Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States NavyUnited States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.[2]

Its U.S. Navy components are aligned with Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center
JTWC logo
Agency overview
FormedMay 1, 1959
HeadquartersPearl Harbor, Hawaii
Employees59 (2015)[1]
Parent agencyUnited States Navy
United States Air Force
Websitehttps://www.metoc.navy.mil/jtwc/jtwc.html

History

Typhoon Cobra, 18 December 1944 east of Luzon
Radar image of Typhoon Cobra

The origins of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) can be traced back to June 1945, when the Fleet Weather Center/Typhoon Tracking Center was established on the island of Guam, after multiple typhoons, including Typhoon Cobra of December 1944 and June 1945, had caused a significant loss of men and ships.[3][4] At this time the centre was one of three Navy and two Air Force units responsible for tropical cyclone reconnaissance and warnings in the Pacific.[3] Over the next few years the coordination of tropical warnings between the centres was at times difficult or impossible due to various communication problems.[5] During 1958, the United States Department of Defense weather services and the Weather Bureau formed the Joint Meteorology Committee to the Pacific Command and proposed the formation of a joint Navy and Air Force center for typhoon analysis and forecasting.[3][6] A committee was subsequently set up to study the issue which issued a report during January 1959, which gave recommendation that the center be set up.[6] Based on the report and the conclusions reached at the March 1959 Annual Tropical Cyclone Conference, the Joint Meteorology Committee formally urged, The Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command (CINCPAC) to establish a Joint Typhoon Warning Center.[6] The CINCPAC subsequently petitioned the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who gave permission for the centre to be set up effective May 1, 1959, under the command of the Fleet Weather Center's commander.[5][6]

The JTWC initially consisted of ten people with two officers and three enlisted personnel provided by each service.[5] It was required to provide warnings on all tropical cyclones, between the Malay Peninsular and the International Dateline for US government agencies.[5] They also had to determine reconnaissance requirements, prepare annual typhoon summaries, and conduct research into tropical cyclone forecasting and detection.[3] In November 1962, Typhoon Karen destroyed the building housing the Fleet Weather Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center. It relocated in a more typhoon-proof building in 1965.[7] Between 1971 and 1976, CINCPAC gradually expanded out the JTWC's area of responsibility, to include the area between the International Dateline and the African coasts. In October 1978, the Fleet Weather Center/JTWC became the Navy Oceanographic Command Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center and responsible for the whole oceanic environment, from the bottom of the ocean to the top of the atmosphere.[8] The JTWC subsequently started issuing warnings for the Southern Hemisphere between the African coast and the International Dateline during October 1980.[8] It was relocated to Pearl Harbor on January 1, 1999 due to the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission round. During October 2011, the JTWC's name changed from the “Naval Maritime Forecast Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center” to just the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, as it became a stand-alone command for the first time in its 52-year history.[9]

Standards and practices

A more modernized method for forecasting tropical cyclones had become apparent by the 1980s. Prior to the development of ATCF, the tools used by the Department of Defense to forecast tropical cyclone track were acetate, grease pencils, and disparate computer programs.[10] The ATCF software was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for the JTWC beginning in 1986,[11] and used since 1988. It was adapted for use at the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in 1990.[10]

JTWC adheres to the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) rules for storm names and adheres to acknowledged guidelines for intensity of tropical cyclones and tropical storms, with the exception of using the U.S. standard of measuring sustained winds for 1-min instead of the 10-min span recommended by the WMO (see Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale). The JTWC is not one of the WMO designated Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres, nor one of its Tropical cyclone warning centres, as its main mission is to support the United States government agencies.[12] JTWC monitors, analyzes, and forecasts tropical cyclone formation, development, and movement year round.[13] Its area of responsibility covers 89% of the world's tropical cyclone activity.[14]

Staffing

The Center is manned by about 37 U.S. Air Force and Navy personnel.[15] The JTWC uses several satellite systems and sensors, radar, surface and upper level synoptic data as well as atmospheric models to complete its mission.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Annual Tropcial Cyclone Report 2015 (PDF) (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 16, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". Archived from the original on August 12, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Joint Typhoon Warning Center 50th Anniversary May 1959 – May 2009. April 29, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  4. ^ Anstett, Richard (April 30, 1998). "World War II Era". History of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center up to 1998. Archived from the original on February 24, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Fleet Weather Central; Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Annual Typhoon Report: 1959 (PDF) (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. pp. 4–6. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d Anstett, Richard (April 30, 1998). "JTWC Formation, 1958-1959". History of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center up to 1998. Archived from the original on February 18, 2005. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  7. ^ Richard Anstett. JTWC Formation, 1958-1959. Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  8. ^ a b Anslett, Richard A (April 30, 1998). "Realignment, Renaming And Relocating". History of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center up to 1998. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  9. ^ http://www.hookelenews.com/joint-typhoon-warning-center-rededicates-new-operation-floor-and-mission/
  10. ^ a b Ronald J. Miller; Ann J. Schrader; Charles R. Sampson; Ted L. Tsui (December 1990). "The Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting System (ATCF)". Weather and Forecasting. American Meteorological Society. 5: 653–660. Bibcode:1990WtFor...5..653M. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(1990)005<0653:TATCFS>2.0.CO;2.
  11. ^ Charles R. Sampson; Ann J. Schrader (June 2000). "The Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting System (Version 3.2)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society. 81 (6): 1231–1240. Bibcode:2000BAMS...81.1231S. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<1231:tatcfs>2.3.co;2.
  12. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center Product Notice at bottom of webpage. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center". Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  13. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  14. ^ Freeman, Bob (November 13, 2009). "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Marks 50 Years of Service". U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on July 13, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  15. ^ Annual Tropical Cyclone Report 2013 (PDF) (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014. p. 5.

External links

1999 Pacific typhoon season

The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storms formed in the entire west Pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

2008 Pacific typhoon season

The 2008 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 2008, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the International Date Line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 2008 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical storms formed in the entire Western North Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions formed in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones (including tropical depressions) that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.

2009 Pacific typhoon season

The 2009 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season that spawned only 22 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. It was also recognized as the deadliest season in the Philippines for decades. The first half of the season was very quiet whereas the second half of the season was extremely active. The season's first named storm, Kujira, developed on May 3 while the season's last named storm, Nida, dissipated on December 3.

During August, Typhoon Morakot, devastated Taiwan killing nearly 800 people and was known for the deadliest typhoon to impact the country. Typhoons Ketsana and Parma both affected the Philippines bringing extreme flooding which killed more than 600 people with damages over US$300 million from both storms. Typhoon Nida during late November reached 1-minute winds of 285 km/h (180 mph), which is the most intense in the basin since Typhoon Paka in 1997.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2011 Pacific typhoon season

The 2011 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season that produced a total of 21 named storms, 8 typhoons, and four super typhoons. This season was much more active than the previous season, although both seasons were below the Pacific typhoon average of 26. The season ran throughout 2011, though most tropical cyclone tend to develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Aere, developed on May 7 while the season's last named storm, Washi dissipated on December 19.

The season was also much deadlier and destructive than the previous season. Typhoon Muifa affected many countries during August. Tropical Storm Talas and Typhoon Roke made landfall over in Japan and were the most destructive since 2009. Typhoon Nesat was the most powerful to strike China since 2005. Tropical Storm Washi, a late but weak cyclone, affected southern Philippines and killed 2546 people.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100th meridian east and the 180th meridian. Within the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies who assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h, (40 mph) anywhere in the basin. Whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N-25°N even if the cyclone has had a name assigned to it by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2013 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2013 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. The season had no official bounds, but cyclones typically formed between May and December, with the peak from October to November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Indian Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, east of the Horn of Africa and west of the Malay Peninsula. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Arabian Sea to the west of the Indian subcontinent, abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD); and the Bay of Bengal to the east, abbreviated BOB by the IMD.

The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. On average, 4 to 6 storms form in this basin every season.

2013 Pacific typhoon season

The 2013 Pacific typhoon season was a catastrophic typhoon season. It was the most active Pacific typhoon season since 2004, as well as the deadliest since 1975. This season also featured one of the most powerful storms in recorded history. It was an above-average season with 31 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. The season's first named storm, Sonamu, developed on January 4 while the season's last named storm, Podul, dissipated on November 15. Most of the first seventeen named storms before mid-September were relatively weak, as only two of them reached typhoon intensity. Total damage amounted to at least $25.75 billion (USD), making it the costliest Pacific typhoon season on record.

Typhoon Soulik in July was the strongest tropical cyclone to affect Taiwan in 2013. In August, Typhoon Utor cost US$2.6 billion damage and killed 97 people, becoming the second deadliest tropical cyclone of the Philippines in 2013. Three systems in August, Pewa, Unala and 03C, continuously crossed the International Date Line from the Central Pacific and entered this basin. Typhoon Haiyan caused catastrophic damage and devastation to the Philippines as a Category 5 super typhoon, killing more than 6,300 people, making it one of the deadliest Pacific typhoons on record.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which often results in a storm having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as tropical depressions in their area of responsibility, located between 115°E and 135°E and between 5°N and 25°N, regardless of whether or not the tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2015 Pacific typhoon season

The 2015 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly above average season that produced 27 tropical storms, 18 typhoons, and nine super typhoons. The season ran throughout 2015, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and November. The season's first named storm, Mekkhala, developed on January 15, while the season's last named storm, Melor, dissipated on December 17. The season saw at least one named tropical system forming in each of every month, the first time since 1965. Similar to the previous season, this season saw a high number of super typhoons. Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) during 2015 was extremely high, the second highest since the 1970, and the 2015 ACE has been attributed in part to anthropogenic warming.The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2016 Pacific typhoon season

The 2016 Pacific typhoon season had the fifth-latest start for a Pacific typhoon season since reliable records began. It was an average season, with a total of 26 named storms, 13 typhoons, and six super typhoons. The season ran throughout 2016, though typically most tropical cyclones develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Nepartak, developed on July 3, while the season's last named storm, Nock-ten, dissipated on December 28.

The development of Nepartak made the second-latest time within a season for the first named storm to develop and ended a 199-day period (from December 17, 2015 – July 3, 2016) during which no named storm was active in the basin. Tropical Storm Mirinae reached peak intensity while making landfall over the Red River Delta, causing very severe damage in Northern Vietnam. By the end of August, three storms had hit the Japanese island of Hokkaidō, the most since 1951. In September, Typhoon Meranti reached peak intensity with a minimum pressure of 890 hPa, becoming one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record. Typhoon Chaba became the strongest typhoon to strike South Korea since 2012. Tropical Storm Aere and a tropical depression brought the worst flooding in Vietnam since 2011. The last storm of the season, Typhoon Nock-ten, became the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded worldwide on Christmas Day (December 25) since at least 1960, in terms of 1-minute maximum sustained winds.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which often results in a storm having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as tropical depressions in their area of responsibility, located between 115°E and 135°E and between 5°N and 25°N, regardless of whether or not the tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2018 Pacific typhoon season

The 2018 Pacific typhoon season was an above-average season producing 29 storms, 13 typhoons, and 7 super typhoons. It was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season ran throughout 2018, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Bolaven, developed on January 3, while the season's last named storm, Man-yi, dissipated on November 28. The season's first typhoon, Jelawat, reached typhoon status on March 29, and became the first super typhoon of the year on the next day.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which can often result in a cyclone having two names, one from the JMA and one from PAGASA. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, while the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

Cyclone Agni

Severe Cyclonic Storm Agni was a tropical cyclone of the 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season notable for its record proximity to the equator. It was the second North Indian Ocean cyclone to receive a name, after Onil earlier in the year. Agni formed on November 28 well to the southwest of India in the Arabian Sea, and steadily intensified as it tracked northwestward. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph), while the India Meteorological Department (IMD) estimated peak 3 minute sustained winds of 100 km/h (65 mph); the IMD is the official warning center for the north Indian Ocean. After peaking, it weakened due to wind shear, dry air, and cooler waters, and the JTWC issued its final advisory on December 3 as it approached the coast of Somalia. The remnants of Agni moved along the Somalian coastline until dissipating on December 5.

Typhoon Chaba (2016)

Typhoon Chaba, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Igme, was the fourth most intense tropical cyclone in 2016 and the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in South Korea since Sanba in 2012. Chaba also caused 7 deaths in the country. Typhoon Chaba was the eighteenth named storm and the eighth typhoon of the 2016 Pacific typhoon season.

Typhoon Francisco (2013)

Typhoon Francisco, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Urduja, was a powerful typhoon that strengthened to the equivalent of a Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The 25th named storm and the 10th typhoon of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Francisco formed on October 16 east of Guam from a pre-existing area of convection. With favorable conditions, it quickly intensified into a tropical storm before passing south of Guam. After stalling to the southwest of the island, Francisco turned to the northwest into an environment of warm waters and low wind shear, becoming a typhoon. The JTWC upgraded it to super typhoon status on October 18, while the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) estimated peak 10‑minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). Gradual weakening ensued, and after the typhoon turned to the northeast, Francisco deteriorated into a tropical storm on October 24. Passing southeast of Okinawa and mainland Japan, the storm accelerated and became extratropical on October 26, dissipating later that day.

On Guam and in the Northern Marianas Islands, Francisco produced tropical storm force wind gusts, strong enough to knock over some trees and cause $150,000 (2013 USD) in damage. The typhoon also dropped heavy rainfall on Guam, peaking at 201 mm (7.90 in) at Inarajan. Later, Francisco brought gusty winds and some rainfall to Okinawa. In Kagoshima Prefecture, 3,800 homes lost power, while an island-wide evacuation advisory was issued for Izu Ōshima after Typhoon Wipha spawned a deadly mudslide a week prior. Rains in Japan peaked at 600 mm (24 in) in Niyodogawa, Kōchi on Shikoku.

Typhoon Hagupit (2014)

Typhoon Hagupit, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ruby, was the second most intense tropical cyclone in 2014. Hagupit particularly impacted the Philippines in early December while gradually weakening, killing 18 people and causing $114 million (2014 USD) in the country. Prior to making landfall, Typhoon Hagupit was considered the worst threat to the Philippines in 2014, but it was significantly smaller than 2013's Typhoon Haiyan.Hagupit developed into the 22nd tropical storm of the annual typhoon season on 1 December 2014 and became that year's eleventh typhoon the next day. Under a favorable environment, the typhoon underwent rapid deepening and reached peak intensity northwest of Palau on 4 December, with a clear eye. Hagupit slightly weakened but restrengthened on 5 December, but subsequently started to weaken again, due to subsidence associated with an upper-level trough.The typhoon made first landfall over the province of Eastern Samar in the Philippines on 6 December, and then made three other landfalls over the country. For land interaction and the slow movement, Hagupit weakened into a tropical storm on 8 December. When arriving at the South China Sea on 9 December, deep convection of the storm diminished significantly. The system could not overcome the hostile environment and weakened into a tropical depression on 11 December, before it eventually dissipated southeast of Ho Chi Minh City on 12 December.

Typhoon Kujira (2009)

Typhoon Kujira, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Dante, was first reported by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) on April 28. It was the fourth depression and the first typhoon of the season. The disturbance dissipated later that day however it regenerated early on April 30 within the southern islands of Luzon. It was then designated as a Tropical Depression during the next morning by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), with PAGASA assigning the name Dante to the depression. However the JTWC did not designate the system as a depression until early on May 2 which was after the depression had made landfall on the Philippines. Later that day Dante was upgraded to a Tropical Storm and was named as Kujira by the JMA. The cyclone started to rapidly intensify becoming a typhoon early on May 4, and then reaching its peak winds of 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min), 215 km/h (135 mph) (1-min) later that day after a small clear eye had developed.

Torrential rains produced by Typhoon Kujira in the Bicol Peninsula triggered severe flooding and mudslides which killed 28 people and one missing.

Typhoon Melor

Typhoon Melor, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Nona, was a powerful tropical cyclone that struck the Philippines in December 2015. The twenty-seventh named storm and the eighteenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season, Melor killed 51 people and caused ₱7.04 billion (US$148.3 million) in damage.

The typhoon began developing on December 7 as a low-pressure area 120 km (75 mi) of Chuuk. Soon, it intensified into a tropical depression on December 10, and then into a tropical storm south of Yap, and was named Melor. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAG-ASA) initially decided to name Melor as "Nonoy", but due to political reasons, it was named "Nona" instead. On December 13, Tropical Storm Melor (Nona) became a typhoon, and made its first landfall on Northern Samar. The typhoon made several landfalls in Sorsogon, Burias Island, Romblon, and Oriental Mindoro, before weakening into a tropical storm. It turned southward on entering the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea) before weakening into a tropical depression and dissipating in the Sulu Sea.

Typhoon Meranti

Typhoon Meranti, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ferdie, was one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record. Impacting the Batanes in the Philippines, Taiwan, as well as Fujian, China in September 2016, Meranti formed as a tropical depression on September 8 near the island of Guam. Tracking to the west northwest, Meranti gradually intensified until September 11, at which point it began a period of rapid intensification. Continuing to rapidly intensify, it became a super typhoon early on September 12, as it passed through the Luzon Strait, ultimately reaching its peak intensity on September 13 with 1-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph). Shortly afterwards, it passed directly over the island of Itbayat. Meranti passed to the south of Taiwan as a super typhoon, and began weakening steadily as a result of land interaction. By September 15, it struck China as a Category 2-equivalent typhoon, becoming the strongest typhoon on record to impact Fujian Province. Upon moving inland, rapid weakening ensued and Meranti became extratropical the next day, dissipating shortly afterwards after it passed to the south of the Korean Peninsula.

The island of Itbayat sustained a direct hit from the super typhoon near its peak intensity, severing communications from the island for several days. No fatalities were reported on the island from the island. The typhoon caused ₱244.99 million (US$5.16 million) in damage on the island. However, the most costly and direct impacts were felt in China, where 45 people were killed from floods. Total economic cost in China reached ¥31.78 billion (US$4.76 billion). In total, Meranti caused US$4.79 billion in damage and killed 47 people.

During its lifetime, Meranti broke or tied several meteorological records. With JTWC-estimated 1-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph), Meranti is tied with Typhoon Haiyan as the second-strongest tropical cyclone on record by wind speed. Additionally, in terms of 1-minute sustained winds, the storm's landfall on the island of Itbayat shortly after peak intensity ties it with Haiyan as the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone on record. The estimated pressure of 890 mbar (26 inHg) was also the lowest on record in the Western Pacific since Typhoon Megi in 2010.

Typhoon Nangka (2015)

Typhoon Nangka was a large and powerful tropical cyclone that impacted central Japan in mid-July 2015. Nangka started its long-living journey as a tropical disturbance over the Marshall Islands and west of the International Dateline, becoming the eleventh named storm of the annual typhoon season on July 3. It quickly intensified while moving to the west-northwest, attaining typhoon status on July 6. Nangka moved through the Northern Marianas Islands, passing directly over the uninhabited island of Alamagan. Shortly thereafter, the typhoon attained peak winds; the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) estimated 10‑minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), while the unofficial Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated 1‑minute winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), making it a super typhoon. Nangka later weakened as it curved to the north, moving across central Japan on July 16 as a minimal typhoon. The storm weakened soon after, dissipating in the Sea of Japan on July 18.

The storm first affected the Marshall Islands, bringing strong winds to the capital Majuro. Half of the city lost power, and several boats were sunk. Minimal effects were reported in the Northern Marianas Islands, and later the storm's flow enhanced the monsoon over the Philippines. Effects were worst in Japan, where rainfall reached 740 mm (29 in) in Kamikitayama, Nara Prefecture. Total damage across the Kansai region reached ¥18 billion (US$145 million). Nangka killed two people in Japan, injured 55, and damaged or flooded 220 houses.

Typhoon Noru (2017)

Typhoon Noru was the second-longest lasting tropical cyclone of the Northwest Pacific Ocean on record—ranked only behind 1986's Wayne and tied with 1972's Rita—and the second most intense tropical cyclone of the basin in 2017, tied with Talim. Forming as the fifth named storm of the annual typhoon season on July 20, Noru further intensified into the first typhoon of the year on July 23. However, Noru began to interact with nearby Tropical Storm Kulap on July 24, executing a counterclockwise loop southeast of Japan. Weakening to a severe tropical storm on July 28, Noru began to restrengthen as it turned sharply to the west on July 30. Amid favorable conditions, Noru rapidly intensified into the season's first super typhoon, and reached peak intensity with annular characteristics on July 31. In early August, Noru underwent a gradual weakening trend while curving northwestwards and then northwards. After stalling off the Satsunan Islands weakening to a severe tropical storm again on August 5, the system began to accelerate northeastwards towards the Kansai region of Japan, making landfall in Wakayama Prefecture on August 7. Noru became extratropical over the Sea of Japan on August 8, and dissipated one day later.

Noru was responsible for two deaths in Kagoshima Prefecture, and at least $100 million (2017 USD) in damages in Japan.

Typhoon Sarika

Typhoon Sarika, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Karen, was a powerful tropical cyclone which affected the Philippines, China and Vietnam in mid October 2016. It was the twenty first named storm and the tenth typhoon of the annual Pacific typhoon season.

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