Jordan River

The Jordan River or River Jordan (Hebrew: נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן, Nahar ha-Yarden; Classical Syriac: ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ‎, Arabic: نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ‎, Nahr al-Urdunn; Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a 251-kilometre-long (156 mi) river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea. Jordan and the Golan Heights border the river to the east, while the West Bank and Israel lie to its west. Both Jordan and the West Bank take their names from the river.

The river holds major significance in Judaism and Christianity since the Bible says that the Israelites crossed it into the Promised Land and that Jesus of Nazareth was baptised by John the Baptist in it.[2]

Jordan River
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Jordan River
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The Jordan River runs along the border between Jordan, the Palestinian West Bank, Israel and southwestern Syria.
EtymologyHebrew: ירדן (yardén, “descender”), from ירד (yarad, “descended”)[1]
Native nameArabic: نهر الأردن, Nahr al-Urdun
Hebrew: נהר הירדן, Nahar ha-Yarden
Location
CountryJordan, Israel, Syria, State of Palestine
RegionMiddle East, Eastern Mediterranean littoral
DistrictGalilee
Physical characteristics
Source 
 - locationAnti-Lebanon Mountain Range at Mount Hermon, Golan Heights
 - elevation2,814 m (9,232 ft)
MouthDead Sea
 - elevation
−416 m (−1,365 ft)
Length251 km (156 mi)
Discharge 
 - locationDead Sea, Jordan Rift Valley
Basin features
Tributaries 
 - leftBanias River, Dan River, Yarmouk River, Zarqa River
 - rightHasbani or Snir River, Iyyon Stream

Geography

The Jordan River has an upper course from its sources to the Sea of Galilee, and a lower course south of the Sea of Galilee down to the Dead Sea. In traditional terminology, the upper course (or most of it) is commonly referred to as passing through the "Hula Valley", as opposed to "Upper Jordan Valley"; the Sea of Galilee through which the river passes is a separate entity; and the term Jordan Valley is reserved for the lower course, fed by the Yarmouk and Zarqa Rivers.

Over its upper course, fed by the Hasbani River in Banias and Dan, the river drops rapidly in a 75-kilometre (47 mi) run to the once large and swampy Lake Hula, which is slightly above sea level. Exiting the now much-diminished lake, it goes through an even steeper drop over the 25 kilometres (16 mi) down to the Sea of Galilee, which it enters at its northern end. The Jordan deposits much of the silt it is carrying within the lake, which it leaves again near its southern tip. At that point, the river is situated about 210 metres below sea level. The last 120-kilometre (75 mi)-long section follows what is commonly termed the "Jordan Valley", which has less gradient (the total drop is another 210 metres) so that the river meanders before entering the Dead Sea, a terminal lake about 422 metres below sea level with no outlet. Two major tributaries enter from the east during this last section: the Yarmouk River and Zarqa River.

Its section north of the Sea of Galilee is within the boundaries of Israel and forms the western boundary of the Golan Heights. South of the lake, it forms the border between the Kingdom of Jordan (to the east), and Israel (to the west).

Tributaries

The Jordan River loops, aerial view 1938
Aerial view, 1938

The streams coming together to create the River Jordan in its upper basin are, west to east:

  • Iyyon (Hebrew: עיון Iyyon, Arabic: دردره Dardara or براغيث Braghith – on old PEF maps (1871–77) as Wadi el-Kharrar in the Merj 'Ayun area and Nahr Bareighit in its lower part), a stream which flows from Lebanon.
  • Hasbani (Arabic: الحاصباني Hasbani, Hebrew: either שניר Snir or Hatzbani), a stream which flows from the north-western foot of Mount Hermon in Lebanon.[3]
  • Dan (Arabic: اللدان Leddan, Hebrew: דן Dan), a stream whose source is also at the base of Mount Hermon.
  • Banias (Arabic: بانياس Banias, Hebrew: either Banias or חרמון Hermon), a stream arising from a spring at Banias at the foot of Mount Hermon.

South of the Sea of Galilee the Jordan River receives the waters of further tributaries, the main ones being

Smaller tributaries in this segment are

Etymology

While several hypotheses for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, the most accepted is that it comes from Semitic Yard|on 'flow down' <√ירד reflecting the river's declivity.[4]:121[5] Cognates of the word are found in Aramaic, Hebrew, and other Semitic languages.[5] The first recorded use of the name appears as Yārdon in Anastasi I, an ancient Egyptian papyrus that probably dates to the time of Rameses II.[6] Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as Al-Urdunn.[7]

History

19th century

In the 19th century the River Jordan and the Dead Sea were explored by boat primarily by Christopher Costigan in 1835, Thomas Howard Molyneux in 1847, William Francis Lynch in 1848, and John MacGregor in 1869.[8] The full text of W. F. Lynch's 1849 book Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea is available online.

20th century

Abbud24C
Coloured postcard of the Jordan River, by Karimeh Abbud, circa 1925

In 1964, Israel began operating a pumping station that diverts water from the Sea of Galilee to the National Water Carrier. Also in 1964, Jordan constructed a channel that diverted water from the Yarmouk River, a main tributary of the Jordan River, to the East Ghor Canal. Syria has also built reservoirs that catch the Yarmouk's waters. Environmentalists blame Israel, Jordan and Syria for extensive damage to the Jordan River ecosystem.[9]

In modern times, the waters are 70% to 90% used for human purposes and the flow is greatly reduced. Because of this and the high evaporation rate of the Dead Sea, as well as industrial extraction of salts through evaporation ponds, the Dead Sea is rapidly shrinking.

Main environmental issues

Reduction of water flow

The flow rate of the Jordan River once was 1.3 billion cubic metres per year; as of 2010, just 20 to 30 million cubic metres per year flow into the Dead Sea.[10] The environmentalist organisation Friends of the Earth Middle East (FoEME) has once said in a report that the Jordan River could dry up by 2011 unless the decay was stopped.[10]

Pollution

A small section of the northernmost portion of the Lower Jordan, the first ca. 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) below the Sea of Galilee, has been kept pristine for baptism and local tourism. Most polluted is the 100-kilometre downstream stretch—a meandering stream from above the confluence with the Yarmouk to the Dead Sea. Environmentalists say the practice of letting sewage and brackish water flow into the river has almost destroyed its ecosystem. Rescuing the Jordan could take decades, according to environmentalists.[9] In 2007, FoEME named the Jordan River as one of the world's 100 most endangered ecological sites, due in part to lack of cooperation between Israel and neighboring Arab states.[11]

Water politics

Recent literature shows the role of power asymmetries and of discourses and narratives in shaping hydropolitics along the Jordan River Basin.[12]

Roads, border crossings, bridges

RAFTING ON THE JORDAN RIVER
Rafting on Jordan River, Northern Galilee

Roads

Route 90, part of which is named after Rehavam Zeevi, connects the northern and southern tips of the Israeli-occupied West Bank and parallels the Jordan River on the western side.

Border crossings (open bridges)

There are two border crossings between Israel and Jordan which cross the river over bridges. The northern one, Jordan River Crossing or Sheikh Hussein Bridge is near Beit She'an; the southern one, Allenby Bridge (also King Hussein Bridge), is near Jericho.

Bridges (historical; modern - open and closed)

North to south:

Importance as a water source

Jordan River - Dead Sea
River Jordan draining into the Dead Sea

Until the first decade of the 21st century, the waters of the Jordan River have been the largest water resource for Israel; lately desalination of sea water from the Mediterranean took over this role. Israel's National Water Carrier, completed in 1964, has delivered water from the Sea of Galilee to the Israeli coastal plain for over four decades, until prolonged drought led to abandoning this solution in favour of desalination.

Jordan receives 50,000,000 cubic metres (1.8×109 cu ft) of water from the river, a quantity which is regulated by the 1994 peace treaty with Israel.[13] In the past, one of the main water resources in Jordan was the Jordan River, with a flow of 1.3 billion m3 per year (BCM/yr). However, after Israel built the National Water Carrier in 1953 and diverted water from Lake Tiberias to Israel’s coastal plains and southern desert, the flow of the Lower Jordan River dropped significantly. The 50 MCM/yr that Israel provides from Lake Tiberias as part of the 1994 peace treaty was meant to compensate for this loss. A 2010 study found that the Lower Jordan River has been reduced to 2% of its historic flow.[14] Water quality has also deteriorated sharply, with high levels of salinity and pollution from agricultural fertilizer and untreated wastewater upstream in Israel and the West Bank.[15]

Conflict about the waters of the Jordan River was a contributing factor to the Six-Day War when, starting in 1965, Syria attempted to divert some of its headwaters in collaboration with Lebanon and Jordan.[16] The diversion works would have reduced the water availability for Israel's carrier by about 35%, and Israel's overall water supply by about 11%.[17]

Religious significance

Hebrew Bible

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 067
Crossing the Jordan, from Die Bibel in Bildern

In the Hebrew Bible the Jordan is referred to as the source of fertility of a large plain ("Kikkar ha-Yarden"), said to be watered like "the garden of the LORD" (Genesis 13:10). There is no regular description of the Jordan in the Bible; only scattered and indefinite references to it are given. Jacob crossed it and its tributary, the Jabbok (the modern Al-Zarqa), on his way back from Haran (Genesis 32:11, 32:23–24). It is noted as the line of demarcation between the "two tribes and the half tribe" settled to the east (Numbers 34:15) and the "nine tribes and the half tribe of Manasseh" that, led by Joshua, settled to the west (Joshua 13:7, passim).

Opposite Jericho, it was called "the Jordan of Jericho" (Numbers 34:15; 35:1). The Jordan has a number of fords, and one of them is famous as the place where many Ephraimites were slain by Jephthah (Judges 12:5–6). It seems that these are the same fords mentioned as being near Beth-barah, where Gideon lay in wait for the Midianites (Judges 7:24). In the plain of the Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan, is the clay ground where Solomon had his brass-foundries (1 Kings 7:46). In 2 Kings 6:1-4 the Jordan valley is portrayed as a woodland region. Biblical commentator Albert Barnes suggested that "trees were rare in most parts of Palestine, but plentiful in the Jordan Valley".[18]

In biblical history, the Jordan appears as the scene of several miracles, the first taking place when the Jordan, near Jericho, was crossed by the Israelites under Joshua (Joshua 3:15–17). Later the two tribes and the half tribe that settled east of the Jordan built a large altar on its banks as "a witness" between them and the other tribes (Joshua 22:10, 22:26, et seq.). The Jordan was crossed by Elijah and Elisha on dry ground (2 Kings 2:8, 2:14). The prophet and wonder-worker Elisha performed two miracles at the Jordan: he healed Naaman's leprosy by having him bathe in its waters (2 Kings 5:14), and he made an axe head lost by one of the "children of the prophets" float, by throwing a piece of wood into the water (2 Kings 6:6).

New Testament

Jordanian Christian women visiting Al-Maghtas, Jordan River, 1913 (cropped) (cropped)
Russian women on pilgrimage to Al-Maghtas, 28 November 1913.

The New Testament states that John the Baptist baptised unto repentance[19] in the Jordan (Matthew 3:5–6; Mark1:5; Luke 3:3; John1:28). These acts of Baptism are also reported as having taken place at Bethabara (John 1:28).

Bethany (5)
Al-Maghtas ruins on the Jordanian side of the Jordan River are the putative location for the Baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist

Jesus came to be baptised by him there (Matthew 3:13; Mark 1:9; Luke 3:21, 4:1). The Jordan is also where John the Baptist bore record of Jesus as the Son of God and Lamb of God (John 1:29–36).

The prophecy of Isaiah regarding the Messiah which names the Jordan (Isaiah 9:1–2) is also reported in Matthew 4:15.

The New Testament speaks several times about Jesus crossing the Jordan during his ministry (Matthew 19:1; Mark 10:1), and of believers crossing the Jordan to come hear him preach and to be healed of their diseases (Matthew 4:25; Mark 3:7–8). When his enemies sought to capture him, Jesus took refuge at the river in the place John had first baptised (John 10:39–40).

Scholars have concluded that the site called Al-Maghtas on the east side has long been considered the location for the Baptism of Jesus and a place of pilgrimage though most current pilgrims go to a location on the west side, Qasr el Yahud, also long'established but not as early. This has led to choosing Al-Maghtas as a UNESCO World Heritage site, which took place in 2015.[20]

Derived cultural significance

Symbolism

Because, according to Jewish tradition, the Israelites made a difficult and hazardous journey from slavery in Egypt to freedom in the Promised Land, the Jordan can refer to freedom. The actual crossing is the final step of the journey, which is then complete.

Christening of royals

Because of the baptism of Jesus, water from the Jordan is employed for the christening of heirs and princes in several Christian royal houses, such as the cases of Prince George of Cambridge, Simeon of Bulgaria[21] and James Ogilvy.[22]

Christian poetry and music

The Jordan is a frequent symbol in folk, gospel, and spiritual music, and in poetic and literary works.

The baptism of Jesus is referred to in a hymn by the reformer Martin Luther, "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (1541), base for a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 7 (1724).

The Jordan River, due primarily to its rich spiritual importance, has provided inspiration for countless songs, hymns, and stories, including the traditional African-American spiritual/folk songs "Michael Row the Boat Ashore", "Deep River", and "Roll, Jordan, Roll". It is mentioned in the songs "Eve of Destruction", "Will You Be There", and "The Wayfaring Stranger" and in "Ol' Man River" from the musical Show Boat. "The Far Side Banks of Jordan" by Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash on June's Grammy Award-winning studio album, Press On, mentions the Jordan River as well as the Promised Land. Jordan River is also the subject of roots reggae artist Burning Spear's song of the same title.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, The University of Haifa, Carta, Jerusalem, p. 264
  2. ^ "An Interfaith Look at the Jordan River". Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  3. ^ Essays in Political Geography. Routledge. 2016. p. 260. ISBN 9781317605287.
  4. ^ Rahkonen, Pauli Ensio Juhani (11 October 2016). ""Canaanites" or "Amorites"? A Study on Semitic toponyms of the second millenium BC in the Land of Canaan". Studia Orientalia Electronica. 4: 108–130. ISSN 2323-5209.
  5. ^ a b Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey (1990). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. pp. 466–467, 928. ISBN 9780865543737. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  6. ^ Aḥituv, Shmuel (1984). Canaanite toponyms in ancient Egyptian documents. Magnes Press. p. 123. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  7. ^ Le Strange, Guy (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A. D. 650 To 1500. Alexander P. Watt for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 52. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  8. ^ "History of the Dead Sea - Discover the Dead Sea with Us!". 1 July 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  9. ^ a b Plushnick-Masti, Ramil (10 September 2006). "Raw Sewage Taints Sacred Jordan River". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  10. ^ a b "Jordan River could die by 2011: report". Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Endangered Jordan", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, September, 2007
  12. ^ Hussein, Hussam, and Mattia Grandi. "Dynamic political contexts and power asymmetries: the cases of the Blue Nile and the Yarmouk Rivers." International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics (2017): 1-20.
  13. ^ Susskind, Lawrence; Shafiqul Islam (2012). "Water Diplomacy: Creating Value and Building Trust in Transboundary Water Negotiations". Science & Diplomacy. 1 (3).
  14. ^ Gafny, Sarig; Talozi, Samer; Al Sheikh, Banan; Ya’ari, Elizabeth. "An Environmental Flows Report on the Rehabilitation of the Lower Jordan River" (PDF). ecopeaceme.org.
  15. ^ "Surface and Groundwater of Jordan". Fanack Water. Fanack Water of the Middle East and North Africa.
  16. ^ Mehr, Farhang, "The politics of water," in Antonino Zichichi, Richard C. Ragaini, eds., International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, 30th session, Erice, Italy, 18–26 August 2003, Ettore Majorana International Centre for Scientific Culture, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pie. Ltd., 2004, p. 258, 259
  17. ^ "Appendix C: Historical review of the political riparian issues in the development of the Jordan River and basin management". Murakami. 1995.
  18. ^ Barnes' Notes on 2 Kings 6, accessed 26 December 2017
  19. ^ Cf. Acts 19:4
  20. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Baptism Site "Bethany Beyond the Jordan" (Al-Maghtas)". Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  21. ^ Kate Connolly, "Once upon a time in Bulgaria", The Guardian, 20 June 2001.
  22. ^ "Baptized". Time. May 22, 1964. Retrieved 2008-03-11. water from the River Jordan was sent for the occasion;
  23. ^ "Jah Lyrics: Burning Spear - Jordan River Lyrics". Retrieved 16 January 2017.

External links

Coordinates: 33°11′12″N 35°37′09″E / 33.18667°N 35.61917°E

Agriculture in Jordan

Agriculture in Jordan contributed substantially to the economy at the time of Jordan's independence, but it subsequently suffered a decades-long steady decline. In the early 1950s, agriculture constituted almost 40 percent of GNP; on the eve of the June 1967 War, it was 17 percent (including produce from the West Bank, which was under Jordan's mandate at the time.).By the mid-1980s, agriculture's share of GNP in Jordan was only about 6 percent. In contrast, in Syria and Egypt agriculture constituted more than 20 percent of GNP in the 1980s. Several factors contributed to this downward trend. With the Israeli occupation of the West Bank, Jordan lost prime farmland that Jordan had been running since 1949. Starting in the mid-1970s, Jordanian labor emigration also hastened the decline of agriculture. Many Jordanian abandoned the land to take more lucrative jobs abroad. Others migrated to cities where labor shortages had led to higher wages for manual workers. Deserted farms were built over as urban areas expanded. As the Jordanian government drove up interest rates to attract remittance income, farm credit tightened, which made it difficult for farmers to buy seed and fertilizer.

In striking contrast to Egypt and Iraq, where redistribution of land irrigated by the Nile and Euphrates rivers was a pivotal political, social, and economic issue, land tenure was never an important concern in Jordan. More than 150,000 foreign laborers—mainly Egyptians—worked in Jordan in 1988, most on farms. Moreover, since the early 1960s, the government has continuously created irrigated farmland from what was previously arid desert, further reducing competition for arable land. Ownership of rain-fed land was not subject to special restrictions. Limited land reform occurred in the early 1960s when, as the government irrigated the Jordan River valley, it bought plots larger than twenty hectares (50 acres), subdivided them, and resold them to former tenants in three-hectare to five-hectare plots. Because the land had not been very valuable before the government irrigated it, this process was accomplished with little controversy. In general, the government has aimed to keep land in larger plots to encourage efficiency and mechanized farming. The government made permanently indivisible the irrigated land that it granted or sold so as to nullify traditional Islamic inheritance laws that tended to fragment land.

Al-Butayha

Al-Butayha (Arabic: البطيحة‎) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Safad Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine on May 4, 1948, by the Palmach's First Battalion during Operation Matateh. It was located 13 km southeast of Safad, quarter of a mile east of the Jordan River, a little northeast of the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee. Many of the inhabitants were forced into Syria.

Al-Sakhina

Al-Sakhina (Arabic: الساخنة‎), was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Baysan. It was located five kilometres west of Baysan on the Jalud River on its way to the Jordan River. It was depopulated by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine on May 12, 1948, as part of Operation Gideon.

Allenby Bridge

Coordinates: 31°52′27″N 35°32′27″E

The Allenby Bridge (Hebrew: גשר אלנבי‎ Gesher Allenby), also known as the King Hussein Bridge (Arabic: جسر الملك حسين‎ Jisr al-Malek Hussein), is a bridge that crosses the Jordan River near the city of Jericho, and connects the West Bank with Jordan. The bridge is currently the sole designated exit/entry point for West Bank Palestinians traveling abroad.

Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub

The Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub was fought on 27 September 1918 at the beginning of the pursuit by the Desert Mounted Corps of the retreating remnants of the Yildirim Army Group towards Damascus during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. After the Battle of Samakh and the Capture of Tiberias, which completed the Egyptian Expeditionary Force's decisive victory in the Battle of Sharon section of the Battle of Megiddo, the Australian Mounted Division attacked and captured a series of rearguard positions. The positions were held by German and Ottoman soldiers of the Tiberias Group at Daughters of Jacob Bridge, an important bridge across the Jordan River, and at fords at El Min and north towards Lake Huleh.

Remnants of the Ottoman Seventh and Eighth Armies were retreating in columns towards Damascus from the Judean Hills via Samakh, the bridge at Jisr Benat Yakub, Kuneitra, and Kaukab, pursued by the Australian Mounted and the 5th Cavalry Divisions. At the same time remnants of the Ottoman Fourth Army were retreating in columns towards Damascus along the Pilgrims' Road (the old hajj road following the even older route of the King's Highway) through Deraa, pursued by the 4th Cavalry Division.

The surviving garrisons from Samakh and Tiberias formed from remnants of the Seventh and Eighth Armies entrenched themselves on the eastern side of the Jordan River to cover the retreat of the main remnants of the Yildirim Army Group. These rearguards were successfully attacked by the Australian Mounted Division during the day, capturing a number of survivors who had not succeeded in withdrawing, to occupy the eastern bank of the Jordan River. The Australian Mounted Division, followed by the 5th Cavalry Division continued their advance towards Damascus later in the day.

Headwater Diversion Plan (Jordan River)

The Headwater Diversion Plan was an Arab League plan to divert two of the three sources of the Jordan River, and prevent them from flowing into the Sea of Galilee, in order to thwart Israel's plans to use the water of the Hasbani and Banias in its National Water Carrier project for out of Basin irrigation. The plan was approved by the Arab League in 1964 but Israel prevented the project's development by conducting airstrikes in Syrian territory in April 1967.

Jordan Rift Valley

The Jordan Rift Valley, often just Jordan Valley (Hebrew: בִּקְעָת הַיַרְדֵּן Bik'at HaYarden, Arabic: الغور‎ Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr), also called the Syro-African Depression, is an elongated depression located in modern-day Israel, Jordan, and Palestine. This geographic region includes the entire length of the Jordan River – from its sources, through the Hula Valley, the Korazim block, the Sea of Galilee, the (Lower) Jordan Valley, all the way to the Dead Sea, the lowest land elevation on Earth – and then continues through the Arabah depression, the Gulf of Aqaba whose shorelines it incorporates, until finally reaching the Red Sea proper at the Straits of Tiran.

Jordan River, British Columbia

Jordan River, founded as and still officially gazetted as River Jordan, is a small settlement on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, located approximately 70 km (43 mi) west of Victoria.

Established as a logging camp in the late 19th century, Jordan River has Vancouver Island's second hydroelectric power plant. It is popular amongst winter surfers. The eastern terminus of the Juan de Fuca Trail is at China Beach, 3 km (1.9 mi) west of Jordan River.

Jordan River (Maine)

The Jordan River is a 5-mile-long (8 km) tidal river in Hancock County, Maine, flowing to Mount Desert Narrows, the waterway that separates Mount Desert Island from the mainland. The Jordan River forms the boundary between the towns of Lamoine and Trenton.

Jordan River (Utah)

The Jordan River, in the state of Utah, United States, is a river about 51 miles (82 km) long. Regulated by pumps at its headwaters at Utah Lake, it flows northward through the Salt Lake Valley and empties into the Great Salt Lake. Four of Utah's six largest cities border the river: Salt Lake City, West Valley City, West Jordan and Sandy. More than a million people live in the Jordan Subbasin, which is the part of the Jordan River watershed that lies within Salt Lake and Utah counties. During the Pleistocene, the area was part of Lake Bonneville.

Members of the Desert Archaic Culture were the earliest known inhabitants of the region; an archaeological site found along the river dates back 3,000 years. Mormon pioneers led by Brigham Young were the first European American settlers, arriving in July 1847 and establishing farms and settlements along the river and its tributaries. The growing population, needing water for drinking, irrigation, and industrial use in an arid climate, dug ditches and canals, built dams, and installed pumps to create a highly regulated river.

Although the Jordan was originally a cold-water fishery with 13 native species including Bonneville cutthroat trout, it has become a warm-water fishery where the common carp is most abundant. It was heavily polluted for many years by raw sewage, agricultural runoff, and mining wastes. In the 1960s, sewage treatment removed many pollutants. In the 21st century, pollution is further limited by the Clean Water Act, and, in some cases, the Superfund program. Once the home of bighorn sheep and beaver, the contemporary river is frequented by raccoons, red foxes, and domestic pets. It serves as an important avian resource, as does the Great Salt Lake and Utah Lake, visited by more than 200 bird species.

Big Cottonwood, Little Cottonwood, Red Butte, Mill, Parley's, and City creeks, as well as smaller streams like Willow Creek at Draper, Utah, flow through the subbasin. The Jordan River Parkway along the river includes natural areas, botanical gardens, golf courses and a proposed 40-mile (64 km) bicycle and pedestrian trail, much of which has been completed.

Jordan River (Victoria)

The Jordan River, a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, is located in the Alpine region of the Australian state of Victoria.

Jordan River Off-Highway Vehicle State Recreation Area

Jordan River Off-Highway Vehicle State Recreation Area is a Utah State Park located in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The park is dedicated to recreation with off highway vehicles. It consists of four separate tracks, with tabletops and banked turns, and is open from approximately early April to approximately mid-October. Off-highway motorcycle (OHM) riders have access to two motocross tracks. The novice and grand-prix tracks are open to both OHMs and all-terrain vehicles.

All riders must wear a helmet and all machines must be currently registered. Before riding here, or on any public land, youth from 8–16 years old (and until they get a driver license) must take and pass the state-required youth off-highway vehicle (OHV) education program; children under the age of eight may not operate an OHV on public land in Utah. Youth must carry their safety certificate while riding.

Jordan Valley

The Jordan Valley (Arabic: غور الاردن‎, Ghor Al-Urdon or Al-Ghawr; Hebrew: עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley. Unlike most other river valleys, the term "Jordan Valley" often applies just to the lower course of the Jordan River, from the spot where it exits the Sea of Galilee in the north, to the end of its course where it flows into the Dead Sea in the south. In a wider sense, the term may also cover the Dead Sea basin and the Wadi Arabah or Arava valley, which is the Rift Valley segment beyond the Dead Sea and ending at Aqaba/Eilat, 155 km (96 mi) farther south.The valley is a long and narrow trough, it is 105 km (65 mi) long with a width averaging 10 km (6.2 mi) with some points narrowing to 4 km (2.5 mi) over most of the course before widening out to a 20 km (12 mi) delta when reaching the Dead Sea. Due to meandering the length of the river itself is 220 km (140 mi). This is the deepest valley in the world, beginning at an elevation of −212 m (−696 ft) below sea level and terminating at an elevation lower than −400 m (−1,300 ft) below sea level. On both sides, to the east and west, the valley is bordered by high, steep, escarpments with the difference in elevation between the valley floor and the surrounding mountains varying between 1,200 m (3,900 ft) to 1,700 m (5,600 ft).Over most of its length, the Jordan Valley forms the border between Jordan to the east, and Israel and the West Bank to the west. The details are regulated by the Israel–Jordan peace treaty of 1994, which establishes an "administrative boundary" between Jordan and the West Bank, occupied by Israel in 1967, without prejudice to the status of that territory. Israel has allocated 86% of the land, in the west bank portion of the valley, to Israeli settlements.

Jordanian wine

Jordanian wine is produced by two wineries, with an annual production of nearly a million bottles a year. Jordan has a long tradition of wine making, dating as far back as Nabatean times.Archaeological digs near Petra have uncovered at least 82 wine presses of industrial scale dating back to Nabatean times. Several sources suggest that the wine served to Jesus during the Last Supper came from Umm Qais in Northern Jordan.The modern wine industry in Jordan was established in 1975 by the Haddad distilling company. Two wineries exist in Jordan today. Zumot and Haddad producing Saint George and Jordan River wines respectively. Both wineries have their vineyards in Mafraq in northern Jordan, where the high elevation, underground water and basalt-rich soil provide suitable conditions. The two companies have an estimated annual production of a million liters a year, most of which is for domestic consumption. In 2018, it was reported that the Jordan River wines had won 96 awards, and the Saint George claimed 23 prizes.

Sea of Galilee

The Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא, גִּנֵּיסַר, Arabic: بحيرة طبريا‎), Lake Tiberias, Kinneret or Kinnereth, is a freshwater lake in Israel. It is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake in the world (after the Dead Sea, a saltwater lake), at levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level. It is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. Its area is 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and its maximum depth is approximately 43 m (141 feet). The lake is fed partly by underground springs, although its main source is the Jordan River, which flows through it from north to south.

Transjordan

Transjordan may refer to:

Transjordan (region), an area to the east of the Jordan River

Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan or Jordan, an Arab country in Western Asia

Emirate of Transjordan, a British-controlled territory 1921–46

Oultrejordain or Transjordan (1118–1187)

West Bank

The West Bank (Arabic: الضفة الغربية‎ aḍ-Ḍiffah l-Ġarbiyyah; Hebrew: הגדה המערבית‎ HaGadah HaMa'aravit or יהודה ושומרון Yehuda VeShomron) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan to the east and by the Green Line separating it and Israel on the south, west and north. The West Bank also contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore. The West Bank was the name given to the territory that was captured by Jordan in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and subsequently annexed in 1950 until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War.

The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank.The West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, and approximately 391,000 Israeli settlers, and approximately another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling (2004) concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power.

West Jordan, Utah

West Jordan is a city in Salt Lake County, Utah, United States. It is a rapidly growing suburb of Salt Lake City and has a mixed economy. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 103,712, placing it as the fourth most populous in the state. The city occupies the southwest end of the Salt Lake Valley at an elevation of 4,330 feet (1,320 m). Named after the nearby Jordan River, the limits of the city begin on the river's western bank and end in the eastern foothills of the Oquirrh Mountains, where Kennecott Copper Mine, the world's largest man-made excavation is located.

Settled in the mid-19th century, the city has developed into its own regional center. As of 2012, the city has four major retail centers; with Jordan Landing being one of the largest mixed-use planned developments in the Intermountain West. Companies headquartered in West Jordan include Mountain America Credit Union, Lynco Sales & Service, SME Steel, and Cyprus Credit Union. The city has one major hospital, Jordan Valley Medical Center, and a campus of Salt Lake Community College, which is designed to become the main campus by 2020.

City landmarks include Gardner Village, established in 1850, and South Valley Regional Airport, formerly known as "Salt Lake Airport #2." The airport serves general aviation operations as well as a base for the 211th Aviation Regiment of the Utah Army National Guard flying Apache and Black Hawk helicopters. It is home to professional gamer Tyler Blevins and comedian Kevin Dougall.

Yarmouk River

The Yarmuk River (Arabic: نهر اليرموك‎, Nahr Al-Yarmuk, or شريعة المناذرة, Shariat el Menadhirah; Hebrew: נְהַר הַיַּרְמוּךְ, Nahar HaYarmukh; Latin: Hieromices), sometimes spelled Yarmouk, is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. It runs in Jordan, Syria, and Israel and drains much of the Hauran plateau. Its main tributaries are the ʾawdiya of 'Allan and Ruqqad from the north, Ehreir and Zeizun from the east. Although it is narrow and shallow throughout its course, at its mouth it is nearly as wide as the Jordan, measuring thirty feet in breadth and five in depth. The once celebrated Matthew Bridge used to cross the Yarmuk at its confluence with the Jordan.

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