José María Teclo Morelos Pérez y Pavón (Spanish: [xoˈse maˈɾi.a ˈteklo moˈɾelos ˈpeɾeθ i paˈβon] (listen)) (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. Morelos and Ignacio López Rayón are credited with organizing the war of independence. Under Morelos the Congress of Anáhuac was installed on September 13, 1813 and in November 6 of the same year congress declared the country's independence. On October 22, 1814 a constitution, Decreto Constitucional para la Libertad de la América Mexicana, was drafted by the Congress which declared that Mexico would be a Republic.
After a series of defeats he was captured by the Spanish royalist military, tried by the Inquisition, defrocked as a cleric, and executed by civil authorities for treason in 1815. Morelos is a national hero in Mexico and is considered a very successful military leader despite the fact that he never took a military career and was instead a priest.
José María Morelos
|President of the Supreme Mexican Government|
October 24, 1814 – November 5, 1815
|Preceded by||Post established|
|Succeeded by||Ignacio Alas|
|Chief of the Congress of Anáhuac|
September 15, 1813 – October 24, 1814
|Preceded by||Post established|
|Succeeded by||Himself as president under the Constitution of Apatzingan|
|Member of the Council of Zitacuaro|
August 19, 1811 – September 15, 1813
José María Teclo Morelos Pérez y Pavón
30 September 1765
Valladolid, Michoacán, New Spain
|Died||22 December 1815 (aged 50)|
San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México
|Resting place||Angel of Independence, Mexico City|
|Children||Juan Nepomuceno Almonte|
|Alma mater||Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo|
|Profession||Arriero, Priest, Military leader, Politician|
|Years of service||1810–1815|
|Rank||Generalissimo, Captain General, Colonel|
|Battles/wars||Mexican War of Independence|
Morelos was born in Valladolid, since renamed "Morelia" in his honor, to a humble family of mixed Spanish and indigenous descent. Although Morelos was classified as an español in the baptismal register, a system in which the Catholic Church kept separate registers for different legal racial categories in the casta system of racial hierarchy, he is depicted in portraits as having a dark complexion.
His father was José Manuel Morelos y Robles, a carpenter originally from Zindurio, a predominantly indigenous village a few kilometers west of Valladolid. His mother was Juana María Guadalupe Pérez Pavón, originally from San Juan Bautista de Apaseo, also near Valladolid. Valladolid was the seat of a bishop and of the government of the colonial Intendency of Valladolid. It was known as the "Garden of the Viceroyalty of New Spain" because of its prosperity.
Through his paternal line, Morelos was related to Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Both insurgents shared a common ancestor, Diego Ruiz de Cortés, who was a descendant of the conquistador Hernán Cortés. Hidalgo was the descendant of Ruiz de Cortés through his mother, Ana María Gallaga.
Morelos may have worked as a muleteer (arriero) in the area where he fought in the insurgency, on the ground experience of the terrain that would be valuable. He is also said to have worked on a rancho rented (rather than owned) by his uncle for nearly ten years.
Morelos had ambitions for something more than working with his hands, and assiduously studied; his maternal grandfather was a school teacher. In 1789, he enrolled in the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid, where Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was rector. When he was ordained a priest, he, as with many others without connections, had no benefice to guarantee any income as a priest. However, since he was a secular cleric and therefore took no vow of poverty, he could freely pursue business activities to make a living.
As a priest, he could not marry, but he did form a relationship with at least one woman, Brígida Almonte. He is known to have fathered three children, two sons and a daughter. His first born was Juan Nepomuceno Almonte, who played a significant role himself in Mexican history. Lucas Alamán, a fierce nineteenth-century opponent of the insurgency and after independence a conservative politician and historian, asserted that Morelos "fathered various children with anonymous women of the people." This charge of promiscuity might simply be a slur without foundation on the insurgent-priest. At Morelos's trial, the Inquisition accused him of sending his son to the United States. He testified at his trial that "while he had not been completely pristine for a priest, he had not acted in a scandalous manner" and that he had sent his son away for education and for his safety, thereby acknowledging his paternity.
The former rector of the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo (where Morelos attended seminary), Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was planning with others for the independence of New Spain from the Spanish empire. About 6:00 a.m. on September 16, 1810, Hidalgo then the parish priest of Dolores, Guanajuato (since renamed Dolores Hidalgo in his honor), hastily ordered the church bells to be rung, and gathered his congregation. Flanked by Ignacio Allende and Juan Aldama, Hidalgo addressed the people in front of his church, urging them to take up arms, with the Cry of Independence (El Grito de Dolores, now celebrated every year on September 15 at 11:00 p.m.) that called for armed revolt after the Spanish colonial authorities had discovered the Conspiracy of Querétaro, a clandestine movement seeking Mexican independence. Like Allende and Aldama, Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, popularly known as La Corregidora, was one of the famous initial supporters of the revolt. Miguel Hidalgo and his followers rose in open rebellion against the Spanish colonial authorities launching what became the Mexican War of Independence.
There on September 28, the rebels captured the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in battle, killing more than 700 Spaniards who had taken shelter there. Among the dead was the intendent of Guanajuato, Juan Antonio Riaño, an old friend of Hidalgo y Costilla.
The Mexican revolutionary army was excommunicated by the bishop of Michoacán, Manuel Abad y Queipo, another former friend of Hidalgo y Costilla. Hidalgo y Costilla and his army marched on to Valladolid, where the locals feared that the slaughter of Guanajuato would be repeated, prompting many people to abandon the region, particularly elites. Valladolid was taken peacefully on October 17, 1810.
In Tacámbaro Hidalgo y Costilla was proclaimed general, and Allende captain general. Hidalgo ordered a rest for his troops in Indaparapeo, where a few minutes before their departure, Morelos, who had read about his excommunication and his triumphs, found him.
Morelos had heard of the revolt in October 1810 and determined to join it. Hidalgo asked his former student to recruit troops in the south of the colony and capture the port of Acapulco, the west coast port for the Pacific trade to the Philippines, also a Spanish colony. Unlike Hidalgo, who was a poor tactician leading a huge and undisciplined following, Morelos quickly demonstrated military skills, gathering and training a small core of fighters. He sought allies in the region, and obtained cannon and other war materiel.
Morelos’ hopes for the rebellion called for the creation of a republican government that “all Mexican people would participate, the abolition of slavery, and the elimination of divisions between races and ethnicities.” Morelos saw the suffering of the poor at the ends of the Church and the elites, and believed that these things must be changed in order to achieve the full participation of the people in the new government. Morelos also called for the end of the Church’s special privileges and the redistribution of large estates among the people. These principles demonstrated the rebellion’s desire to achieve both independence and justice for the poor.
Morelos soon showed himself to be a talented strategist, and became one of the greatest revolutionary military commanders of the war. In his first nine months, he won 22 victories, annihilating the armies of three Spanish royalist leaders and dominating almost all of what is now the state of Guerrero. In December, he captured Acapulco for the first time, except for the Fort of San Diego. Spanish reinforcements forced him to raise the siege in January. By quick marches, he was able to capture most of the Spanish possessions on the Pacific coast of what are now Michoacán and Guerrero. On May 24, 1811 he occupied Chilpancingo and on May 26 he took Tixtla.
In his second campaign, Morelos divided his army into three groups. The most important engagement of this campaign was at Cuautla. On Christmas Eve 1811 the townspeople welcomed Morelos to the town. The next year his forces were besieged by the Spanish army under general Félix María Calleja del Rey. On May 2, 1812, after 58 days, Morelos broke through the siege, and started his third campaign.
Major victories on this third campaign were at Citlalli on June 8, 1812, Tehuacán on August 10, 1812, Orizaba, Oaxaca and Acapulco. Morelos arrived at Orizaba with 10,000 soldiers on October 28, 1812. The city was defended by 600 Spanish soldiers. Negotiation led to a surrender without bloodshed. He entered Oaxaca in triumph on November 25, 1812. Acapulco fell on April 12, 1813, forcing the Spanish army to take refuge in Fort of San Diego
In 1813, Morelos called the National Constituent Congress of Chilpancingo, composed of representatives of the provinces under his control, to consider a political and social program which he outlined in a document entitled "Sentimientos de la Nación" (Sentiments of the Nation). The Congress called itself the Congress of Anáhuac, referring poetically to the ancient Aztecs.
On September 31, 1813, the Congress, with Morelos present, endorsed the "Sentiments of the Nation". This document declared Mexican independence from Spain, established the Roman Catholic religion and created the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government. It declared respect for property and confiscated the productions of the Spanish colonial government. It abolished slavery and racial social distinctions in favor of the title "American" for all native-born individuals. Torture, monopolies and the system of tributes were also abolished. Morelos was offered the title "Generalissimo" with the style of address "Your Highness", but he refused these and asked to be called "Siervo de la Nación" (Servant of the Nation). On November 6, 1813 the Congress declared independence.
After several military defeats, the Congress organized a meeting in Apatzingán, and on October 22 promulgated the "Decreto Constitucional para la Libertad de la América Mexicana" (Constitution of Apatzingán). This established a weak executive and a powerful legislature, the opposite of what Morelos had called for. He nevertheless conceded that it was the best he could hope for under the circumstances.
Shortly thereafter, Morelos began his fourth military campaign, a series of disasters beginning at Valladolid in late 1813. While escorting the new insurgent Congress in November 1815, he was defeated in Tezmalaca by royalist forces. Morelos and his guard were surrounded; rather than have all taken prisoner, Morelos told his men to each save himself. This left Morelos to be captured alone. As a Catholic priest, the church had jurisdiction for his imprisonment and trial; he was jailed in the Inquisition building in Mexico City. Although Morelos was a huge prize for the royal government, the viceroy decided not to make a public spectacle of his journey of incarceration, but rather slipped him into the capital before dawn.
The royal government had experience with the trial and execution of Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, which was done far from the capital and in rushed fashion; but Morelos's trial was conducted in the capital with the highest officials presiding, with the outcome of a guilty verdict and execution by civil officials. Inquisition officials drew up a 23 charges against Morelos, and following proper procedure, Morelos had a defense attorney, one Lic. José Quiles. He was charged with treason, disloyalty to the crown, and transgressions in his personal life, namely, sending his natural sons to the United States for education.
He was tried and sentenced to death for treason. Morelos was executed by firing squad on December 22, 1815 in San Cristóbal Ecatepec, north of Mexico City in order that his execution not provoke a dangerous public reaction. He was later judged to be reconciled to the church, lifting his excommunication, as he was seen praying on his way to his execution. After his death, his lieutenant, Vicente Guerrero, continued the war for independence.
Morelos is considered a national hero of Mexico; the state of Morelos and city of Morelia are named after him. Morelos has been portrayed on the 50-peso note since 1997, and on 1-peso coins during the 1940s, 1970s and 1980s. The Estadio Morelos in Morelia, Puerto Morelos in the state of Quintana Roo, the Morelos Station on the Mexico City Metro, Ecatepec the city in Mexico State where he was executed and the Morelos Satellite from the Communications company Satmex are also named after him. His remains were transferred to the Monument to Independence El Ángel in Mexico City, along with those of other heroes of the insurgency. The Presidential aircraft Boeing 787 TP-01 was named José María Morelos y Pavón.
Fue registrado como español, pero en realidad era mestizo, con algo de ascendencia negra.
Media related to José María Morelos at Wikimedia Commons
The Battle of Lomas de Santa María was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred from 23–24 December 1813 in the area around Lomas de Santa María, in the municipality of Valladolid (present day Morelia). The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire.
The battle began when Mexican insurgents numbering around 5,600 men under the command of José María Morelos y Pavón, Mariano Matamoros y Guridi, Nicolás Bravo, and Hermenegildo Galeana attacked the city of Valladolid at midday on 23 December after the Spanish refused their demands to surrender the city.
The Mexican insurgents, who numbered around 5,600 men, were commanded by José María Morelos y Pavón and the Spanish by Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu who would later go on to become the Mexican emperor. The battle which lasted the better part of two days, resulted in a victory for the Spanish royalists. The tide of the battle turned when reinforcements arrived from Mexico City sent by the Viceroy of New Spain, Félix María Calleja under the command of Ciriaco del Llano. Around midnight, the royalist forces succeeded in penetrating the insurgent camp, obliging them to flee the battle in disorder. This battle was significant in that it marked the decline of Morelos' military campaign for independence.Battle of Temalaca
The Battle of Temalaca was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred on 5 November 1815 in the area around Temalaca, Puebla. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The Mexican insurgents were commanded by José María Morelos and the Spanish by Manuel de la Concha. The battle resulted in a victory for the Spanish Royalists.
At the end of the battle, Morelos was captured by Spanish forces under whose control he was soon after executed ending the second phase of the Mexican War of Independence.Battle of Tenancingo
The Battle of Tenancingo was a military action of the Mexican War of Independence fought on 22 January 1812 on the outskirts of Tenancingo de Degollado, Mexico. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The Mexican insurgents were commanded by General José María Morelos y Pavón and the Spanish by Rosendo Porlier y Asteguieta. The battle resulted in a victory for the Mexican rebels.Churumuco
Churumuco is a municipality located in the southeastern part of the Mexican state of Michoacán. The municipality has an area of 1,119.44 square kilometres (1.90% of the surface of the state) and is bordered to the north by the municipality of La Huacana, to the northeast by Turicato, to the south by the state of Guerrero, to the southwest by Huetamo, and to the west by Arteaga. The municipality had a population of 13,801 inhabitants according to the 2005 census.Its municipal seat is the city of Churumuco de Morelos, which is named after José María Morelos, a Mexican priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement. Morelos served as priest of the town before taking arms.
Churumuco (from the Purépecha word Churumekua) means "Bird's beak".Durango Municipality
Durango is one of the 39 municipalities of Durango, in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Durango. The municipality covers an area of 10,041 km².
As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 582,267, up from 526,659 as of 2005.
The municipality had 1,323 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Victoria de Durango (518,709), El Nayar (3,308), Cinco de Mayo (2,249), classified as urban, and La Ferrería (Cuatro de Octubre) (2,021), José María Pino Suárez (2,014), Colonia Hidalgo (1,986), Llano Grande (1,938), Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1,712), Villa Montemorelos (1,617), Banderas del Águila (1,274), José Refugio Salcido (1,262), Santiago Bayacora (1,218), Cinco de Febrero (1,131), José María Morelos y Pavón (La Tinaja) (1,072), and El Arenal (San Jerónimo) (1,015), classified as rural.El Tepehuaje de Morelos
El Tepehuaje de Morelos is a town in the municipality of San Martín de Hidalgo in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. It has a population of 2,163 inhabitants. The town was named after Mexican independence insurgent José María Morelos.Estadio Morelos
Estadio Morelos is a football stadium located along Periférico Independencia, in the Independencia sector, near the base of Cerro del Quinceo in northwest Morelia, Michoacán, México. It's the site of professional football teams, Monarcas Morelia in the top division of Mexican football and Monarcas Primera A in the league under that. This structure holds various events, such as concerts and religious gatherings and mass. Its official name Estadio José María Morelos y Pavón is meant to honor this hero of the Mexican War of Independence
The stadium has an irregular shape, because the areas behind the goals only have one level and 32 rows, along the side there are 4 levels (one grandstand, one other seating area and 2 box areas) and 49 stands.
According to the Monarcas Morelia website, the capacity of the stadium is 35,000.Felipe Carrillo Puerto Municipality
Felipe Carrillo Puerto (or simply Carrillo Puerto) is a municipality in the south-central part of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The municipal seat is the city of the same name. It was named after the assassinated local politician Felipe Carrillo Puerto. According to the 2014 census, the municipality's population was 81,742 inhabitants, living on an area of 13,806 square kilometres (5,331 sq mi).The municipality borders Tulum Municipality to the north, Othón P. Blanco to the south, José María Morelos to the west, as well as Valladolid, Chichimilá, and Tixcacalcupul in the state of Yucatán to the northwest.General José María Morelos y Pavón (Cañada Honda), Aguascalientes
General José María Morelos y Pavón is an inhabited place in the state of Aguascalientes. It is located 10 miles northeast of the city of Aguascalientes and has a population of 2,500 .Huitiupán
Huitiupán is a town and one of the 119 Municipalities of Chiapas, in southern Mexico.
As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 22,536, up from 20,041 as of 2005. It covers an area of 149 km².
As of 2010, the town of Huitiupán had a population of 2,857. Other than the town of Huitiupán, the municipality had 93 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Zacatonal de Juárez (1,361), La Competencia (1,147), and José María Morelos y Pavón (1,143), classified as rural.José María Morelos, Quintana Roo
José María Morelos is the municipal seat and largest city in José María Morelos Municipality in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 11,750 persons.José María Morelos was established in the 19th century with the purpose of exporting wood and chicle. It was originally called Kilómetro 50, since it was 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Peto. When Quintana Roo became a state in 1974, the place was renamed after the revolutionary rebel leader José María Morelos, and it became the seat of the namesake municipality.José María Morelos Municipality
José María Morelos is one of the ten municipalities that make up the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.La Trinitaria, Chiapas
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As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 72,769, up from 59,686 as of 2005. It covers an area of 1840.7 km².
As of 2010, the town of La Trinitaria had a population of 9,042. Other than the town of La Trinitaria, the municipality had 585 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Lázaro Cárdenas (3,699), José María Morelos (2,601), La Esperanza (2,549), classified as urban, and El Porvenir Agrarista (2,468), Miguel Hidalgo (2,428), Rodulfo Figueroa (2,321), Las Delicias (2,121), La Gloria (1,874), Álvaro Obregón (1,790), Tziscao (1,562), El Progreso (1,399), Santa Rita (1,389), Nueva Libertad (El Colorado) (1,182), Chihuahua (1,088), and Unión Juárez (1,050), classified as rural.Mazatecochco de José María Morelos
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The Siege of Acapulco was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred on 12 April 1813 at Acapulco de Juárez. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown, commanded by Pedro Antonio Vélez, and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire, commanded by José María Morelos. The battle resulted in a victory for the Mexican rebels.USS Bangor
USS Bangor (PF-16) was a United States Navy Tacoma-class frigate in commission from 1944 to 1946. Thus far, she has been the only U.S. Navy ship named for Bangor, Maine. She later served in United States Coast Guard as USCGC Bangor and in the Mexican Navy as ARM General José María Morelos and ARM Golfo de Tehuantepec.USS Rednour (APD-102)
USS Rednour (APD-102) was a Crosley-class high speed transport that served in the United States Navy from 1945 to 1946. In December 1969, she was transferred to Mexico and served as Chihuahua until July 2001.XHPJMM-FM
XHPJMM-FM is a radio station on 93.3 FM in José María Morelos, Quintana Roo. It is owned by Song Comunicaciones and carries a pop format known as Presumida FM.XHRTO-FM
XHRTO-FM is a noncommercial radio station on 100.5 FM in Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo. It is known as La Estrella Maya Que Habla and owned by Sebastián Uc Yam, the ex-mayor of Felipe Carrillo Puerto. It is co-owned, but currently not commonly operated, with XHECPQ-FM 102.1.
It is relayed on XHYAM-FM 88.1, licensed to José María Morelos.