José Melchor Gomis

José Melchor Gomis y Colomer (6 January 1791 – 4 August 1836) was a Spanish Romantic composer. He was born in 1791 in Ontinyent, Vall d'Albaida, Valencia Province.[1]

He was director of music for an artillery regiment during the Napoleonic Wars. An early melodrame by Gomis for voice and orchestra was performed at Valencia in 1817.[2]

He wrote the music of the Himno de Riego,[3] named after the rebellious General Riego (1784-1823) and since used as the national anthem by various republican governments of Spain.

Gomis's political views caused him to live in exile after the accession of Ferdinand VII in 1823, in Paris and in London. In both cities he was a friend of his fellow exile the composer Santiago Masarnau, whom he may have introduced to London musical life. In Paris, Gomis wrote a successful singing method, published in 1826 with dedications to Gioacchino Rossini and François-Adrien Boieldieu, and in London his choral work L'inverno was performed in 1827. In 1830 his opera Aben-Humeya was performed in Paris.[4] Gomis's Paris operas Diable à Seville (1831) (staged with the support of Rossini) and Le revenant (1836) gained respectful reviews from Hector Berlioz.[5] Le portefaix, the most successful of his operas,[2] had a libretto by Eugène Scribe (originally offered to the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer).[6]

Gomis was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by King Louis-Philippe. Gomis died in Paris in 1836 of tuberculosis, leaving a number of works unfinished, including the opera Le comte Julien, also to a libretto by Scribe (and eventually set in 1851 by Sigismond Thalberg as Florinda).[2]

Jose Melchor Gomis
Jose Melchor Gomis (1791-1836) portrait by Gonzalo Salvá - original in the Conservatoire, Valencia


  1. ^ "José Melchor Gomis, un compositor romántico olvidado". El País. 12 August 1978. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Dowling (n.d.)
  3. ^ "El Himno de Riego, la música de la República". El Mundo. 28 November 2003. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  4. ^ Johnson (1993), 67-71
  5. ^ Berlioz (2015), 57.
  6. ^ Letellier (2014), 1
José MELCHOR GOMIS - Cimetière Montmartre
Montmartre Cemetery
  • Berlioz, Hector (ed. Katherine Kolb) (2015). Berlioz on Music: Selected Criticism, 1824-1837. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199391950
  • Dowling, John (n.d.). "Gomis (y Colomer), José Melchor [Melchior]", in Grove Music Online (subscription required), accessed 23 August 2015.
  • Johnson, Janet (1993). "Rossini in Bologna and Paris during the Early 1830s: New Letters", in Revue de Musicologie, vol. 79 no. 1, pp. 67–83.
  • Letellier, Robert (2014). Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots: An Evangel of Religion and Love. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443860840
1791 in music

The year 1791 in music involved some significant events.

Faun (band)

Faun is a German band formed in 1998 who play pagan folk, darkwave and medieval music. The originality of their music style is that they fall back to "old" instruments, and the singing is always the center of attention. The vocals are performed in a variety of languages, including German, Latin, Greek, and Scandinavian languages. Their instruments include Celtic harp, Swedish nyckelharpa, hurdy-gurdy, bagpipes, cittern, flutes and many others.

Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century. With his 1831 opera Robert le diable and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century.

Born to a very wealthy Berlin family, Meyerbeer began his musical career as a pianist but soon decided to devote himself to opera, spending several years in Italy studying and composing. His 1824 opera Il crociato in Egitto was the first to bring him Europe-wide reputation, but it was Robert le diable (1831) which raised his status to great celebrity. His public career, lasting from then until his death, during which he remained a dominating figure in the world of opera, was summarized by his contemporary Hector Berlioz, who claimed that he 'has not only the luck to be talented, but the talent to be lucky.' He was at his peak with his operas Les Huguenots (1836) and Le prophète (1849); his last opera (L'Africaine) was performed posthumously. His operas made him the most frequently performed composer at the world's leading opera houses in the nineteenth century.

At the same time as his successes in Paris, Meyerbeer, as a Prussian Court Kapellmeister (Director of Music) from 1832, and from 1843 as Prussian General Music Director, was also influential in opera in Berlin and throughout Germany. He was an early supporter of Richard Wagner, enabling the first production of the latter's opera Rienzi. He was commissioned to write the patriotic opera Ein Feldlager in Schlesien to celebrate the reopening of the Berlin Royal Opera House in 1844 and wrote music for certain Prussian state occasions.

Apart from around 50 songs, Meyerbeer wrote little except for the stage. The critical assaults of Wagner and his supporters, especially after Meyerbeer’s death, led to a decline in the popularity of his works; his operas were suppressed by the Nazi regime in Germany, and were neglected by opera houses through most of the twentieth century. In the 21st century, however, the composer's major French grand operas have begun to reappear in the repertory of numerous European opera houses.


Gomis (Catalan: [ˈɡomis], spelling variant: Gomiz) is a Catalan surname, equivalent to Gomes in Portuguese, and Gómez in Spanish. It is also a Senegalese and Bissau Guinean surname, borrowed from Portuguese, sharing the same spelling (French: [ɡɔmis]).

Gomis may refer to:

Alfred Gomis, Senegalese–Italian footballer

Anna Gomis, French wrestler

Bafétimbi Gomis, French footballer of Senegalese descent

Bedsenté Gomis, semi-professional French footballer

Émilie Gomis, French female basketball player

José Melchor Gomis (1794-1836), Spanish composer

Joseph Gomis, French basketball player

Kafétien Gomis, French long jumper

Marcel Gomis, Senegalese footballer

Morgaro Gomis, Senegalese footballer

Oswald Gomis, 10th Archbishop of Colombo

Rémi Gomis, French-born Senegalese footballer

Roger Gomis, Senegalese footballer

Víctor Gomis, a Spanish football player currently playing for CD Castellón

Gregory Reinhart

Gregory Reinhart (born June 18, 1951 in Pavilion, New York) is an American bass opera singer. He is noted for an extremely wide repertory which ranges from early music to the world premieres of several contemporary operas including Lowell Liebermann's The Picture of Dorian Gray, Philippe Manoury's K..., and Pascal Dusapin's Perelà, uomo di fumo. He has been praised in The Metropolitan Opera Guide to Recorded Opera for his performance in Monteverdi's L'Incoronazione di Poppea as one of the finest Senecas on record with "a magnificent bass voice: firm and clear throughout its wide range".

Himno de Riego

The "Himno de Riego" ("Anthem of Riego") is a song dating from the Liberal Triennium and named in honour of Colonel Rafael del Riego, composed by José Melchor Gomis to words by Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel. It was the national anthem of Spain during the Trienio Liberal (1820–1823) and the First (1873–1874) and Second Spanish Republics (1931–1939).

Jean-Baptiste Chollet

Jean-Baptiste Marie Chollet (20 May 1798, in Paris – 10 January 1892) was a French musician and singer (baritone. He also composed a few surviving romances and nocturnes. He married the opera singer Geneviève-Aimé-Zoë Prévost and their daughter Caroline Chollet also became an opera singer under the stage name Mademoiselle Monrose.

Le portefaix

Le portefaix (The Porter) (full title Le portefaix ou le jardinier de Grenade (The Porter, or the Gardener of Grenada)) is an opéra comique in three acts composed by José Melchor Gomis. The libretto by Eugène Scribe is based on an episode in Le Comte de Villamayor by M. Mortonval (Alexandre Furcy Guesdon). It was originally offered to the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer, but he was contracted instead by the opera manager Louis Véron to create a five-act grand opera (Les Huguenots).The opera premiered on 16 June 1835 at the Théâtre des Nouveautés in Paris with Jean-Baptiste Chollet and Jeanne-Emélie Belloste in the lead roles of Gasparillo and Teresita.

List of historical national anthems

The oldest national anthem defined as "a song, as of praise, devotion, or patriotism" by is the Polish national anthem "Bogurodzica", "Mother of God". The hymn was created somewhere between the 10th and 13th centuries. However, it was not the de jure national anthem. The second oldest is the Dutch national anthem "Het Wilhelmus", which was written between 1568 and 1572, but not then given any official status. The first anthem to be officially proclaimed as such was "God Save The Queen", adopted by Great Britain in 1745. "Het Wilhelmus" was declared the national anthem of the Netherlands in 1932; both of these anthems remain in use today. A royal or imperial anthem is a song that is similar in patriotic character to a national anthem, but which specifically praises a monarch, or royal dynasty. Some states have doubled their royal or imperial anthem as their national anthem.

An anthem may fall out of use if the country that uses it ceases to exist, or because it adopts a new anthem; the rationale for a new national anthem is often political, perhaps based on a new ruling dynasty or system of government. For example, following the French Revolution, which overthrew the monarchy, "La Marseillaise", a republican revolutionary song, became France's national anthem in 1795. Conversely, when the monarchy was restored 19 years later, the 16th-century royalist tune "Vive Henri IV" was revived and adapted to create "Le Retour des Princes français à Paris", an overt celebration of the restored government. Following a number of further changes, "La Marseillaise" was readopted in 1870 and remains France's contemporary national anthem. Similar changes have occurred when Libya, Iraq, and South Africa democratized in the 2010s, 2000s, and 1990s respectively, new national anthems were adopted for those countries as well.

Some historical anthems share the same tune; for example, "Heil dir im Siegerkranz", the Imperial German anthem, used the same music as the UK's national anthem, "God Save the Queen". There are also instances of the music of a former national anthem still being used in a current anthem; for instance, the modern national anthem of Germany, "Das Lied der Deutschen", uses the same tune as the 19th and early 20th-century Austro-Hungarian anthem "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser". Another well-known example is the "Hymn of the Soviet Union", used until its dissolution in 1991, which was given new words and adopted by the Russian Federation in 2000 to replace the unpopular instrumental anthem it had introduced in 1993.This was not the first time that a country's de facto or de jure national anthem had proved controversial among its own people. "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", a de facto anthem of the U.S. during the 19th century, divided opinion as it used the same tune as "God Save the Queen". A more recent example is "Hej, Sloveni", the former Yugoslavian state anthem which was retained by Serbia and Montenegro until 2006; because it was frequently booed when played in public – at sporting events, for example – it was eventually replaced.

List of historical opera characters

This is a list of historical figures who have been characters in opera or operetta.

Historical accuracy in such works has often been subject to the imperatives of dramatic presentation. Consequently, in many cases:

historical characters appear alongside fictional characters

historical characters who never met, or whose lives did not even overlap, appear on stage together

historical events depicted are transported to earlier or later times or to different places

historical people are seen participating in entirely fictional events, or vice versa

the actions of historical people are attributed to other personsFor the purposes of this list, Biblical characters are generally taken to be fictional, unless there is clear evidence of their historicity.

Operas appear in bold when the historical figure is also the title role.

Where a character appears in more than opera, the entries are sorted by composer.

Montmartre Cemetery

Montmartre Cemetery (French: Cimetière de Montmartre) is a cemetery in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, France, that dates to the early 19th century. Officially known as the Cimitière du Nord, it is the third largest necropolis in Paris, after the Père Lachaise cemetery and the Montparnasse cemetery.

Santiago Masarnau Fernández

Santiago Masarnau y Fernández (also known as Santiago Fernández de Masarnau or Santiago [de] Masarnau) (9 December 1805 in Madrid – 14 December 1882 in Madrid) was a Spanish pianist, composer and religious activist for the poor. He established the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul, an organization composed of laymen dedicated to serving the poor, in Spain. A cause for his canonization has been opened by that society.

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