesional (Career Award)

Pact of San Sebastián

The Pact of San Sebastián was a meeting led by Niceto Alcalá Zamora and Miguel Maura, which took place in San Sebastián, Spain on August 17, 1930. Representatives from practically all republican political movements in Spain at the time attended the meeting. Presided over by Fernando Sasiaín (representative of the Unión Republicana), the attendees included:

- for the Radical Republican Party: Alejandro Lerroux;

- for Acción Republicana: Manuel Azaña;

- for the Partido Radical Socialista: Marcelino Domingo, Álvaro de Albornoz and Ángel Galarza;

- for the Derecha Liberal Republicana: Niceto Alcalá Zamora and Miguel Maura;

- for Acció Catalana: Manuel Carrasco Formiguera;

- for Acció Republicana de Catalunya: Matías Mallol Bosch;

- for the Estat Català: Jaume Aiguader;

- for the Organización Republicana Gallega Autónoma: Santiago Casares Quiroga;

- in their own right: Indalecio Prieto, Felipe Sánchez Román, Fernando de los Ríos, and Eduardo Ortega y Gasset, brother of philosopher José Ortega y Gasset. Gregorio Marañón was not able to attend, but sent a letter associating himself with the group.At the meeting, a "revolutionary committee" was formed, headed by Alcalá-Zamora; this committee eventually became the first provisional government of the Second Spanish Republic. The committee was in close contact with a group of soldiers, with the intent of bringing about a military coup in favor of a republic. The coup was set for December 15, 1930. Nonetheless, Captain Fermín Galán attempted to start the uprising on December 12, which resulted in the failure of the coup. Galán and Captain Ángel García Hernández were executed by a firing squad.

Pedro Cerezo Galán

Pedro Cerezo Galán (born 14 February 1935, Hinojosa del Duque) is a Spanish philosopher and university professor. His specialty is contemporary Western philosophy, including modern Spanish thinkers such as José Ortega y Gasset, Xavier Zubiri and Antonio Machado.


Perspectivism (German: Perspektivismus) is the view that perception, experience, and reason change according to the viewer's relative perspective and interpretation. There are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made. This is often taken to imply that no way of seeing the world can be taken as definitively "true", but does not necessarily entail that all perspectives are equally valid. Leibniz integrated this view into his philosophy, but Nietzsche fully developed it It rejects both the idea of perspective-free or interpretation-free objective reality.

Reformist Party (Spain)

The Reformist Party (formally and less-commonly known as the Reformist Republican Party; Spanish: Partido Reformista; 1912–1931) was a political party in early 20th-century Spain. It was founded in 1912 by Melquíades Álvarez, Gumersindo de Azcárate, and José Ortega y Gasset. In the 1914 election, the party elected 11 members to the Congress of Deputies. The party ceased to exist during the Second Republic, which began in 1931.

Simone Ortega

Simone Ortega Klein (29 May 1919 – 2 July 2008), better known simply as Simone Ortega, was a bestselling Spanish culinary author. Born in Barcelona to a family originally from Alsace in France, she published her first and bestselling book 1080 recetas de cocina (republished in English as 1080 Recipes) in 1972. She was married to publisher José Ortega Spottorno, son of famous philosopher José Ortega y Gasset and founder of the Spanish daily newspaper El País, until his death in 2002.Her bestselling book, 1080 recetas de cocina (1080 Recipes) has sold over 3,5 million copies in Spain since it was first published, and as of 2007 it was on its 48th updated edition there. In 1987 she was awarded the Spanish Special Prize of Gastronomy, following this up in 2006 with the Spain Food Awards Special Prize. In awarding the latter prize, the jury spoke of an entire lifetime dedicated to advising and teaching consumers about good cooking and good cuisine, with special emphasis on the qualilty of national products. 2006 also saw the French government bestow the Order of Arts and Letters on Ortega at a special ceremony in Madrid, at which Ortega commented that ""More than anything else, cuisine is what has brought France and Spain closer together".Aside from writing cookbooks, Ortega had a regular column in ¡Hola!, and was a frequent guest of various radio programmes. Her most recent books were written in collaboration with her daughter, Inés Ortega Klein, who has followed in the footsteps of her mother to become something of a celebrity chef and cookbook author.

The Revolt of the Masses

The Revolt of the Masses (Spanish: La rebelión de las masas, pronounced [la reβeˈljon de laz ˈmasas]) is a book by José Ortega y Gasset. It was first published as a series of articles in the newspaper El Sol in 1929, and as a book in 1930; the English translation, first published two years later, was authorized by Ortega. While the published version notes that the translator requested to remain anonymous, more recent editions also record that its US copyright was renewed in 1960 by a Teresa Carey, and the US Copyright Office's published list of US copyright renewals for January 1960 gives the translator as J. R. Carey.

A second translation was published in 1985 by the University of Notre Dame Press in association with W.W. Norton and Co. This translation was completed by Anthony Kerrigan (translator) and Kenneth Moore (editor). An introduction was written by novelist Saul Bellow.

In this work, Ortega traces the genesis of the "mass-man" and analyzes his constitution, en route to describing the rise to power and action of the masses in society. Ortega is throughout quite critical of both the masses and the mass-men of which they are made up, contrasting "noble life and common life" and excoriating the barbarism and primitivism he sees in the mass-man. He does not, however, refer to specific social classes, as has been so commonly misunderstood in the English-speaking world. Ortega states that the mass-man could be from any social background, but his specific target is the bourgeois educated man, the señorito satisfecho (satisfied young man or Mr. Satisfied), the specialist who believes he has it all and extends the command he has of his subject to others, contemptuous of his ignorance in all of them. Ortega's summary of what he attempted in the book exemplifies this quite well, while simultaneously providing the author's own views on his work: "In this essay an attempt has been made to sketch a certain type of European, mainly by analyzing his behaviour as regards the very civilization into which he was born". This had to be done because that individual "does not represent a new civilisation struggling with a previous one, but a mere negation ..."

The Yale Review

The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

It was founded in 1819 as The Christian Spectator to support Evangelicalism. Over time it began to publish more on history and economics and was renamed The New Englander in 1843. In 1885 it was renamed The New Englander and Yale Review until 1892, when it took its current name The Yale Review. At the same time, editor Henry Wolcott Farnam gave the periodical a focus on American and international politics, economics, and history.

The modern history of the journal starts in 1911 under the editorship of Wilbur Cross. Cross remained the editor for thirty years, throughout the magazine's heyday. Contributors during this period, according to the Review's website, included Thomas Mann, Henry Adams, Virginia Woolf, George Santayana, Robert Frost, José Ortega y Gasset, Eugene O'Neill, Leon Trotsky, H. G. Wells, Thomas Wolfe, John Maynard Keynes, H. L. Mencken, A. E. Housman, Ford Madox Ford, and Wallace Stevens.The current editor is Harold Augenbraum, writer, translator, and former Executive Director of the National Book Foundation. On July 1, 2019, coinciding with the 200th anniversary of its founding, Meghan O'Rourke will take over as editor of The Yale Review.

Thomas Mermall

Thomas Mermall, Uzhhorod (in the Ruthenia region of Hungary, now the Ukraine) July 25, 1937 – New York City, September 22, 2011, Hispanist and professor of Spanish literature. Mermall's studies focused primarily on modern Spanish literature and thought, primarily the developments after the Spanish Civil War, including analyses and commentaries on the works of José Ortega y Gasset, Unamuno, Pedro Laín Entralgo, Juan Rof Carballo and Francisco Ayala, as well as comments on the importance of the essay in Spanish literature.

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