Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense which advises the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by statute and consists of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS), the Military Service Chiefs from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau,[1] all appointed by the President following Senate confirmation.[2] Each of the individual Military Service Chiefs, outside their Joint Chiefs of Staff obligations, works directly for the Secretary of the Military Department concerned, i.e., Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force.[3][4][5][6]

Following the Goldwater–Nichols Act in 1986, the Joint Chiefs of Staff do not have operational command authority, either individually or collectively, as the chain of command goes from the President to the Secretary of Defense, and from the Secretary of Defense to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands.[7] Goldwater–Nichols also created the office of Vice Chairman, and the Chairman is now designated as the principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the President.[8]

The Joint Staff (JS) is a headquarters staff in the Pentagon, composed of personnel from each of the five armed services, that assists the Chairman and the Vice Chairman in discharging their responsibilities and is managed by the Director of the Joint Staff (DJS), who is a lieutenant general or Navy vice admiral.[9]

Joint Chiefs of Staff
JCS
Joint Chiefs of Staff seal
RoleAdvisory board providing professional military advice to the Secretary of Defense and the President
Established in practice1942
Constituting instrumentNational Security Act of 1947
currently codified at
10 U.S.C. § 151
Predecessor entitiesJoint Board
(1903–1942)
Members
ChairmanJoseph Dunford
Vice ChairmanPaul J. Selva
Number of membersSeven
Administration
Parent agencyU.S. Department of Defense
Staff organizationThe Joint Staff (for the Chairman and the Vice Chairman; the service chiefs and the National Guard Bureau chief have their own staffs assisting them)
SeatThe Pentagon

Role and responsibilities

Joint Chiefs of Staff (31662768614)
The Joint Chiefs of Staff, including the commandant of the Coast Guard but minus the vice chairman, in January 2017.

After the 1986 reorganization of the military undertaken by the Goldwater–Nichols Act, the Joint Chiefs of Staff does not have operational command of U.S. military forces. Responsibility for conducting military operations goes from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands and thus bypasses the Joint Chiefs of Staff completely.

Today, their primary responsibility is to ensure the personnel readiness, policy, planning and training of their respective military services for the combatant commanders to utilize. The Joint Chiefs of Staff also act in a military advisory capacity for the President of the United States and the Secretary of Defense. In addition, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff acts as the chief military advisor to the President and the Secretary of Defense. In this strictly advisory role, the Joint Chiefs constitute the second-highest deliberatory body for military policy, after the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council, which includes the President and other officials besides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs.

While serving as Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chief of Staff of the Army, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Naval Operations, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, or Commandant of the Coast Guard, the salary is $15,583.20 a month,[10] regardless of cumulative years of service completed under section 205 of title 37, United States Code.

Current members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Position Photograph Name Service
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Dunford CJCS Gen Joseph F. Dunford  United States Marine Corps
Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Paul J. Selva, USAF (VJCS) Gen Paul J. Selva  United States Air Force
Chief of Staff of the Army Mark Miley Army Chief of Staff GEN Mark A. Milley  United States Army
Commandant of the Marine Corps Neller 2015 2 Gen Robert B. Neller  United States Marine Corps
Chief of Naval Operations ADM John M. Richardson, USN ADM John M. Richardson  United States Navy
Chief of Staff of the Air Force Goldfein CSAF Gen David L. Goldfein  United States Air Force
Chief of the National Guard Bureau Gen Lengyel (2016 4-Star Photo) Gen Joseph L. Lengyel  United States Air Force

Commandant of the Coast Guard

Although the United States Coast Guard is an armed service (i.e. a branch of the military) pursuant to 14 United States Code, section 1, the Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff because the Coast Guard operates under the Department of Homeland Security rather than the Department of Defense, and operates under the Department of the Navy (subordinate to the Chief of Naval Operations) when directed by the President. However, the commandant is considered a de facto JCS member for certain purposes and, by statute, is entitled to the same supplemental pay as the Joint Chiefs[11] and is accorded the same privilege of the floor under Senate Rule XXIII(1) during Presidential addresses. The commandant is occasionally invited by the chairman to attend meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[12] Also, in contrast to the Joint Chiefs, who are not in the military's operational chain of command, the commandant is in operational command of his service.

Position Photograph Name Service
Commandant of the Coast Guard Adm. Karl L. Schultz ADM Karl L. Schultz  United States Coast Guard

History

Joint Board

As the military of the United States grew in size following the American Civil War, joint military action between the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy became increasingly difficult. The Army and Navy were unsupportive of each other at either the planning or operational level and were constrained by disagreements during the Spanish–American War in the Caribbean campaigns.[13][14] The Joint Army and Navy Board was established in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, comprising representatives from the military heads and chief planners of both the Navy's General Board and the Army's General Staff. The Joint Board acting as an "advisory committee" was created to plan joint operations and resolve problems of common rivalry between the two services.[13][14]

Yet, the Joint Board accomplished little as its charter gave it no authority to enforce its decisions. The Joint Board also lacked the ability to originate its own opinions and was thus limited to commenting only on the problems submitted to it by the Secretaries of War and Navy. As a result, the Joint Board had little to no impact on the manner in which the United States conducted World War I.

After World War I, in 1919 the two Secretaries agreed to reestablish and revitalize the Joint Board. The mission of the General staff was to develop plans for mobilization for the next war; the US was always designated "Blue" and potential enemies were assigned various other colors.[15]

This time, the Joint Board's membership would include the Chiefs of Staff, their deputies, and the Chief of War Plans Division for the Army and Director of Plans Division for the Navy. Under the Joint Board would be a staff called the Joint Planning Committee to serve the Board. Along with new membership, the Joint Board could initiate recommendations on its own initiative. However, the Joint Board still did not possess the legal authority to enforce its decisions.

World War II

World War II Joint Chiefs of Staff 1943
Joint Chiefs of Staff meeting (circa 1943). From left to right are: Gen. Henry H. Arnold, Chief of the Army Air Forces; Adm. William D. Leahy, Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy; Adm. Ernest J. King, Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations; and Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill established the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) during the 1942 Arcadia Conference.[16] The CCS would serve as the supreme military body for strategic direction of the combined US-British Empire war effort.

The UK portion of the CCS would be composed of the British Chiefs of Staff Committee, but the United States had no equivalent body. The Joint Board's lack of authority made it of little use to the CCS, although its 1935 publication, Joint Action of the Army and Navy, did give some guidance for the joint operations during World War II. The Joint Board had little influence during the war and was ultimately disbanded in 1947.

As a counterpart to the UK's Chiefs of Staff Committee in the CCS, and to provide better coordinated effort and coordinated staff work for America's military effort, Admiral William D. Leahy proposed a "unified high command" in what would come to be called the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Modeled on the British Chiefs of Staff Committee, the JCS' first formal meeting was held on 9 February 1942, to coordinate U.S. military operations between War and Navy Departments.[16][17] The official history of the Army Air Forces noted that although there was "no official charter establishing this committee...by the end of February it had assumed responsibilities toward the American war effort comparable to the CCS on the combined level."[18] On 20 July 1942, Admiral Leahy became the Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy ("Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States" is the military title of the U.S. President, per Article II, § 2, of the Constitution), with the chiefs of staff of the services serving under his leadership.

The first members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff were:[19]

Name Service Position
Admiral William D. Leahy USN Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy and
Special Presidential Military Advisor
General George C. Marshall USA Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSUSA)
Admiral Ernest J. King USN Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet and
Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO)
General Henry H. 'Hap' Arnold USA Chief of the Army Air Forces and Deputy Chief of Staff for Air

As the table indicates, each of the members of the original Joint Chiefs was a four-star flag or general officer in his respective service branch. By the end of the war, however, each had been promoted: Leahy and King to Fleet Admiral; Marshall and Arnold to General of the Army. Arnold was later appointed to the grade of General of the Air Force.

One of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's committees was the Joint Strategic Survey Committee (JSSC). The JSSC was an extraordinary JCS committee that existed from 1942 until 1947. It was "one of the most influential planning agencies in the wartime armed forces."[20] Members included Lieutenant General Stanley D. Embick, U.S. Army, chairman, 1942–1946, Vice Admiral Russell Willson, U.S. Navy, 1942–1945, Vice Admiral Theodore Stark Wilkinson, U.S. Navy, 1946, and Major General Muir S. Fairchild, U.S. Army Air Force, 1942–?.

National Security Act of 1947

US Joint Chiefs of Staff Jul 1983
The Joint Chiefs of Staff and several Commanders in Chief gathered at the Pentagon on 1 July 1983.

With the end of World War II, the Joint Chiefs of Staff was officially established under the National Security Act of 1947. Per the National Security Act, the JCS consisted of a chairman, the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (which was established as a separate service by the same Act), and the Chief of Naval Operations. The Commandant of the Marine Corps was to be consulted on matters concerning the Corps, but was not a regular member; General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., Commandant in 1952–55, was the first to sit as an occasional member. The law was amended during the term of General Louis H. Wilson, Jr. (1975–79), making the Commandant a full-time JCS member in parity with the other three DoD services.

The position of vice chairman was created by the Goldwater–Nichols Act of 1986 to complement the CJCS, as well as to delegate some of the chairman's responsibilities, particularly resource allocation through the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC).

General Colin L. Powell (1989–1993) was the first and, as of 2011, the only African American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff. General Peter Pace (Vice Chairman 2001–2005; Chairman, 2005–2007) was the first Marine to serve in either position. No woman has ever served on the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

National Defense Authorization Act of 2012

A provision in the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act added the Chief of the National Guard Bureau to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Guard historians called it the "most significant development" for the National Guard since the Militia Act of 1903.[1]

Organization and leadership positions

Chairman

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is, by law, the highest-ranking military officer of the United States Armed Forces,[21] and the principal military adviser to the President of the United States. He leads the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, comprising the chairman, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, the Commandant of the United States Marine Corps, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The Joint Chiefs of Staff have offices in The Pentagon. The chairman outranks all respective heads of each service branch,[22] but does not have command authority over them, their service branches or the Unified Combatant Commands.[22] All combatant commanders receive operational orders directly from the Secretary of Defense.[23]

The current chairman is General Joseph Dunford, USMC, who began his term on October 1, 2015.

On 20 July 1942, Navy Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy became the Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy (20 July 1942 – 21 March 1949). He was not technically the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Leahy's office was the precursor to the post of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. That post was established and first held by General of the Army Omar Bradley in 1949.

Vice Chairman

The position of Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was created by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986. The vice chairman is a four-star-general or admiral and, by law, is the second highest-ranking member of the U.S. Armed Forces (after the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff). In the absence of the chairman, the vice chairman presides over the meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He may also perform such duties as the chairman may prescribe. It was not until the National Defense Authorization Act in 1992 that the position was made a full voting member of the JCS.[24]

The current vice chairman is General Paul J. Selva, USAF.

Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman

The Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (SEAC) advises on all matters concerning joint and combined total force integration, utilization, development, and helps develop noncommissioned officers related joint professional education, enhance utilization of senior NCOs on joint battle staffs, and support the chairman's responsibilities as directed.

Command Sergeant Major William Gainey, USA, was the first SEAC, serving from October 1, 2005. The current SEAC is Command Sergeant Major John W. Troxell, US Army, who was sworn in by Joint Chiefs Chairman General Joseph Dunford on December 11, 2015, replacing Sergeant Major Bryan B. Battaglia, USMC.

Joint Staff

The Joint Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff seal
Agency overview
Formed1949
HeadquartersThe Pentagon
EmployeesApprox. 1,500
Agency executive
  • LtGen Kenneth F. McKenzie, Jr. (DJS)
Parent agencyDepartment of Defense
JSOrg2018v2
The Joint Staff Organization Chart as of March 2018
US Joint Chiefs of Staff Nov 1989
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (seated) and the directors of the Joint Staff directorates (standing), November 1989.

The Joint Staff (JS) is a military headquarters staff based at the Pentagon, (with offices in Hampton Roads VA, Ft Leavenworth KS, Lackland AFB TX, Ft Belvoir VA, Fairchild AFB WA, Ft McNair DC) composed of personnel from all the five armed services, assisting the Chairman and the Vice Chairman in discharging their responsibilities. They work closely with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Department staffs, and the Combatant Command Staffs.

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is assisted by the Director of the Joint Staff, a three-star officer who assists the chairman with the management of the Joint Staff, an organization composed of approximately equal numbers of officers contributed by the Army, the Navy and Marine Corps, the Air Force, and the Coast Guard, who have been assigned to assist the chairman in providing to the Secretary of Defense unified strategic direction, operation, and integration of the combatant land, naval, and air forces.

Directorates of the Joint Staff

The Joint Staff includes the following departments where all the planning, policies, intelligence, manpower, communications and logistics functions are translated into action.[25]

Joint Chiefs of Staff: Civilian awards

The Joint Chiefs may recognize private citizens, organizations or career civilian government employees for significant achievements provided to the joint community with one of the following decorations/awards.[30]

  • CJCS Award for Distinguished Public Service (DPS)
  • CJCS Award for Outstanding Public Service (OPS)
  • CJCS Joint Distinguished Civilian Service Award
  • CJCS Joint Meritorious Civilian Service Award
  • Joint Civilian Service Commendation Award (JCSCA)
  • Joint Civilian Service Achievement Award (JCSAA)

Coast Guard

Although the Commandant of the Coast Guard is not an ex officio member of the JCS like the other service chiefs, Coast Guard officers are legally eligible to be appointed as Chairman and Vice Chairman, pursuant to 10 U.S.C. § 152(a)(1) and 10 U.S.C. § 154(a)(1) respectively, which use the collective term "armed forces" rather than listing the eligible services. However no Coast Guard officer has been appointed to either position as of 2016. The Coast Guard does have one officer who was appointed in 2016 to the Joint Staff who currently serves as J6.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Top Guard officer joins Joint Chiefs of Staff". Army Times. 4 January 2012.
  2. ^ 10 USC 151. Joint Chiefs of Staff: composition; functions
  3. ^ 10 U.S.C. §3033 Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ 10 U.S.C. §5033 Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ 10 U.S.C. §5043 Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ 10 U.S.C. §8033 Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ 10 U.S.C. §162(b) Archived 29 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ 10 U.S.C §151(b) Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ 10 U.S.C §155 Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "2017 Military Pay Scale". Military Factory. May 2017.
  11. ^ 37 U.S.C. § 414(a)(5) – Personal money allowance ($4,000 per annum in 2009)
  12. ^ The Changing of the Guard
  13. ^ a b Millett, Allan R. (1980). Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps. New York: Macmillan. p. 269 [para. 2]. ISBN 0-02-921590-0.
  14. ^ a b "Origin of Joint Concepts". Joint Chiefs of Staff. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  15. ^ Bradley, John H.; Griess, Thomas E.; Dice, Jack W. (2002). The Second World War: Asia and the Pacific. United States Military Academy, Dept. of History. Square One. p. 26. ISBN 0-7570-0162-9.
  16. ^ a b Cline, Ray S. (1990). United States Army in World War II – The War Department – Washington Command Post: The Operations Division; Chapter VI. Organizing The High Command For World War II "Development of the Joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff System". Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D. C. pp. 98–104. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  17. ^ Leighton, Richard M.; Robert W Coakley (1995). United States Army in World War II – The War Department – Global Logistics and Strategy 1940–1943. Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D. C. p. 144. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  18. ^ Craven, James (1948). United States Army Air Forces in World War II – Volume I Plans and Early Operations Jan 1939 – Aug 1941; Chapter 7. Establishment of the Fundamental Bases of Strategy (PDF). AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. p. 254. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  19. ^ "Washington Eats". Life. 5 October 1942. p. 95. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  20. ^ Stoler, Mark A. (1982). "From Continentalism to Globalism: General Stanley D. Embick, the Joint Strategic Survey Committee, and the Military View of American National Policy during the Second World War". Diplomatic History. 6 (3): 303–320 [quote at p. 307]. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1982.tb00378.x.
  21. ^ [1] 10 USC 152. Chairman: appointment; grade and rank
  22. ^ a b [2] 10 USC 152(c). Chairman: appointment; grade and rank – Grade and Rank.
  23. ^ [3] 10 USC 162. Combatant commands: assigned forces; chain of command
  24. ^ About the Joint Chiefs Archived 5 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ jcs.mil Archived 3 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "J6 Page at jcs.mil". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011.
  27. ^ Gibson, Tim (2003). "SIPRNET connectivity: do's and don'ts". Army Communicator. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
  28. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ DoD Budget p.33
  30. ^ [4] Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

  • Gillespie, Robert M. The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Escalation of the Vietnam Conflict, 1964–1965. Masters Thesis, Clemson University, 1994. OCLC 32515894.
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff. Organizational Development of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1942–1987. Joint Secretariat, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1988.
  • Jordan, Jonathan W., American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II (NAL/Caliber 2015).
  • McMaster, H. R. Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
  • Perry, Mark. Four Stars: The Inside Story of the Forty-Year Battle Between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and America's Civilian Leaders. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989, ISBN 0-395-42923-4.
  • Rearden, Steven L. History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1984.
  • Schnabel, James F. History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy 1945–1947. Volume I. Washington, D.C.: Joint History Office, The Joint Staff, 1996.
  • Taylor, Maxwell D. The Uncertain Trumpet. New York: Harper & Row, 1959.

External links

Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council. The role of advisement is also extended to the elected members in the bicameral Parliament and the Ministry of Defence. The Chairman leads the meetings and coordinates the combined efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC), comprising the Chairman, the Chief of Army Staff and Chief of Air Staff and the Chief of Naval Staff, Commandant of Marines, DG Strategic Plans Division, and commanders of the service branches in the paramilitary command.Even as the Principal Staff Officer (PSO), the Chairman does not have any authority over the command of the combatant forces. The individual service chiefs are solely responsible for the coordination and logistics of the armed and combatant forces. Due to this constraint, the chiefs of army, air force, navy and marines are much in command and control of their respected commands.The Chairman's mandate is to transmit strategic communications to the combatant commanders from the Prime minister and President as well as allocate additional funding to the combatant commanders if necessary. The Chairman is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister; and is finally confirmed by the President. Unlike United States's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the appointment of Chairman does not need confirmation via majority vote by the Parliament. Although, the appointment needs confirmation from the Prime minister. By statute, the Chairman is appointed as a four-star general, four-star air chief marshal and/or four star admiral. By law required, all four-star officers are required to have vast experience in joint uniformed services of Pakistan during their 40-year-long military careers.The post of CJCSC was created by former Prime minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in March 1976, and the first Chairman was four star rank officer, General Muhammad Shariff. The current holder of the office is General Zubair Mahmood Hayat appointed in 2016.

Graduated from Cantt Public School (F G Cantt Public School) Malir Cantt Karachi in 1976.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense. While the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff outranks all other commissioned officers, the Chairman is prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the armed forces; however, the Chairman does assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in exercising their command functions.The Chairman convenes the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), an advisory body within the Department of Defense comprising the Chairman, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The post of a statutory and permanent Joint Chiefs of Staff chair was created by the 1949 amendments to the National Security Act of 1947. The 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act elevated the Chairman from the first among equals to becoming the "principal military advisor" to the President and the Secretary of Defense.

The Joint Staff, managed by the Director of the Joint Staff and consisting of military personnel from all the services, assists the Chairman in fulfilling his duties to the President and Secretary of Defense, and functions as a conduit and collector of information between the Chairman and the combatant commanders. The National Military Command Center (NMCC) is part of the Joint Staff operations directorate (J-3).

Although the office of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is considered very important and highly prestigious, neither the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, nor the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a body has any command authority over combatant forces. The Goldwater-Nichols Act places the chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands. However the services chiefs do have authority over personnel assignments and oversight over resources and personnel allocated to the combatant commands within their respective services (derived from the service secretaries).

The Chairman may also transmit communications to the combatant commanders from the President and Secretary of Defense as well as allocate additional funding to the combatant commanders if necessary. The Chairman also performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153 or allocates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in the joint staff under his or her name.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Jordanian Armed Forces

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, previously the chief of staff, is the office for the head of the Jordanian Armed Forces held by a Lieutenant general or higher ranking officers.

Chief of Naval Operations

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the highest-ranking officer and professional head of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 5033) held by a four-star admiral who is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151) the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral John M. Richardson.

Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces. The CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense.

Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force

The Chief of Staff of the Air Force (acronym: CSAF, or AF/CC) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 9033) held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Air Force; and is in a separate capacity a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and thereby a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The Chief of Staff is typically the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the Air Force unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Air Force officers.

The Chief of Staff of the Air Force is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and while the Chief of Staff does not have operational command authority over Air Force forces (that is within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense), the Chief of Staff does exercise supervision of Air Force units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Air Force.

The current Chief of Staff of the Air Force is General David L. Goldfein.

Chief of Staff of the United States Army

The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 3033) held by a four-star general in the United States Army. As the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, the CSA is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army. In a separate capacity, the CSA is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151) and, thereby, a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President of the United States. The CSA is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Army unless the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers.

The Chief of Staff of the Army is an administrative position based in the Pentagon. While the CSA does not have operational command authority over Army forces proper (which is within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense), the CSA does exercise supervision of army units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Army.

The current Chief of Staff of the Army is General Mark A. Milley.

Director of the Joint Staff

The Director of the Joint Staff (DJS) is a three-star officer who assists the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a cabinet of senior military officers within the United States Armed Forces who advise the Secretary of Defense and President on military matters. The Director assists the Chairman in managing the Joint Staff and with the management and organization of the staff's members. The Director also chairs meetings of the Operations Deputies, a subsidiary body comprising the Director and a three-star delegate from each service who preview or resolve issues before they are escalated to the four-star level of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.The Director of the Joint Staff is selected by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense. As with all three- and four-star positions, the Director's appointment is subject to Senate confirmation.

The position of Director is considered one of the most desirable three-star positions in the United States military establishment, for the position has historically served as a stepping stone to a four-star position. As of February 2016, 34 of the 43 past Directors and 7 past, short-term, acting Directors (all "acting" were two-star) have been promoted to four-star rank, including a former Director promoted to that rank upon retirement from active duty. Many of them have been promoted to four-star rank within a year of leaving the position of Director of the Joint Staff.

The current Director of the Joint Staff is Vice Admiral Michael M. Gilday, U.S. Navy.

Joint Chiefs of Staff (Saudi Arabia)

Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Arabic: رئاسة هيئة الأركان المشتركة) is a group of senior uniformed leaders in the Saudi Ministry of Defense tasked with coordinating and supervising all major agencies and departments of the government relating directly to National security and the Royal Armed Forces.

Joint Chiefs of Staff (South Korea)

The Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Republic of Korea (Korean: 대한민국 합동참모본부, Hanja: 大韓民國 合同參謀本部) is a group of Chiefs from each major branch of the armed services in the South Korean military. Unlike the United States' counterpart which is primarily advisory, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff has actual operational control over all military personnel of South Korea's armed forces. The National Command Authority runs from the President and the Minister of National Defense to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and then to Operational Commands of the service branches, bypassing the Headquarters of each service branch. Currently there are five Operational Commands in the Army, two in the Navy (including the Marine Corps) and one in the Air Force.

It was created in May 1954 and assumed its current name in 1963, though there had been Supreme Command of the Armed Forces dating from 1948.

All (regular) members of the Joint Chiefs of Staffs are 4-star generals and admirals, though the Deputy Chairman in the past has been 3-star lieutenant general or vice admiral intermittently. Traditionally, the Chairman is chosen from the Army (with one previous and one current exceptions as October 2013) while the Deputy Chairman is selected from either the Navy or the Air Force. The Commandant of the Marine Corps, legally subordinate to the Republic of Korea Navy, can attend the Joint Chiefs of Staff meetings when examining the matter pertaining to the Marine Corps.

Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (Urdu: جوانٹ چيفس ﺁف اسٹاف كميٹى‎; JCSC), is an administrative body of senior high-ranking uniformed military leaders of the unified Pakistan Armed Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, Defence Minister, President and Prime minister of Pakistan on important military and non-military strategic matters. It is defined by statute, and consists of a Chairman, the military chiefs from Army, Navy and the Air Force: all four-star officers appointed by the President, on the advice of the Prime minister. The chairman is selected based on seniority and merit from the Chiefs of service of the three branches of the Pakistan Armed and Defense Services. Each service chief, outside their Joint Chiefs of Staff obligations, performs their duty directly for the Ministry of Defence.Following the Hamoodur Rahman Commission, the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee does not have operational command authority. Instead, the Joint Chief of Staff Committee is a principal military advisory body, and coordinates command operations between the services. The Committee is headed by the four-star officer who is designated as the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC). The chairman is the de Jure Commander in chief of all services of the Pakistan Defense Forces, but he does not have operational authority over combatant forces, which report directly to their Chiefs of Staff.The Joint Staff, is headquartered in Rawalpindi near the vicinity of Naval, Air, GHQ headquarters. The Joint Chief of Staff Committee is composed of all uniformed military personnel from each inter-service, who assist the Chairman to coordinate military efforts.

Joseph Dunford

Joseph Francis Dunford Jr. (born December 8, 1955) is a United States Marine Corps general and the 19th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was also the 36th Commandant of the Marine Corps. Dunford is the first Marine Corps officer to serve in four different four-star positions; the others include commander of the International Security Assistance Force and United States Forces – Afghanistan from February 2013 until August 2014, and as the 32nd Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps from October 23, 2010, to December 15, 2012. He has also commanded several units, including the 5th Marine Regiment during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

As Chairman, Dunford is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and most senior military officer in the United States Armed Forces, and reports directly to the National Security Council, Secretary of Defense and President of the United States.

Martin Dempsey

Martin Edward Dempsey (born March 14, 1952), sometimes known as Marty Dempsey, is a retired United States Army general who served as the 18th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2011 until September 25, 2015. He previously served as the 37th Chief of Staff of the Army from April 11, 2011, to September 7, 2011. Prior to that, he served as Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, from December 8, 2008, to April 11, 2011, as Acting Commander, U.S. Central Command, from March 24, 2008, to October 30, 2008, as Deputy Commander, U.S. Central Command, from August 2007 to March 23, 2008, and as Commanding General, Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq (MNSTC-I), from August 2005 to August 2007. Dempsey assumed his assignment as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on October 1, 2011 and stepped down from the Chairmanship on September 25, 2015. He now serves as a professor at Duke University.

Maxwell D. Taylor

General Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer and diplomat of the mid-20th century. He served with distinction in World War II, most notably as commander of the 101st Airborne Division, nicknamed "The Screaming Eagles". After the war he served as the fifth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, having been appointed by President John Kennedy. He was the father of biographer and historian John Maxwell Taylor and military historian and author Thomas Taylor.

Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge

The Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge is a United States military badge presented to the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff upon appointment to position as either a Service Head, Vice Chairman, or Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The decoration is also authorized to staff and support personnel assigned to the Office of the Chairman and the Joint Staff. Individuals may qualify for permanent wear of this badge after being assigned for one year on active duty or two years as a reservist.

Operation Northwoods

Operation Northwoods was a proposed false flag operation against the Cuban government that originated within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) of the United States government in 1962. The proposals called for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) or other U.S. government operatives to commit acts of terrorism against American civilians and military targets, blaming them on the Cuban government, and using it to justify a war against Cuba. The plans detailed in the document included the possible assassination of Cuban émigrés, sinking boats of Cuban refugees on the high seas, hijacking planes, blowing up a U.S. ship, and orchestrating violent terrorism in U.S. cities. The proposals were rejected by John F. Kennedy.Communists led by Fidel Castro had taken power in Cuba in 1959, which aroused the concern of the US military due to the Cold War. The operation proposed creating public support for a war against Cuba by blaming it for terrorist acts that would actually be perpetrated by the U.S. Government. To this end, Operation Northwoods proposals recommended hijackings and bombings followed by the introduction of phony evidence that would implicate the Cuban government. It stated:

The desired resultant from the execution of this plan would be to place the United States in the apparent position of suffering defensible grievances from a rash and irresponsible government of Cuba and to develop an international image of a Cuban threat to peace in the Western Hemisphere.

Several other proposals were included within Operation Northwoods, including real or simulated actions against various U.S. military and civilian targets. The operation recommended developing a "Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington".

The plan was drafted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, signed by Chairman Lyman Lemnitzer and sent to the Secretary of Defense. Although part of the U.S. government's anti-communist Cuban Project, Operation Northwoods was never officially accepted; it was authorized by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but then rejected by President John F. Kennedy. According to currently released documentation, none of the operations became active under the auspices of the Operation Northwoods proposals.

Paul J. Selva

Paul Joseph Selva (born September 27, 1958) is a United States Air Force general who is the 10th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In this capacity, he is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the nation's second highest-ranking military officer, and the highest-ranking officer in the Air Force. He assumed his current assignment on July 31, 2015.

Peter Pace

Peter Pace (born November 5, 1945) is a United States Marine Corps general who served as the 16th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Pace was the first Marine officer appointed as chairman, and the first Marine officer to be appointed to three different four-star assignments; the others as the 6th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2001, to August 12, 2005, and as Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Southern Command from September 8, 2000, to September 30, 2001. Appointed chairman by President George W. Bush, Pace succeeded U.S. Air Force General Richard Myers on September 30, 2005.

Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced on June 8, 2007, that he would advise the President to not renominate Pace for a second term. Pace retired from the Marine Corps and stepped down as chairman on October 1, 2007. He was replaced by Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Michael Mullen.

Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman

Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (SEAC) is a military position within the United States Department of Defense and is the most senior noncommissioned or petty officer overall in the United States Armed Forces. The SEAC is appointed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Department of Defense. As such, the SEAC is the senior enlisted advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and serves at the pleasure of the Secretary of Defense. The SEAC's exact duties vary, depending on the Chairman, though he generally devotes much time traveling throughout the Department of Defense observing training and communicating to service members and their families. The normal tour of assignment is four years, which runs concurrently with the Chairman. The first member to hold this post was William Gainey. On 11 December 2015, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Joseph Dunford, administered the Oath of Office to CSM John W. Troxell, USA. Troxell became the third member and second soldier to hold the office.

Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS) is, by U.S. law, the second highest-ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, ranking just below the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Vice Chairman outranks all respective heads of each service branch, with the exception of the Chairman, but does not have operational command authority over their service branches. The Goldwater–Nichols Act of 1986 created the position of VCJCS to assist the Chairman in exercising his or her duties. In the absence of the Chairman, the Vice Chairman presides over the meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and all other duties prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153 and may also perform other duties that the President, the Chairman, or the Secretary of Defense prescribes.

United States Joint Chiefs of Staff
Leadership
Organization
Structure
Operations and history
Personnel
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