John the Evangelist (Greek: Ἰωάννης, translit. Iōánnēs; Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, or John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by modern scholars.
Saint John the Evangelist
|Born||c. AD 15|
|Died||c. AD 100|
|Venerated in||Coptic Orthodox|
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Orthodox Church
|Feast||27 December (Western Christianity); 8 May and 26 September (Repose) (Eastern Orthodox Church)|
|Attributes||Eagle, Chalice, Scrolls|
|Major works||Gospel of John|
Epistles of John
The Gospel of John refers to an otherwise unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved", who "bore witness to and wrote" the Gospel's message. The author of the Gospel of John seemed interested in maintaining the internal anonymity of the author's identity, although interpreting the Gospel in the light of the Synoptic Gospels and considering that the author names (and therefore is not claiming to be) Peter, and that James was martyred as early as 44 AD (Acts 12:2) it has been widely believed that the author was the Apostle John (though some believe he was pretending to be.)
Christian tradition says that John the Evangelist was John the Apostle. The Apostle John was a historical figure, one of the "pillars" of the Jerusalem church after Jesus' death. He was one of the original twelve apostles and is thought to be the only one to have lived into old age and not be killed for his faith. It had been believed that he was exiled (around 95 AD) to the Aegean island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. However, some attribute the authorship of Revelation to another man, called John of Patmos or to John the Presbyter or many other writers of the late first century AD. 
Orthodox Roman Catholic scholarship, most Protestant churches, and the entire Eastern Orthodox Church attribute all of the Johannine literature to the same individual, the "Holy Apostle and Evangelist, John the Theologian", whom it identifies with the "Beloved Disciple" in the Gospel of John.
The authorship of the Johannine works has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. The main debate centers on who authored the writings, and which of the writings, if any, can be ascribed to a common author.
Orthodox tradition attributes all the books to John the Apostle.
In the 6th century, the Decretum Gelasianum argued that Second and Third John have a separate author known as "John, a priest" (see John the Presbyter). Historical critics sometimes reject the view that John the Apostle authored any of these works.
Most modern scholars believe that the apostle John wrote none of these works, although some, such as J.A.T. Robinson, F. F. Bruce, Leon Morris, and Martin Hengel, hold the apostle to be behind at least some, in particular the gospel.
There may have been a single author for the gospel and the three epistles. Some scholars conclude the author of the epistles was different from that of the gospel, although all four works originated from the same community. The gospel and epistles traditionally and plausibly came from Ephesus, c. 90–110, although some scholars argue for an origin in Syria.
The feast day of Saint John in the Catholic Church, which calls him "Saint John, Apostle and Evangelist", and in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Calendars, which call him "John, Apostle and Evangelist", is on 27 December, the third day of Christmastide. In the Tridentine Calendar he was commemorated also on each of the following days up to and including 3 January, the Octave of the 27 December feast. This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. The traditional liturgical color is white.
John is traditionally depicted in one of two distinct ways: either as an aged man with a white or gray beard, or alternatively as a beardless youth. The first way of depicting him was more common in Byzantine art, where it was possibly influenced by antique depictions of Socrates; the second was more common in the art of Medieval Western Europe and can be dated back as far as 4th century Rome.
In medieval works of painting, sculpture and literature, Saint John is often presented in an androgynous or femininized manner. Historians have related such portrayals to the circumstances of the believers for whom they were intended. For instance, John's feminine features are argued to have helped to make him more relatable to women. Likewise, Sarah McNamer argues that because of John's androgynous status, he could function as an 'image of a third or mixed gender' and 'a crucial figure with whom to identify' for male believers who sought to cultivate an attitude of affective piety, a highly emotional style of devotion that, in late-medieval culture, was thought to be poorly compatible with masculinity.
Legends from the Acts of John contributed much to medieval iconography; it is the source of the idea that John became an apostle at a young age. One of John's familiar attributes is the chalice, often with a snake emerging from it. According to one legend from the Acts of John, John was challenged to drink a cup of poison to demonstrate the power of his faith, and thanks to God's aid the poison was rendered harmless. The chalice can also be interpreted with reference to the Last Supper, or to the words of Christ to John and James: "My chalice indeed you shall drink" (Matthew 20:23). According to the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, some authorities believe that this symbol was not adopted until the 13th century. There was also a legend that John was at some stage boiled in oil and miraculously preserved. Another common attribute is a book or a scroll, in reference to his writings. John the Evangelist is symbolically represented by an eagle, one of the creatures envisioned by Ezekiel (1:10) and in the Book of Revelation (4:7).
On the Feast of St. John the Evangelist (the third day of Christmas) in 1665, for example, peranda presented two concertos in the morning service, his O Jesu mi dulcissime and Verbum caro factum est, and presented his Jesus dulcis, Jesu pie and Atendite fideles at Vespers.
The Basilica of Saint John the Evangelist is a Catholic parish church and minor basilica in Stamford, Connecticut, USA. It was founded in the 1850s and a new church was built in 1868 to meet the increasing needs of the congregation. It serves a multi-lingual congregation, including descendants of the original congregation.Church of St John the Evangelist, Cheetham Hill
The Church of St John the Evangelist is in Waterloo Road, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of North Manchester, the archdeaconry of Manchester, and the diocese of Manchester. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building.Church of St John the Evangelist, Poulton-le-Fylde
The Church of St John the Evangelist is a Roman Catholic church in the market town of Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire, England. The current church replaced an earlier chapel which lies a few metres to the north-east. The former chapel, with its attached presbytery, has been designated a Grade II listed building by English Heritage.
Completed in 1813, St John's was the first Roman Catholic chapel to be built in Poulton-le-Fylde, a parish which had remained sympathetic to Catholicism after the Reformation. The box-shaped rendered brick building, with slate roofs, was replaced by a larger church in 1912.John the Apostle
John the Apostle (Aramaic: יוחנן שליחא Yohanān Shliḥā; Hebrew: יוחנן בן זבדי Yohanan ben Zavdi; Koine Greek: Ἰωάννης; Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes; c. AD 6 – c. 100) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης. Generally listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome or Joanna. His brother was James, who was another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder and the Beloved Disciple, and testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and that he was the only one to die of natural causes. The traditions of most Christian denominations have held that John the Apostle is the author of several books of the New Testament.Society of St. John the Evangelist
The Society of St John the Evangelist (SSJE) is an Anglican religious order for men. The members live under a rule of life and, at profession, make monastic vows of poverty, celibacy and obedience.
SSJE was founded in 1866 at Cowley, Oxford, England, by Richard Meux Benson, a priest in the Church of England, and Charles Chapman Grafton. Known colloquially as the Cowley Fathers, the society was the first stable religious community of men to be established in the Anglican Communion since the English Reformation. For many years the society had houses in England, Scotland, India, South Africa, Japan, and Canada.St. Joachim and St. John the Evangelist's Church (Beacon, New York)
The Church of St. Joachim and St. John the Evangelist is a Roman Catholic parish church under the authority of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, located in Beacon, Dutchess County, New York. It was established after a parish mergers of the Church of St. Joachim, (Beacon, New York) and St. John the Evangelist (Beacon, New York). The merged parishes share a pastor, clergy and administrative staff, and the two church buildings continued to be used for worship.St. John the Evangelist's Church (Pawling)
The Church of St. John the Evangelist is a Roman Catholic parish church under the authority of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, located in Pawling, Dutchess County, New York.
It was established as a mission of Immaculate Conception Church of Amenia in 1869, and elevated to parish status in 1885.St. John the Evangelist Catholic Church (Indianapolis, Indiana)
Saint John the Evangelist Catholic Church is a Roman Catholic parish of the Archdiocese of Indianapolis in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. The parish's origins date to 1837, when it was first named Holy Cross parish. In 1850 it was renamed Saint John the Evangelist parish, and is the oldest Catholic parish in the city and in Marion County, Indiana. Considered the mother of the Catholic parishes in Indianapolis, it played an important role in development of the Catholic Church in the city. Saint John's Church served as the pro-cathedral of the diocese from 1878 until 1906; its rectory served as the bishop's residence and chancery from 1878 until 1892. In 1900 the church served as the site of first episcopal consecration held in Indianapolis.
Although many considered Saint John's a diocesan cathedral, it was never officially named as such. Saint Francis Xavier Cathedral remained the official cathedral and Vincennes, Indiana, as the see city for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, until March 28, 1898, when the episcopal see was transferred to Indianapolis and became the Diocese of Indianapolis. Diocesan functions continued to be held at Saint John's until Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral was built in 1906. Saint John's rectory continued to house the diocesan chancery until 1968, and served as the metropolitan tribunal for the diocese until 1982. Saint John's Church and rectory were placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
The present-day Saint John's Church, the parish's third and the second one built on the Georgia Street property, is the main structure in a group of parish buildings on the southwest corner of Georgia Street and Capitol Avenue. Diedrich A. Bohlen, principal and founder of the Indianapolis architectural firm of D. A. Bohlen and Son, designed the rectory (1863), church (1867–71), and a rectory addition (1878). Bohlen's son, Oscar, designed the twin spires and supervised their construction in 1893. The red-brick church has an eclectic style, including elements of French Gothic Revival and American Romanesque Revival architecture. The sanctuary has a seating capacity of 3,000. It was the largest church in Indiana when the cornerstone was laid in 1867; it was dedicated on July 2, 1871.St. John the Evangelist Church (Manhattan)
The Church of St. John the Evangelist is a Roman Catholic parish church in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, located at 355 East 55th Street at First Avenue, Manhattan, New York City.St John's Church, Blackpool
The parish church of Blackpool Saint John the Evangelist, or St John's Blackpool, is an Anglican church in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. It was completed in 1878 and is a Grade II listed building. A church was built on the site in 1821 and was replaced by the current building to accommodate a larger congregation. The church was designed by Garlick, Park and Sykes in the Early English style and has been restored and renovated in 1986 and from 2000–2006. St John's is known as the parish church of Blackpool, and is an active parish church in the Diocese of Blackburn which is within the ecclesiastical province of York. It is in the Archdeaconry of Lancaster and the Deanery of Blackpool.St John the Evangelist's Church, Alvanley
St John the Evangelist's Church is in the village of Alvanley, Cheshire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Frodsham. Its benefice is united with that of St John the Evangelist, Manley. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. It is described by the authors of the Buildings of England series as "a building of some character".St John the Evangelist's Church, Byley
St John the Evangelist's Church is in the small village of Byley, Cheshire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Middlewich. Its benefice is combined with that of St Michael and All Angels, Middlewich. The architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner regarded it as being "really very ugly" with a "minimum of motifs, but a maximum of materials".St John the Evangelist's Church, Gressingham
St John the Evangelist's Church is in the village of Gressingham, Lancashire, England. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Tunstall, the archdeaconry of Lancaster and the diocese of Blackburn. Its benefice is combined with those of St Margaret, Hornby, St John the Baptist, Arkholme, and St Michael the Archangel, Whittington-in-Lonsdale.St John the Evangelist's Church, Lancaster
St John the Evangelist's Church is a redundant Anglican church in North Road, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust.St John the Evangelist's Church, Norley
St John the Evangelist's Church stands to the west of the village of Norley, Cheshire, England. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Frodsham. Its benefice is combined with those of Christ Church, Crowton, and St John the Evangelist, Kingsley.St John the Evangelist's Church, Sandiway
St John the Evangelist's Church is in the village of Sandiway, Cheshire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church of Sandiway and Cuddington in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Middlewich. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.St John the Evangelist's Church, Warrington
St John the Evangelist's Church is in Walton, Warrington, Cheshire, England. It was built as a private estate church towards the end of the 19th century but is now an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Great Budworth. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building.St John the Evangelist's Church, Winsford
St John the Evangelist's Church is in Over, Winsford, Cheshire, England. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Middlewich.St John the Evangelist Church, Wallerawang
St John the Evangelist Church is a heritage-listed former Aboriginal land, squatting run, and farm village and now dual-denomination Anglican and Presbyterian church located at Main Street, Wallerawang, City of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Edmund Blacket and Blacket and Sons, and built from 1880 to 1881 by George Donald. It is also known as St. John the Evangelist Church and Church of St. John the Evangelist. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 10 September 2004.
New Testament people
† Recognized as a prophet. ‡Status as a prophet is not universally recognized