John the Baptist

John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ancient Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,[5][7][8][9][10] Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ,[11] Arabic: يوحنا المعمدان[11][12][13]; Late 1st century BC – 28–36 AD) was a Jewish itinerant preacher[14] in the early first century AD. Other titles for John include John the Forerunner in Eastern Christianity and "the prophet John (Yaḥyā)" in Islam. To clarify the meaning of "Baptist", he is sometimes alternatively called John the Baptizer.[15][16][17]

John the Baptist is mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus[18] and revered as a major religious figure[19] in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith,[20] and Mandaeism. He is called a prophet by all of these faiths, and is honored as a saint in many Christian traditions. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself[21] and Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus,[22] since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified as the spiritual successor of the prophet Elijah.[23] According to the New Testament John the Baptist was Jesus Christ's cousin.[24]

Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism,[25] although no direct evidence substantiates this.[26] John used baptism as the central symbol or sacrament[27] of his messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus[28][29] and some scholars believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John.[30][31][32] The New Testament texts in which John is mentioned portray him as rejecting this idea, although several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John.[33]

John was sentenced to death and subsequently beheaded by Herod Antipas sometime between 28 and 36 AD after John rebuked him for divorcing his wife, Phasaelis, and unlawfully taking Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip I.

John the Baptist
Jan van Eyck 037
Prophet
BornLate 1st century BC[1]
Herodian Judea, the Levant
Died28–36 AD[2][3][4][5][6]
Machaerus, Perea, the Levant
Venerated inChristianity
Islam
Mandaeism
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrine
Feast24 June (Nativity),
29 August (Beheading),
7 January (Synaxis,
Eastern Orthodox),
2 Thout (Coptic Orthodox Church)
AttributesRed Martyr, Camel-skin robe, cross, lamb, scroll with words "Ecce Agnus Dei", platter with own head, pouring water from hands or scallop shell
Patronagesee #Commemoration

Gospel narratives

John the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels and the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes. The Synoptic Gospels (Mark, Matthew and Luke) describe John baptising Jesus; in the Gospel of John this is implied in John 1:32–1:34.

In Mark

Brueghel l'Ancien - La Prédication de Saint Jean-Baptiste
The Preaching of St. John the Baptist by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah (in fact, a conflation of texts from Isaiah, Malachi and Exodus)[34] about a messenger being sent ahead, and a voice crying out in the wilderness. John is described as wearing clothes of camel's hair, living on locusts and wild honey. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, and says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, but with the Holy Spirit.

Jesus comes to John, and is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how; as he emerges from the water, the heavens open and the Holy Spirit descends on him 'like a dove'. A voice from heaven then says, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased." (Mark 1:11)

Later in the gospel there is an account of John's death. It is introduced by an incident where the Tetrarch Herod Antipas, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It then explains that John had rebuked Herod for marrying Herodias, the ex-wife of his brother (named here as Philip). Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who 'liked to listen' to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a 'righteous and holy man'.

The account then describes how Herod's daughter Herodias (NRSV; other translations refer to the girl as the daughter of Herodias) dances before Herod, who is pleased and offers her anything she asks for in return. When the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, and his head is delivered to her, at her request, on a plate. John's disciples take the body away and bury it in a tomb.(Mark 6:17–29)

There are a number of difficulties with this passage. The Gospel refers to Antipas as 'King'[35] and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod.[36] Although the wording clearly implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as "Herod's daughter, Herodias". Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is 'difficult', many scholars see this as the original version, corrected in later versions and in Matthew and Luke.[36][37][38] Josephus says that Herodias had a daughter by the name of Salome.

Scholars have speculated about the origins of the story. Since it shows signs of having been composed in Aramaic, which Mark apparently did not speak, he is likely to have got it from a Palestinian source.[39] There are a variety of opinions about how much actual historical material it contains, especially given the alleged factual errors.[40] Many scholars have seen the story of John arrested, executed, and buried in a tomb as a conscious foreshadowing of the fate of Jesus.[41]

In Matthew

Mattia Preti - San Giovanni Battista Predicazione
St. John the Baptist Preaching, c. 1665, by Mattia Preti

The Gospel of Matthew account begins with the same modified quotation from Isaiah,[42] moving the Malachi and Exodus material to later in the text, where it is quoted by Jesus.[43] The description of John is taken directly from Mark ("clothing of camel's hair with a leather belt around his waist, and his food was locusts and wild honey"), along with the proclamation that one was coming who would baptise with the Holy Spirit "and fire".(Matthew 3:1–12)

Unlike Mark, Matthew describes John as critical of Pharisees and Sadducees and as preaching "the kingdom of heaven is at hand" and a "coming judgment".

Matthew shortens the account of the beheading of John, and adds two elements: that Herod Antipas wants John dead, and that the death is reported to Jesus by his disciples.[44] Matthew's approach is to shift the focus away from Herod and onto John as a prototype of Jesus. Where Mark has Herod killing John reluctantly and at Herodias' insistence, Matthew describes him as wanting John dead.[45]

In Luke and Acts

InfantJesus JohnBaptist
John the Baptist (right) with child Jesus, in the painting The Holy Children with a Shell by Bartolomé Esteban Perez Murillo

The Gospel of Luke adds an account of John's infancy, introducing him as the miraculous son of Zechariah, an old man, and his wife Elizabeth, who was past menopause and therefore unable to have children.[46][47] According to this account, the birth of John was foretold by the angel Gabriel to Zechariah, while he was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem. Since he is described as a priest of the course of Abijah and Elizabeth as one of the daughters of Aaron,[48] this would make John a descendant of Aaron on both his father's and mother's side.[49] On the basis of this account, the Catholic as well as the Anglican and Lutheran liturgical calendars placed the feast of the Nativity of John the Baptist on June 24, six months before Christmas.[50]

Elizabeth is described as a "relative" of Mary, the mother of Jesus in Luke 1:36. There is no mention of a family relationship between John and Jesus in the other Gospels, and Raymond E. Brown has described it as "of dubious historicity".[51] Géza Vermes has called it "artificial and undoubtedly Luke's creation".[52] The many similarities between the Gospel of Luke story of the birth of John and the Old Testament account of the birth of Samuel suggest that Luke's account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are modeled on that of Samuel.[53]

Post-nativity

Unique to the Gospel of Luke, John the Baptist explicitly teaches charity, baptizes tax-collectors, and advises soldiers.

The text briefly mentions that John is imprisoned and later beheaded by Herod, but the Gospel of Luke lacks the story of a step-daughter dancing for Herod and requesting John's head.

The Book of Acts portrays some disciples of John becoming followers of Jesus Acts 18:24–19:6 a development not reported by the gospels except for the early case of Andrew, Simon Peter's brother John 1:35–42

In the Gospel of John

The fourth gospel describes John the Baptist as "a man sent from God" who "was not the light", but "came as a witness, to bear witness to the light, so that through him everyone might believe".[54] John clearly denies being the Christ or Elijah or 'the prophet', instead describing himself as the "voice of one crying in the wilderness".[55]

Upon literary analysis, it is clear that John is the "testifier and confessor par excellence", particularly when compared to figures like Nicodemus.[56]

Jesus's baptism is implied but not depicted. Unlike the other gospels, it is John himself who testifies to seeing "the Spirit come down from heaven like a dove and rest on him". John explicitly announces that Jesus is the one "who baptizes with the Holy Spirit" and John even professes a "belief that he is the Son of God" and "the Lamb of God".

The Gospel of John reports that Jesus' disciples were baptizing and that a debate broke out between some of the disciples of John and another Jew about purification.[57] In this debate John argued that Jesus "must become greater," while he (John) "must become less"[58] (Latin Vulgate: illum oportet crescere me autem minui).

The Gospel of John then points out that Jesus' disciples were baptizing more people than John.[59] Later, the Gospel relates that Jesus regarded John as "a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light".[60]

Comparative analysis

Simon J. Joseph has argued that the Gospel demotes the historical John by painting him only as a prophetic forerunner to Jesus whereas his ministry actually complemented Jesus'.[61]

The prophecy of Isaiah

Although Mark's Gospel implies that the arrival of John the Baptist is the fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah, the words quoted ("I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way – a voice of one calling in the wilderness, 'Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.'") are actually a composite of texts from Isaiah, Malachi and the Book of Exodus. (Matthew and Luke drop the first part of the reference.)[34]

Baptism of Jesus

The gospels differ on the details of the Baptism. In Mark and Luke, Jesus himself sees the heavens open and hears a voice address him personally, saying, "You are my dearly loved son; you bring me great joy". They do not clarify whether others saw and heard these things. Although other incidents where the "voice came out of heaven" are recorded in which, for the sake of the crowds, it was heard audibly, John did say in his witness that he did see the spirit coming down "out of heaven". John 12:28–30, John 1:32

In Matthew, the voice from heaven does not address Jesus personally, saying instead "This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased."

In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend as a dove, testifying about the experience as evidence of Jesus's status.

John's knowledge of Jesus

John's knowledge of Jesus varies across gospels. In the Gospel of Mark, John preaches of a coming leader, but shows no signs of recognizing that Jesus is this leader. In Matthew, however, John immediately recognizes Jesus and John questions his own worthiness to baptize Jesus. In both Matthew and Luke, John later dispatches disciples to question Jesus about his status, asking "Are you he who is to come, or shall we look for another?" In Luke, John is a familial relative of Jesus whose birth was foretold by Gabriel. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend like a dove and he explicitly preaches that Jesus is the Son of God.

John and Elijah

The Gospels vary in their depiction of John's relationship to Elijah. Matthew and Mark describe John's attire in a way reminiscent of the description of Elijah in 2 Kings 1:8, who also wore a garment of hair and a leather belt. In Matthew, Jesus explicitly teaches that John is "Elijah who was to come" (Matt. 11:14 – see also Matt. 17:11–13); many Christian theologians have taken this to mean that John was Elijah's successor. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist explicitly denies being Elijah.[62] In the annunciation narrative in Luke, an angel appears to Zechariah, John's father, and tells him that John "will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God," and that he will go forth "in the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:16–17)."

In Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews

An account of John the Baptist is found in all extant manuscripts of the Antiquities of the Jews (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by Flavius Josephus (37–100):[63]

Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's [Antipas's] army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God's displeasure to him.[64]

According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for the defeat Herod suffered. Some have claimed that this passage indicates that John died near the time of the destruction of Herod's army in 36 AD. However, in a different passage, Josephus states that the end of Herod's marriage with Aretas' daughter (after which John was killed) was only the beginning of hostilities between Herod and Aretas, which later escalated into the battle.[65]

Divergences between the passage's presentation and the biblical accounts of John include baptism for those whose souls have already been "purified beforehand by righteousness" is for purification of the body, not general repentance of sin (Mark 1:4).[66] Biblical scholar John Dominic Crossan differentiates between Josephus's account of John and Jesus, saying, "John had a monopoly, but Jesus had a franchise." To get baptized, Crossan writes, you went only to John; to stop the movement one only needed to stop John (therefore his movement ended with his death). Jesus invited all to come and see how he and his companions had already accepted the government of God, entered it and were living it. Such a communal praxis was not just for himself, but could survive without him, unlike John's movement.[67]

Relics

Nabi Yahya Mosque, Sebastia, c. 1920
Nabi Yahya Mosque, the traditional burial site in Sebastia, near Nablus, the West Bank, the Levant.

Matthew 14:12 records that "his disciples came and took away [John's] body and buried it". Theologian Joseph Benson refers to a belief that "it seems that [the body] had been thrown over the prison walls, without burial, probably by order of Herodias.[68]

The burial-place of John the Baptist was traditionally said to be at the Nabi Yahya Mosque (Saint John the Baptiste Mosque) in Sebastia in current Palestinian territories, and mention is made of his relics being honored there around the middle of the 4th century. The historians Rufinus and Theodoretus record that the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate around 362, the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria, where on 27 May 395, they were laid in the basilica newly dedicated to the Forerunner on the former site of the temple of Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and Saint Jerome bears witness to miracles being worked there.

What became of the head of John the Baptist is difficult to determine. Nicephorus[69] and Symeon Metaphrastes say that Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus (in accordance with Josephus). Other writers say that it was interred in Herod's palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine I, and thence secretly taken to Emesa where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 453. However, the decapitation cloth of Saint John is kept at the Aachen Cathedral. The Coptic Christian Orthodox Church also claim to hold the relics of Saint John the Baptist. These are to be found in a monastery in Lower Egypt between Cairo and Alexandria. It is possible, with permission from the monks, to see the original tomb where the remains were found.

Shrine of John the Baptist, Great Umayyid Mosque, Damascus
Shrine of John the Baptist in the Umayyad Mosque.
  • Several different locations claim to possess the severed head of John the Baptist. The current official place for the Catholic Church is the Shrine of Saint John the Baptiste (Nabi Yahya in Arabic) inside the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.[70] The place was visited by Pope John Paul II in 2001 who "paused for a minute's silent meditation at the tomb of St John the Baptist".[71] Previous to that the catholic Church used to believe that it was kept in the San Silvestro in Capite in Rome;[72] and then that it was held by the Knights Templar at Amiens Cathedral in France (brought home by Wallon de Sarton from the Fourth Crusade in Constantinople), at Antioch in Turkey (fate uncertain). Other traditions assume that it was in Residenz Museum in Munich, Germany (official residence of the Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1385 to 1918).[72] or even the parish church at Tenterden in Kent, where it was preserved up until the Reformation.
Armenian Chinsurah 2
A Calcutta Armenian kisses the hand of a priest of Saint John the Baptist, Chinsurah

Another obscure claim relates to the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, where, as patron saint of the town, the Baptist's head appears on the official coat-of-arms.[75] One legend (among others) bases the etymology of the town's place-name on "halig" (holy) and "fax" (face), claiming that a relic of the head, or face, of John the Baptist once existed in the town.[76]
Also, in 2010, bones were discovered in the ruins of a Bulgarian church in the St. John the Forerunner Monastery (4th–17th centuries) on the Black Sea island of St. Ivan and two years later, after DNA and radio carbon testing proved the bones belonged to a Middle Eastern man who lived in the 1st century AD, scientists said that the remains could conceivably have belonged to John the Baptist.[77][78] The remains, found in a reliquarium are presently kept in the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral in Sozopol.[77][79]

Religious views

Christianity

San Juan Bautista por Joan de Joanes
John the Baptist, by Juan de Juanes, c. 1560

Christians believe that John the Baptist had a specific role ordained by God as forerunner or precursor of Jesus, who was the foretold Messiah. The New Testament Gospels speak of this role. In Luke 1:17 the role of John is referred to as being "to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." In Luke 1:76 as "...thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways" and in Luke 1:77 as being "To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins."

There are several passages within the Old Testament which are interpreted by Christians as being prophetic of John the Baptist in this role. These include a passage in the Book of Malachi (Malachi 3:1) that refers to a prophet who would prepare the way of the Lord:

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.

— Malachi 3:1[80]

and also at the end of the next chapter in Malachi 4:5–6 where it says,

Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.

The Jews of Jesus' day expected Elijah to come before the Messiah; indeed, some present day Jews continue to await Elijah's coming as well, as in the Cup of Elijah the Prophet in the Passover Seder. This is why the disciples ask Jesus in Matthew 17:10, 'Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?' The disciples are then told by Jesus that Elijah came in the person of John the Baptist,

Jesus replied, "To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands." Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist.

— Matthew 17:11–13

(see also 11:14: "...if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah who was to come.")

These passages are applied to John in the Synoptic Gospels.[81][82][83] But where Matthew specifically identifies John the Baptist as Elijah's spiritual successor (Matthew 11.14, 17.13), the gospels of Mark and Luke are silent on the matter. The Gospel of John states that John the Baptist denied that he was Elijah.

Now this was John's testimony when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not deny, but confessed freely, "I am not the Christ." They asked him, "Then who are you? Are you Elijah?" He said, "I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" He answered, "No."

— John 1:19–21

Influence on Paul

Many scholars believe there was contact between the early church in the Apostolic Age and what is called the "Qumran-Essene community".[84] The Dead Sea Scrolls were found at Qumran, which the majority of historians and archaeologists identify as an Essene settlement.[85] John the Baptist is thought to have been either an Essene or "associated" with the community at Khirbet Qumran. According to the Book of Acts, Paul met some "disciples of John" in Ephesus.[86]

Due to influence of Qumranic terminology and ideas in Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, some scholars believe that the "disciples" mentioned in Acts 19:1–7 were disciples of John the Baptist. This view, which assumes that John was an Essene, is debated by scholars. While John the Baptist practiced baptism, the Essenes used ritual washing, also called ablution, as a form of spiritual purification.[84]

Catholic Church

St johns head
A 'Head of St John', in Rome
St John the Baptists tomb
Tomb of Saint John the Baptist at a Coptic monastery in Lower Egypt. The bones of Saint John the Baptist were said to have been found here.

The Catholic Church commemorates Saint John the Baptist on two feast days:

According to Frederick Holweck, at the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to his mother Elizabeth, as recounted in Luke 1:39–57, John, sensing the presence of his Jesus, upon the arrival of Mary, leaped in the womb of his mother; he was then cleansed from original sin and filled with the grace of God.[87] In her Treatise of Prayer, Saint Catherine of Siena includes a brief altercation with the Devil regarding her fight due to the Devil attempting to lure her with vanity and flattery. Speaking in the first person, Catherine responds to the Devil with the following words:

... humiliation of yourself, and you answered the Devil with these words: 'Wretch that I am! John the Baptist never sinned and was sanctified in his mother's womb. And I have committed so many sins ...

— Catherine of Siena, A Treatise of Prayer, 1370.[88][89]

Eastern Christianity

John the Baptist by Prokopiy Chirin (1620s, GTG)
Eastern Orthodox icon John the Baptist – the Angel of the Desert (Stroganov School, 1620s) Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

The Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox faithful believe that John was the last of the Old Testament prophets, thus serving as a bridge between that period of revelation and the New Covenant. They also teach that, following his death, John descended into Hades and there once more preached that Jesus the Messiah was coming, so he was the Forerunner of Christ in death as he had been in life. Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches will often have an icon of Saint John the Baptist in a place of honor on the iconostasis, and he is frequently mentioned during the Divine Services. Every Tuesday throughout the year is dedicated to his memory.

The Eastern Orthodox Church remembers Saint John the Forerunner on six separate feast days, listed here in order in which they occur during the church year (which begins on September 1):

  • 23 September – Conception of Saint John the Forerunner[90]
  • 7 January – The Synaxis of Saint John the Forerunner. This is his main ml day, immediately after Theophany on January 6 (January 7 also commemorates the transfer of the relic of the right hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople in 956)
  • 24 February – First and Second Finding of the Head of Saint John the Forerunner
  • 25 May – Third Finding of the Head of Saint John the Forerunner
  • 24 June – Nativity of Saint John the Forerunner
  • 29 August – The Beheading of Saint John the Forerunner, a day of strict fast and abstinence from meat and dairy products and foods containing meat or dairy products

In addition to the above, 5 September is the commemoration of Zechariah and Elizabeth, Saint John's parents. The Russian Orthodox Church observes 12 October as the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina (1799).

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon church) teaches that modern revelation confirms the biblical account of John and also makes known additional events in his ministry. According to this belief, John was "ordained by the angel of God" when he was eight days old "to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews" and to prepare a people for the Lord. Latter-day Saints also believe that "he was baptized while yet in his childhood."[91]

Joseph Smith said: "Let us come into New Testament times – so many are ever praising the Lord and His apostles. We will commence with John the Baptist. When Herod's edict went forth to destroy the young children, John was about six months older than Jesus, and came under this hellish edict, and Zecharias caused his mother to take him into the mountains, where he was raised on locusts and wild honey. When his father refused to disclose his hiding place, and being the officiating high priest at the Temple that year, was slain by Herod's order, between the porch and the altar, as Jesus said."[92][93]

The Mormon church teaches that John the Baptist appeared on the banks of the Susquehanna River near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery on May 15, 1829, and ordained them to the Aaronic Priesthood.[94][95] According to the Church's dispensational view of religious history, John's ministry has operated in three dispensations: he was the last of the prophets under the law of Moses; he was the first of the New Testament prophets; and he was sent to confirm the Aaronic Priesthood in our day (the dispensation of the fulness of times). Latter-day Saints believe John's ministry was foretold by two prophets whose teachings are included in the Book of Mormon: Lehi[96] and his son Nephi.[97][98]

Gnosticism

In Gnosticism, John the Baptist was a "personification" of the Old Testament prophet Elijah. Elijah did not know the True God (as opposed to the Abrahamic God), and thus had to be reincarnated in Gnostic theology. As predicted by the Old Testament prophet Malachi, Elijah must "come first" to herald the coming of Jesus Christ. Modern anthroposophy concurs with the idea that the Baptist was a reincarnation of Elijah, (cf. Mark 9:11–13),[99] Matthew 11:13–14,[100] Luke 7:27[101] although John the Baptist in the Gospel of John explicitly denies being linked to Elijah (John 1:21).[102][103]

Syrian-Egyptian Gnosticism

Among the early Judeo-Christian Gnostics the Ebionites held that John, along with Jesus and James the Just – all of whom they revered – were vegetarians.[104][105][106][107][108][109] Epiphanius of Salamis records that this group had amended their Gospel of Matthew, known today as the Gospel of the Ebionites, to change where John eats "locusts" to read "honey cakes" or "manna".[110][111]

Mandaeans

John the Baptist is considered the chief prophet of the Mandaeans, and plays a large part in some of their writings,[112] including the Ginza Rba and the Draša D-Iahia (The Mandaean Book of John). They view John as the only true Messiah, and are opposed to Jesus.[113] The Mandaean scriptures state: "If the carpenter [Jesus] has joined together the god, who then has joined together the carpenter?"[114]

Islam

John is also honored as a Nabi (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) as Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā (يَـحـيٰى بن زَكَـرِيّا)[115]), or "Jehiah, son of Zechariah", or simply Yaḥyā (Arabic: يحيى‎). He is believed by Muslims to have been a witness to the word of God, and a prophet who would herald the coming of Jesus.[116] His father Zechariah was also an Islamic prophet. Islamic tradition maintains that John was one of the prophets whom Muhammad met on the night of the Mi'raj,[117] his ascension through the Seven Heavens. It is said that he met John and Jesus in the second heaven, where Muhammad greeted his two brothers before ascending with archangel Gabriel to the third heaven. John's story was also told to the Abyssinian king during the Muslim refugees' Migration to Abyssinia.[118] According to the Qur'an, John was one on whom God sent peace on the day that he was born and the day that he died.[119]

Quran

In the Quran, God frequently mentions Zechariah's continuous praying for the birth of a son. Zechariah's wife, mentioned in the New Testament as Elizabeth, was barren and therefore the birth of a child seemed impossible.[120] As a gift from God, Zechariah (or Zakaria) was given a son by the name of "Yaḥya", a name specially chosen for this child alone. In accordance with Zechariah's prayer, God made John and Jesus, who according to exegesis was born six months later,[121] renew the message of God, which had been corrupted and lost by the Israelites. As the Quran says:

(His prayer was answered): "O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We conferred distinction before."

He said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?"

He said: "So (it will be) thy Lord saith, 'that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!'"

(Zakarya) said: "O my Lord! give me a Sign." "Thy Sign," was the answer, "Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights."

— Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), verse 7[122]

John was exhorted to hold fast to the Scripture and was given wisdom by God while still a child.[123] He was pure and devout, and walked well in the presence of God. He was dutiful towards his parents and he was not arrogant or rebellious. John's reading and understanding of the scriptures, when only a child, surpassed even that of the greatest scholars of the time.[120] Muslim exegesis narrates that Jesus sent John out with twelve disciples,[124] who preached the message before Jesus called his own disciples.[121] The Quran says:

"O Yaḥya! take hold of the Book with might": and We gave him Wisdom even as a youth,

— Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), ayah 12[123]

John was a classical prophet,[125] who was exalted high by God, for his bold denouncing of all things sinful. Furthermore, the Qur'an speaks of John's gentle pity and love and his humble attitude towards life, for which he was granted the Purity of Life:

And piety as from Us, and purity: He was devout,
And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious.
So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!

— Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), ayah 13–15[119]

John is also honored highly in Sufism as well as Islamic mysticism, primarily because of the Quran's description of John's chastity and kindness.[126] Sufis have frequently applied commentaries on the passages on John in the Quran, primarily concerning the God-given gift of "Wisdom" which he acquired in youth as well as his parallels with Jesus. Although several phrases used to describe John and Jesus are virtually identical in the Quran, the manner in which they are expressed is different.[127]

Name

It has been claimed that the Quran is mistaken in saying that John the Baptist was the first to receive this name (Quran 19:7–10), since the name Yoḥanan occurs many times before John the Baptist.[128] However, according to Islamic scholars, "Yaḥyā" is not the same name as "Yoḥanan".[129] Despite this, "Yaḥyā" is etymologically the same name as the Biblical figure Yᵉchîyâh (English rendering: "Jehiah") of the Books of the Chronicles.[130] Therefore, the Qur'an in Surah 19:7 is likely not claiming that "no one was ever given the name Yahya before this child". Rather, this Qur'an verse is a clear reference to the Biblical account of the miraculous naming of John, which accounted that he was almost named "Zacharias"[131][132] (Greek: Ζαχαρίας)[133] after his father's name, as no one in the lineage of his father Zacharias (also known as Zechariah) had been named "John" ("Yohanan"/"Yoannes") before him.[134]

The exegetes frequently connected the name with the meaning of "to quicken" or "to make alive" in reference to John's mother's barrenness, which was cured by God, as well as John's preaching, which, as Muslims believe, "made alive" the faith of Israel.[135] This is the same meaning as the Hebrew name Yᵉchîyâh (יְחִיָּה; "Jehiah") (lit.: "YHWH lives").[130] Yᵉchîyâh was also the name of one of the doorkeepers for the Ark of the Covenant during the reign of King David in the Bible.[136] Because of this, it is supposed that this name "Yaḥyā" was commonly used in the 6th–7th centuries CE by Arab Christians as an allegorical honorific of John the Baptist (Arabic: يُوحَنَّا الْمَعْمَدَانُ, Yūḥanna al-Mamadan), who considered him to be a "doorkeeper" for the "Ark of the New Covenant", Jesus Christ (Arabic: يَسُوعَ الْمَسِيحِ, Yasū'u l-Masīḥ).[137]

The Quran also mentions a root used in the Hebrew name, 'Yohanan' יוֹחָנָן‎ (Yahweh is gracious). Sura Maryam: 12–13 describes the virtues of Yahya: وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا – وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَزَكَاةً (And We gave him judgement, while yet a boy – And affection from Us, and purity.)

Bahá'í view

Bahá'ís consider John to have been a prophet of God who like all other prophets was sent to instill the knowledge of God, promote unity among the people of the world, and to show people the correct way to live.[138] There are numerous quotations in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh, Founder of the Bahá'í Faith mentioning John the Baptist. He is regarded by Bahá'ís as a lesser Prophet.[20] Bahá'u'lláh claimed that his Forerunner, the Báb, was the spiritual return of John the Baptist. In his letter to Pope Pius IX, Bahá'u'lláh wrote:

O followers of the Son! We have once again sent John unto you, and He, verily, hath cried out in the wilderness of the Bayán: O peoples of the world! Cleanse your eyes! The Day whereon ye can behold the Promised One and attain unto Him hath drawn nigh! O followers of the Gospel! Prepare the way! The Day of the advent of the Glorious Lord is at hand! Make ready to enter the Kingdom. Thus hath it been ordained by God, He Who causeth the dawn to break.[139]

John is believed to have had the specific role of foretelling and preparing the way for Jesus. In condemning those who had 'turned aside' from him, Bahá'u'lláh, compared them to the followers of John the Baptist, who, he said, 'protested against Him Who was the Spirit (Jesus) saying: "The dispensation of John hath not yet ended; wherefore hast thou come?" Bahá'u'lláh believed that the Báb played the same role as John in preparing the people for his own coming. As such Bahá'u'lláh refers to the Báb as 'My Forerunner', the Forerunner being a title that Christians reserve for John the Baptist.[140] However, Bahá'ís consider the Báb to be a greater Prophet (Manifestation of God) and thus possessed of a far greater station than John the Baptist.

Unification Church

The Unification Church teaches that God intended John to help Jesus during his public ministry in Judea. In particular, John should have done everything in his power to persuade the Jewish people that Jesus was the Messiah. He was to become Jesus' main disciple and John's disciples were to become Jesus' disciples. Unfortunately John didn't follow Jesus and continued his own way of baptizing people. Moreover, John also denied that he was Elijah when queried by several Jewish leaders John 1:21 contradicting Jesus who stated John is Elijah who was to come, Matthew 11:14. Many Jews therefore, could not accept Jesus as the Messiah because John denied being Elijah, as the prophet's appearance was a prerequisite for the Messiah's arrival as stated in Malachi 4:5. According to the Unification Church, "John the Baptist was in the position of representing Elijah's physical body, making himself identical with Elijah from the standpoint of their mission."

Jesus stated in Matthew 11:11, "there has not risen one greater than John the Baptist," however, in referring to John's blocking the way of the Jews' understanding of himself as the Messiah, said "yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he." John's failure to follow Jesus became the chief obstacle to the fulfillment of Jesus' mission.[141][142][143]

Other scholarship

Inside of mainstream Christianity, various scholars and professionals have studied John the Baptist, particularly his relationship with Jesus of Nazareth, and have commented on the difficulties they found between the two men.

For example, as reported in The Christian Post, professor Candida Moss, of New Testament and early Christianity at the University of Notre Dame, who appeared in a documentary series "Finding Jesus, Faith Fact Forgery," noted John and Jesus become "de facto competitors in the ancient religious marketplace." Even after baptizing Jesus, John did not follow Jesus but maintained a separate ministry.

After John's death, Jesus' followers had to differentiate him from the executed prophet, "countering the prevalent idea that Jesus was actually John raised from the dead." Disciples present before Jesus indicated some people believed he was John the Baptist (Matthew 16:13–14).[144]

Michael H. Crosby, PhD, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA; Capuchin friar and priest; in his paper "Why Didn't John the Baptist Commit Himself to Jesus as a Disciple?," stated there was "no biblical evidence indicating that John the Baptist ever became a disciple of Jesus." He conveys that John's concept of what a messiah should be, was in contrast to how Jesus presented himself, and kept him from becoming a disciple of Jesus. Crosby identifies 25 points in the Gospel accounts that lead to the conclusion that John's effectiveness as a "Precursor" in encouraging others to follow Jesus was very minimal, since the scriptures record only two of his own followers became Jesus’ disciples. Crosby noted, while many others believed Jesus' miracles, there is no record of these "signs" convincing John, who continued a separate baptismal ministry, creating disciples resulting in a community that still exists in parts of the Middle East.[145]

Crosby stated "an unbiased reading about John the Baptist "leaves us with the figure of John the Baptist as a reformist Jew who also may have wanted desperately to become a believer but was unable to become convinced of Jesus’ messiahship."[146]

Robert L. Deffinbaugh, graduate from Dallas Theological Seminary pastor/teacher and elder at Community Bible Chapel in Richardson, Texas, wrote a paper "John's Problem with Jesus (Luke 7:18–35)." He examines the incident where the imprisoned John the Baptist, after receiving news about Jesus, sends two of his disciples asking Jesus if he were the Messiah or another should be sought.

John is not asking an incidental question, but instead is issuing a public challenge precipitating a crises since the message was presented to Jesus while he was with a gathered crowd. The implication was, if Jesus failed to answer the question satisfactorily "we will look for someone else to be the Messiah." Deffinbaugh conveys John might have been looking for inauguration of the kingdom of God in a more dramatic way than what Jesus was implementing, as John had previously warned that "Messiah would come with fire." Jesus answered the question by evidence of his miracle works and teachings which themselves gave evidence of his identity, "The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is preached to the poor." (Luke 7:22).[147]

In art

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre-Cécile - The Beheading of St John the Baptist - c. 1869
Puvis de Chavannes, The Beheading of St John the Baptist, c. 1869
San juan Wood Sculture By Santiago Martinez
Wood Sculpture of John The Baptist's Head by Santiago Martinez Delgado.
Allori C San Giovanni
Cristofano Allori's John the Baptist in the desert

The beheading of Saint John the Baptist is a standard theme in Christian art,[10] in which John's head is often depicted on a platter, which represents the request of Herod's stepdaughter, Salome.[148] He is also depicted as an ascetic wearing camel hair, with a staff and scroll inscribed Ecce Agnus Dei, or bearing a book or dish with a lamb on it.[14] In Orthodox icons, he often has angel's wings, since Mark 1:2 describes him as a messenger.[149]

The Baptism of Christ was one of the earliest scenes from the Life of Christ to be frequently depicted in Early Christian art, and John's tall, thin, even gaunt, and bearded figure is already established by the 5th century. Only he and Jesus are consistently shown with long hair from Early Christian times, when the apostles generally have trim classical cuts; in fact John is more consistently depicted in this way than Jesus. In Byzantine art the composition of the Deesis came to be included in every Eastern Orthodox church, as remains the case to this day. Here John and the Theotokos (Mary) flank a Christ Pantocrator and intercede for humanity; in many ways this is the equivalent of Western Crucifixions on roods and elsewhere, where John the Evangelist takes the place of John the Baptist (except in the idiosyncratic Isenheim Altarpiece). John the Baptist is very often shown on altarpieces designed for churches dedicated to him, or where the donor patron was named for him or there was some other connection of patronage – John was the patron saint of Florence, among many other cities, which means he features among the supporting saints in many important works.

A number of narrative scenes from his life were often shown on the predella of altarpieces dedicated to John, and other settings, notably the large series in grisaille fresco in the Chiostro dello Scalzo, which was Andrea del Sarto's largest work, and the frescoed Life by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel, both in Florence. There is another important fresco cycle by Filippo Lippi in Prato Cathedral. These include the typical scenes:[150] the Annunciation to Zechariah, John's birth, his naming by his father, the Visitation, John's departure for the desert, his preaching in the desert, the Baptism of Christ, John before Herod, the dance of Salome, and his beheading.

'De Gray' Hours (f.24.v) St John the Baptist
St John the Baptist, from a medieval book of hours

His birth, which unlike the Nativity of Jesus allowed a relatively wealthy domestic interior to be shown, became increasingly popular as a subject in the late Middle Ages, with depictions by Jan van Eyck in the Turin-Milan Hours and Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel being among the best known. His execution, a church feast-day, was often shown, and by the 15th-century scenes such as the dance of Salome became popular, sometimes, as in an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem, the interest of the artist is clearly in showing the life of Herod's court, given contemporary dress, as much as the martyrdom of the saint.[151] Salome bearing John's head on a platter equally became a subject for the Northern Renaissance taste for images of glamorous but dangerous women (Delilah, Judith and others),[152] and was often painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder and engraved by the Little Masters. These images remained popular into the Baroque, with Carlo Dolci painting at least three versions. John preaching, in a landscape setting, was a popular subject in Dutch art from Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his successors.

As a child (of varying age), he is sometimes shown from the 15th century in family scenes from the life of Christ such as the Presentation of Christ, the Marriage of the Virgin and the Holy Kinship. Leonardo da Vinci's versions of the Virgin of the Rocks were influential in establishing a Renaissance fashion for variations on the Madonna and Child that included John. Raphael in particular painted many compositions of the subject, such as the Alba Madonna, La belle jardinière, Aldobrandini Madonna, Madonna della seggiola, Madonna dell'Impannata, which were among his best-known works. John was also often shown by himself as an older child or adolescent, usually already wearing his distinctive dress and carrying a long thin wooden cross – another theme influenced by Leonardo, whose equivocal composition, reintroducing the camel-skin dress, was developed by Raphael Titian and Guido Reni among many others. Often he is accompanied by a lamb, especially in the many Early Netherlandish paintings which needed this attribute as he wore normal clothes. Caravaggio painted an especially large number of works including John, from at least five largely nude youths attributed to him, to three late works on his death – the great Execution in Malta, and two sombre Salomes with his head, one in Madrid, and one in London.

St John the Baptist Titular Statue of Xewkija Gozo, Malta
Statue of St John carved out of a blackberry tree by Pietro Paolo Azzopardi – 1845. Xewkija

Amiens cathedral, which holds one of the alleged heads of the Baptist, has a biographical sequence in polychrome relief, dating from the 16th century. This stresses the execution and the disposal of the saint's remains.

A remarkable Pre-Raphaelite portrayal is Christ in the House of His Parents by John Everett Millais. Here the Baptist is shown as a child, wearing a loin covering of animal skins, hurrying into Joseph's carpenter shop with a bowl of water to join Mary, Joseph, and Mary's mother Anne in soothing the injured hand of Jesus. Artistic interest enjoyed a considerable revival at the end of the 19th century with Symbolist painters such as Gustave Moreau and Puvis de Chavannes (National Gallery, London). Oscar Wilde's play Salome was illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley, giving rise to some of his most memorable images.

In poetry

The Italian Renaissance poet Lucrezia Tornabuoni chose John the Baptist as one of biblical figures on which she wrote poetry.[153]

In music

In film and television

John the Baptist has appeared in a number of screen adaptations of the life of Jesus. Actors who have played John include Robert Ryan in King of Kings (1961),[156] Mario Socrate in The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964),[157] Charlton Heston in The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965),[158] David Haskell in Godspell (1973),[159] Michael York in Jesus of Nazareth (1977),[160] and Andre Gregory in The Last Temptation of Christ (1988).[161]

In Game

Commemoration

Surp Garabed Vank (Hampikian, 1923)
According to Armenian tradition, the remains of John the Baptist were laid to rest by Gregory the Illuminator at the Saint Karapet Monastery.[162][163]
Ein Kerem Church of St John the Baptist by David Shankbone
The Catholic Church in Ein Kerem on the site where John the Baptist is said to have been born

Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of Jordan: his beheading is said to have taken place in Machaerus in central Jordan.

Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its capital city, San Juan. In 1521, the island was given its formal name, "San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico", following the custom of christening a town with its formal name and the name which Christopher Columbus had originally given the island. The names "San Juan Bautista" and "Puerto Rico" were eventually used in reference to both city and island, leading to a reversal in terminology by most inhabitants largely due to a cartographic error. By 1746, the city's name ("Puerto Rico") had become that of the entire island, while the name for the island ("San Juan Bautista") had become that of the city. The official motto of Puerto Rico also references the saint: Joannes Est Nomen Eius (Latin for "his name is John", from Luke 1:63).

He is also a patron saint of French Canada, and Newfoundland. The Canadian cities of St. John's, Newfoundland (1497) and Saint John, New Brunswick (1604) were both named in his honor. His feast day of June 24, celebrated officially in Quebec as the Fête Nationale du Québec, and in Newfoundland as Discovery Day.

In the United Kingdom, Saint John is the patron of Penzance, Cornwall. In Scotland, he is the patron saint of Perth, which used to be known as St. John's Toun of Perth. The main church in the city is still the medieval Kirk of St. John the Baptist and the city's professional football club is called St Johnstone F.C.

Also, on the night of June 23 on to the 24th, Saint John is celebrated as the patron saint of Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. An article from June 2004 in The Guardian remarked that "Porto's Festa de São João is one of Europe's liveliest street festivals, yet it is relatively unknown outside the country".[164]

He is also patron of the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, Malta, Florence, and Genoa, Italy. John is patron saint of Xewkija, Gozo, Malta, which remember him with a great feast on the Sunday nearest to June 24.

Calamba City, Laguna, Calumpit, Bulacan, Balayan and Lian in Batangas, Sipocot and San Fernando, Camarines Sur, Daet, Camarines Norte and San Juan, Metro Manila are among several places in the Philippines that venerate John as the town or city patron. A common practise of many Filipino fiestas in his honour is bathing and the dousing of people in memory of John's iconic act. The custom is similar in form to Songkran and Holi, and serves as a playful respite from the intense tropical heat. While famed for the Black Nazarene it enshrines, Quiapo Church in Manila is actually dedicated to Saint John.

He is also patron of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston, which covers the whole of South Carolina in the United States.

The Baptistines are the name given to a number of religious orders dedicated to the memory of John the Baptist.

Along with John the Evangelist, John the Baptist is claimed as a patron saint by the fraternal society of Free and Accepted Masons (better known as the Freemasons).[165]

In many Mediterranean countries, the summer solstice is dedicated to St. John. The associated ritual is very similar to Midsummer celebrations in the Anglo-Saxon tradition.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Luke 1:36 indicates that John was born about six months before Jesus, whose birth cannot be dated later than early in 4 AD, L. Morris, "John The Baptist", ed. Geoffrey W Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised (Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1938–1958), 1108.
  2. ^ Metzger, Bruce Manning (1993). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 283. ISBN 9780199743919. Herod beheaded John at Machaerus in 31 or 32 AD.
  3. ^ Metzger (2004). The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780195176100. Herod beheaded John at Machaerus in 31 or 32 AD.
  4. ^ Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty, pp. 268, 277.
  5. ^ a b Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub ISBN 9004172548 p. 380 – "33/34 AD Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 AD – death of John the Baptist"
  6. ^ "born 1st decade BC, Judaea, Palestine, near Jerusalem—died 28–36 AD; feast day June 24"- St. John the Baptist Encyclopædia Britannica online
  7. ^ "Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής :: Άγιος Ιωάννης Πρόδρομος και Βαπτιστής (Σύλληψη)". Saint.gr. September 23, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  8. ^ "H ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ : Επιτροπές της Ιεράς Συνόδου – Συνοδική Επιτροπή επί της Εκκλησιαστικής Τέχνης και Μουσικής". Ecclesia.gr. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  9. ^ παπα Γιώργης Δορμπαράκης (January 26, 2012). "ΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΕΙΝ: Η ΣΥΝΑΞΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΑΓΙΟΥ ΕΝΔΟΞΟΥ ΠΡΟΦΗΤΟΥ, ΠΡΟΔΡΟΜΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΠΤΙΣΤΟΥ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ (7 ΙΑΝΟΥΑΡΙΟΥ)". Pgdorbas.blogspot.com. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  10. ^ a b Wetterau, Bruce. World history. New York: Henry Holt and company. 1994.
  11. ^ a b "يوحنا المعمدان - St-Takla.org". st-takla.org.
  12. ^ "النبي السابق يوحنا المعمدان". Antioch.
  13. ^ "سيرة يوحنا المعمدان ابن زكريا الكاهن". www.thegrace.com.
  14. ^ a b Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3, article "John the Baptist, St"
  15. ^ Webb, Robert L. (2006-10-01) [1991]. John the Baptizer and Prophet: A Socio-historic Study. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock Publishers (published 29 September 2006). ISBN 9781597529860.
  16. ^ Sykes, Robert Henry (1982). Friend of the Bridegroom: Meditations in the Life of John the Baptizer. Everyday Publications, Inc. ISBN 9780888730527. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  17. ^ Mead, G.R.S. Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandaean John-Book. Forgotten Books. ISBN 9781605062105. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  18. ^ Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.5.2
  19. ^ Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper; "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268
  20. ^ a b Compilations (1983). Hornby, Helen (ed.). Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. p. 475. ISBN 978-81-85091-46-4.
  21. ^ Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.San Francisco: Harper; "Mark," pp. 51–161.
  22. ^ Meier, John (1994). Mentor, Message, and Miracles (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Vol. 2). 2. Anchor Bible. ISBN 978-0-385-46992-0.
  23. ^ Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. ISBN 1-55934-655-8 Matthew 17:12–13
  24. ^ https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+1%3A36&version=KJV
  25. ^ Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield; p. 382
  26. ^ Marshall, I. H.; Millard, A. R.; Packer, J. I., eds. (1988). "John the Baptist". New Bible Dictionary (Third ed.). IVP reference collection. ISBN 978-0-85110-636-6.
  27. ^ Edward Oliver James, Sacrament in Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/515366/sacrament
  28. ^ Charles M. Sennott, The body and the blood, Public Affairs Pub, 2003. p 234 Google Link
  29. ^ Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from Galilee. Mark Allan Powell, published by Westminster John Knox Press, p. 47 "Few would doubt the basic fact...Jesus was baptized by John"
  30. ^ Sanders, E.P. (1985) Jesus and Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press; p. 91
  31. ^ James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered (Eerdmans, 2003) p. 350.
  32. ^ Robert L. Webb, 'John the Baptist and his relationship to Jesus', in Bruce David Chilton, Craig Alan Evans, Studying the Historical Jesus:Evaluations of the State of Current Research (BRILL, 1998) p. 219.
  33. ^ Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield John 1:36–40
  34. ^ a b Carl R. Kazmierski, John the Baptist: Prophet and Evangelist (Liturgical Press, 1996) p. 31.
  35. ^ John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Mark (Liturgical Press, 2005) p. 195.
  36. ^ a b Florence Morgan Gillman (2003). Herodias: At Home in that Fox's Den. Liturgical Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-8146-5108-7.
  37. ^ Geoff R. Webb, Mark at the Threshold: Applying Bakhtinian Categories to Markan Characterisation, (BRILL, 2008) pp 110–11.
  38. ^ John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Mark (Liturgical Press, 2005) p. 198.
  39. ^ Florence Morgan Gillman, Herodias: At Home in that Fox's Den (Liturgical Press, 2003) p. 80.
  40. ^ Florence Morgan Gillman, Herodias: At Home in that Fox's Den (Liturgical Press, 2003) pp. 81–83.
  41. ^ Geoff R. Webb, Mark at the Threshold: Applying Bakhtinian Categories to Markan Characterisation, (Brill, 2008) p. 107.
  42. ^ "Isaiah 40.3 NRSV – A voice cries out: "In the wilderness". Bible Gateway.
  43. ^ Steve Moyise (September 1, 2011). Jesus and Scripture: Studying the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Baker Books. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-4412-3749-1.
  44. ^ Walter Wink (November 2006). John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-521-03130-1.
  45. ^ Robert Horton Gundry, Matthew: A Commentary on His Handbook for a Mixed Church Under Persecution (Eerdmans, 1994) p. 286.
  46. ^ Libby Ahluwalia, Understanding Philosophy of Religion (Folens, 2008), p. 180.
  47. ^ Just, Arthur A.; Oden, Thomas C. (2003), Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture – Luke: New Testament III, InterVarsity Press; p. 10. ISBN 978-0830814886 Luke 1:7
  48. ^ Luke 1:5
  49. ^ 'Aaron', In: Mills, Watson E. (ed.) (1998) Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. 5, Macon GA: Mercer University Press, ISBN 0-86554-299-6; p. 1
  50. ^ Englebert, Omer (1951). The Lives of the Saints. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 529. ISBN 978-1-56619-516-4.
  51. ^ Brown, Raymond Edward (1973), The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus, Paulist Press, p. 54
  52. ^ Vermes, Geza. The Nativity, p. 143.
  53. ^ Freed, Edwin D. (2001), The Stories of Jesus' Birth: a Critical Introduction Continuum International, pp. 87–90.
  54. ^ John 1:6–8
  55. ^ John 1:23, compare Isaiah 40:3
  56. ^ Vande Vrede, Keith (December 2014), Kostenberger, Andreas (ed.), "A Contrast Between Nicodemus and John the Baptist in the Gospel of John", Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 57 (4): 715–26, ISSN 0360-8808
  57. ^ John 3:22–36
  58. ^ John 3:30
  59. ^ John 4:2
  60. ^ John 5:35
  61. ^ Simon J. Joseph (2012). Jesus, Q, and the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Judaic Approach to Q. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-3-16-152120-1.
  62. ^ "Was John the Baptist really Elijah? | Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry". Carm.org. March 15, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  63. ^ "Josephus, Flavius." In: Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press
  64. ^ Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiqities 18. 5. 2. (Translation by William Whiston). Original Greek.
  65. ^ Hoehner, Harold W. (2010-08-10). Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. p. 101. ISBN 9780310877103.
  66. ^ Mark 1:4
  67. ^ Crossan, John Dominic (2007), God and Empire, London: HarperCollins, p. 117 ff
  68. ^ Benson's Commentary on Matthew 14, accessed 17 Jauuary 2017
  69. ^ Nicephorus, Ecclesiastical History I, ix. See Patrologia Graeca, cxlv.–cxlvii.
  70. ^ Lost Worlds: Knights Templar, July 10, 2006 video documentary on The History Channel, directed and written by Stuart Elliott
  71. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY – 7 – 2001: Thousands greet Pope in Syrian visit".
  72. ^ a b c Hooper, Simon (August 30, 2010). "Are these the bones of John the Baptist?". Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
  73. ^ "Hetq Online " Pilgrimage to the oldest Armenian Apostolic Church in India". Hetq.am. January 10, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  74. ^ "The Monastery of St. Macarius the Great". Stmacariusmonastery.org. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  75. ^ "Heraldry of the World; Civic heraldry of the United Kingdom; Halifax (Yorkshire)". Ralf Hartemink. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  76. ^ Roberts, Kai (19 June 2010). "The Holy Face of Halifax". Omnia Exeunt in Mysterium. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  77. ^ a b Ker Than (June 19, 2012). "John the Baptist's Bones Found?". National Geographic.
  78. ^ Moss, Candida. National Geographic: Search for the Head of John the Baptist. 19 April 2014.
  79. ^ Old Town Sozopol – Bulgaria's 'Rescued' Miracle and Its Modern Day Saviors. Sofia News Agency, October 10, 2011.
  80. ^ Malachi 3:1
  81. ^ Mat 3:3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
  82. ^ Mar 1:2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. Mar 1:3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
  83. ^ Luk 1:16–17 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
  84. ^ a b "Paul, Letters of". Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford University Press. 2008. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195084504.001.0001/acref-9780195084504-e-383 (inactive 2018-09-22). ISBN 978-0-19-508450-4.(subscription required)
  85. ^ "Essenes". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Oxford University Press. 2011. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195065121.001.0001/acref-9780195065121-e-354 (inactive 2018-09-22). ISBN 978-0-19-506512-1.(subscription required)
  86. ^ Acts 19:1–7
  87. ^ Holweck, Frederick. "Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 23 December 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  88. ^ Treatise of Prayer. Retrieved 1-15-2012.
  89. ^ The Dialogue of Saint Catherine of Siena. Retrieved 1-15-2012
  90. ^ In late antiquity this feast in some churches marked the beginning of the Ecclesiastical Year; see Archbishop Peter (L'Huiller) of New York and New Jersey, "Liturgical Matters: "The Lukan Jump"", in: Newspaper of the Diocese of New York and New Jersey, Fall 1992.
  91. ^ "Doctrine and Covenants 84:27–28". Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  92. ^ "Section Five: 1842–1843". Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  93. ^ Teaching of The Prophet Joseph Smith Section Five 1842–43, p. 261
  94. ^ [D&C 13]; D&C 27:7–8
  95. ^ Joseph Smith History 1:68–72
  96. ^ "1 Nephi 10:7–10". Archived from the original on June 24, 2012.
  97. ^ 1 Nephi 11:27
  98. ^ 2 Nephi 31:4-18
  99. ^ Mark 9:11–13
  100. ^ Matthew 11:13–14
  101. ^ Luke 7:27
  102. ^ John 1:21
  103. ^ Sergei Prokofieff, The Mystery of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist Turning Point of Time: An Esoteric Study, Temple Lodge Publishing 2005, ISBN 1-902636-67-8
  104. ^ J Verheyden, Epiphanius on the Ebionites, in The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian literature, eds Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry, ISBN 3-16-148094-5, p. 188 "The vegetarianism of John the Baptist and of Jesus is an important issue too in the Ebionite interpretation of the Christian life. "
  105. ^ Robert Eisenman (1997), James the Brother of Jesus, p. 240 – "John (unlike Jesus) was both a 'Rechabite' or 'Nazarite' and vegetarian", p. 264 – "One suggestion is that John ate 'carobs'; there have been others. Epiphanius, in preserving what he calls 'the Ebionite Gospel', rails against the passage there claiming that John ate 'wild honey' and 'manna-like vegetarian cakes dipped in oil. ... John would have been one of those wilderness-dwelling, vegetable-eating persons", p. 326 – "They [the Nazerini] ate nothing but wild fruit milk and honey – probably the same food that John the Baptist also ate.", p. 367 – "We have already seen how in some traditions 'carobs' were said to have been the true composition of John's food.", p. 403 – "his [John's] diet was stems, roots and fruits. Like James and the other Nazirites/Rechabites, he is presented as a vegetarian ..".
  106. ^ James Tabor, The Jesus Dynasty p. 134 and footnotes p. 335, p. 134 – "The Greek New Testament gospels says John's diet consisted of "locusts and wild honey" but an ancient Hebrew version of Matthew insists that "locusts" is a mistake in Greek for a related Hebrew word that means a cake of some type, made from a desert plant, similar to the "manna" that the ancient Israelites ate in the desert on the days of Moses.(ref 9) Jesus describes John as "neither eating nor drinking," or "neither eating bread nor drinking wine." Such phrases indicate the lifestyle of one who is strictly vegetarian, avoids even bread since it has to be processed from grain, and shuns all alcohol.(ref 10) The idea is that one would eat only what grows naturally.(ref 11) It was a way of avoiding all refinements of civilization."
  107. ^ Bart D. Ehrman (2003). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. pp. 102, 103. ISBN 978-0-19-514183-2. p. 102 – "Probably the most interesting of the changes from the familiar New Testament accounts of Jesus comes in the Gospel of the Ebionites description of John the Baptist, who, evidently, like his successor Jesus, maintained a strictly vegetarian cuisine."
  108. ^ James A. Kelhoffer, The Diet of John the Baptist, ISBN 978-3-16-148460-5, pp. 19–21
  109. ^ G.R.S. Mead (2007). Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandæan John-Book. Forgotten Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-60506-210-5. p. 104 – "And when he had been brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he is and where he has been until then. And to this he made answer and spake: I am pure; [for] the Spirit of God hath led me on, and [I live on] cane and roots and tree-food."
  110. ^ Tabor (2006) Jesus Dynasty p. 334 (note 9) – "The Gospel of the Ebionites as quoted by the 4th-century writer Epiphanius. The Greek word for locusts (akris) is very similar to the Greek word for "honey cake" (ekris) that is used for the "manna" that the Israelites ate in the desert in the days of Moses (Exodus 16:32)" & p. 335 (note 11) – "There is an old Russian (Slavic) version of Josephus's Antiquities that describes John the Baptizer as living on 'roots and fruits of the tree' and insists that he never touches bread, even at Passover."
  111. ^ Bart D. Ehrman (2003). Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-514182-5. p. 13 – Referring to Epiphanius' quotation from the Gospel of the Ebionites in Panarion 30.13, "And his food, it says, was wild honey whose taste was of manna, as cake in oil".
  112. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Mandaeans
  113. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 550
  114. ^ "Baptisms of Yeshu in ancient Mandaic scrolls – The Order of Nazorean Essenes". Essenes.net. Archived from the original on October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  115. ^ "Prophet John".
  116. ^ "Yahya", Encyclopedia of Islam
  117. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, Mi'raj
  118. ^ Muhammad, Martin Lings, Abysinnia. etc.
  119. ^ a b Quran 19:13–15
  120. ^ a b Lives of the Prophets, Leila Azzam, John and Zechariah
  121. ^ a b A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, John the Baptist
  122. ^ Quran 19:7–10
  123. ^ a b Quran 19:12
  124. ^ Tabari, i, 712
  125. ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 905: "The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is: "the Righteous." They form a connected group round Jesus. Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as "Elias, which was for to come" (Matt 11:14); and Elias is said to have been present and talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration on the Mount (Matt. 17:3)."
  126. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Yahya ibn Zakkariya, Online web.
  127. ^ Whereas the Quran itself gives blessings of peace to John (Quran 19:15), Jesus, in contrast, gives himself the blessings of peace. (Quran 19: 16–33)
  128. ^ A. Geiger, Judaism And Islam (English translation of Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen?), 1970, Ktav Publishing House Inc.: New York, p. 19.
  129. ^ "And No One Had The Name Yahya (= John?) Before: A Linguistic & Exegetical Enquiry Into Qur'an 19:7". Islamic-awareness.org. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  130. ^ a b "Topical Bible: Jehiah". biblehub.com.
  131. ^ Young's Literal Translation of the Bible. Luke 1:59, 1:5, et al. http://www.biblestudytools.com/ylt/luke/1.html
  132. ^ King James Bible. Luke 1:59, 1:5, et al. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Luke-Chapter-1/
  133. ^ Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη (1894 Scrivener NT). Luke 1:59, 1:5, et al. https://biblia.com/books/tr1894mr/Lk1?embeddedPreview=False
  134. ^ Luke 1:59–63
  135. ^ A. Jeffrey, Foreign Vocab. of the Qur'an, Baroda 1938, 290–1
  136. ^ I Chronicles 15:24
  137. ^ cf. I Chronicles 15:24 with Matthew 3:3
  138. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1988). Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'i Publishing Trust. p. 12. ISBN 9780877430483.
  139. ^ Bahá'u'lláh (2002). The Summons of the Lord of Hosts. Haifa, Israel: Bahá'í World Centre. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-85398-976-9.
  140. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1988). Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'i Publish Trust. pp. 157–158. ISBN 9780877430483.
  141. ^ "Exposition of the Divine Principle, 1996 Translation, Chapter 4". unification.net. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  142. ^ Divine Principle, Part I Chapter 4; Advent of the Messiah
  143. ^ 5. The Fact That Jesus of Nazareth Was Not Accepted as Messiah Was Not Due to the People's Lack Of Faith In God. https://www.tparents.org/Library/Unification/Publications/Other-Pub/Uc-jewsh.htm
  144. ^ "Were Jesus and John the Baptist Competitors? 'Finding Jesus' Professor Describes Their Relationship". www.christianpost.com.
  145. ^ Zurutuza, Karlos. "Disciples of St John the Baptist under attack". www.aljazeera.com.
  146. ^ Crosby, Michael H. "Why Didn't John the Baptist Commit Himself to Jesus as a Disciple?"; Biblical Theology Bulletin, Volume 38 Nov, 2008; p158 -162 [1]
  147. ^ https://bible.org/seriespage/22-johns-problem-jesus-luke-718-35 June 22, 2004
  148. ^ The story appears in Matthew 14:8 and Mark 6:25, without the name Salome
  149. ^ "John the Baptist, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  150. ^ See Tornabuoni Chapel for further information on these scenes
  151. ^ "Engraving by Israhel van Meckenem". Artsmia.org. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  152. ^ On this see Chapter V, "The Power of Women", in H Diane Russell;Eva/Ave; Women in Renaissance and Baroque Prints; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990; ISBN 1-55861-039-1
  153. ^ Robin, Larsen and Levin, p. 368
  154. ^ Julian, John. Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)
  155. ^ The Victor Book of the Opera, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1968.
  156. ^ "King of Kings (1961)" – via www.imdb.com.
  157. ^ "The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964)" – via www.imdb.com.
  158. ^ "The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965)" – via www.imdb.com.
  159. ^ "Godspell (1973)" – via www.imdb.com.
  160. ^ "Jesus of Nazareth (TV Mini-Series 1977)" – via www.imdb.com.
  161. ^ "The Last Temptation of Christ (1988)" – via www.imdb.com.
  162. ^ Kharatyan, Lusine; Keskin, Ismail; Keshishyan, Avetis; Ozturk, S. Aykut; Khachatryan, Nane; Albayrak, Nihal; Hakobyan, Karen (2013). Moush, sweet Moush: Mapping Memories from Armenia and Turkey (PDF). The Institute for International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association (dvv international). p. 69. ISBN 978-3-942755-12-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2015. The Saint Karapet Monastery is one of the oldest Armenian monasteries in Moush Valley, dating back to the 4th century when Gregory the Illuminator, founder of the Armenian Apostolic Church, is believed to have buried the relics of Saint John the Baptist (Karapet) here.
  163. ^ Avetisyan, Kamsar (1979). "Տարոնի պատմական հուշարձանները [Historical monuments of Taron]". Հայրենագիտական էտյուդներ [Armenian studies sketches] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Sovetakan Grogh. p. 204. ...ըստ ավանդության, Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչը ամփոփել է ս. Կարապետի և Աթանագինե եպիսկոպոսի նշխարները։
  164. ^ Matthew Hancock (June 12, 2004). "There's only one São João". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  165. ^ "Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry". Freemasons-freemasonry.com. Retrieved February 14, 2010.

Sources

Books on John the Baptist

  • Brooks Hansen (2009) John the Baptizer: A Novel. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06947-1
  • Murphy, Catherine M. (2003) John the Baptist: Prophet of Purity for a New Age. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. ISBN 0-8146-5933-0
  • Taylor, Joan E. (1997) The Immerser: John the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-4236-4
  • W. Barnes Tatum (1994) John the Baptist and Jesus: A Report of the Jesus Seminar, Sonoma, California: Polebridge Press, 1994, ISBN 0-944344-42-9
  • Webb, Robert L. (1991) John the Baptizer and Prophet: a Socio-Historical Study. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59752-986-0 (first published Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991)

Islamic view

  • Rippin, A. "Yahya b. Zakariya". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  • J.C.L Gibson, John the Baptist in Muslim writings, in MW, xlv (1955), 334–345

Passages in the Quran

External links

Archbasilica of St. John Lateran

The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Italian: Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) – also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St. John [in] Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica – is the cathedral church of the Diocese of Rome in the city of Rome and serves as the seat of the Roman Pontiff.

It is the oldest and highest ranking of the four papal major basilicas, giving it the unique title of "archbasilica". Because it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, it is the oldest and most important basilica of the Western world, and houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop, it has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic faithful.

The current archpriest is Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome. The President of the French Republic, currently Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon" of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France have possessed since King Henry IV.

The large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang. This abbreviated inscription translates to: "Pope Clement XII, in the fifth year [of his Pontificate, dedicated this building] to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and [John] the Evangelist". The inscription indicates, with its full title (see below), that the archbasilica was originally dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries later, co-dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. As the Cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Roman Catholic Church, including St. Peter's Basilica.

The archbasilica is sited in the City of Rome. It is outside Vatican City, which is approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to its northwest, although the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices have extraterritorial status from Italy as one of the properties of the Holy See, pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929.

Baptism of Jesus

The baptism of Jesus is described in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. John's gospel does not directly describe Jesus' baptism.

Most modern theologians view the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist as a historical event to which a high degree of certainty can be assigned. Along with the crucifixion of Jesus, most biblical scholars view it as one of the two historically certain facts about him, and often use it as the starting point for the study of the historical Jesus.The baptism is one of the five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus, the others being the Transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension. Most Christian denominations view the baptism of Jesus as an important event and a basis for the Christian rite of baptism (see also Acts 19:1–7). In Eastern Christianity, Jesus' baptism is commemorated on 6 January (the Julian calendar date of which corresponds to 19 January on the Gregorian calendar), the feast of Epiphany. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Churches and some other Western denominations, it is recalled on a day within the following week, the feast of the baptism of the Lord. In Roman Catholicism, the baptism of Jesus is one of the Luminous Mysteries sometimes added to the Rosary. It is a Trinitarian feast in the Eastern Orthodox Churches.

Beheading of John the Baptist

The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, also known as the Decollation of Saint John the Baptist or the Beheading of the Forerunner, is a biblical event and holy day observed by various Christian churches that follow liturgical traditions. The day commemorates the martyrdom by beheading of Saint John the Baptist on the orders of Herod Antipas through the vengeful request of his step-daughter Salome and her mother Herodias.

Church of St John the Baptist, Royston, Hertfordshire

The Church of St John the Baptist is an Anglican church in the town of Royston, Hertfordshire, England. The nave and aisles, which were built c. 1250, originally formed the quire and sanctuary of a large church belonging to the Augustinian Priory of Royston. It was converted to a parish church following the Dissolution of the Monasteries.On 9 December 2018 the church was severely damaged by a fire.

John the Baptist Mountains

The John the Baptist Mountains are a small mountain range in western Pima County, Arizona, approximately 8.5 miles southwest of the town of Ajo, Arizona. The range is approximately three miles long and about one mile wide at its widest point. The highpoint of the range is 2,161 feet above sea level and is located at 32°15'24"N, 112°54'24"W (NAD 1983 datum). The bulk of the range lies on lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, and a small portion extends westward into the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge.

The range is named for John C. Butala, a hermit who lived for a number of years in a shack on the range's eastern side. Butala was a veteran of the Spanish–American War and World War I. He chose to spend the last decades of his life as a hermit living in the desert. There was some belief that he had been gassed and/or shell shocked during his military service. He was known as an eccentric with long matted hair, and most of the year he would wear only tennis shoes and a loincloth made from gunnysacks. He was also known for feeding and befriending a variety of desert wildlife around his camp, and some became so tame that they would eat out of his hand. It is likely that the nickname of "John the Baptist" derived from this behavior and his appearance as a wild-eyed desert prophet. Despite his eccentric ways, he was known for his mechanical and engineering abilities, and he would regularly be summoned into town to repair automobiles and heavy equipment at the New Cornelia Mine. He died in 1961 and is buried in Ajo.

Josephus on Jesus

The extant manuscripts of the writings of the first-century Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus include references to Jesus and the origins of Christianity. Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, written around 93–94 AD, includes two references to the biblical Jesus Christ in Books 18 and 20 and a reference to John the Baptist in Book 18. Scholarly opinion varies on the total or partial authenticity of the reference in Book 18, Chapter 3, 3 of the Antiquities, a passage that states that Jesus the Messiah was a wise teacher who was crucified by Pilate, usually called the Testimonium Flavianum. The general scholarly view is that while the Testimonium Flavianum is most likely not authentic in its entirety, it is broadly agreed upon that it originally consisted of an authentic nucleus, which was then subject to Christian interpolation and/or alteration. Although the exact nature and extent of the Christian redaction remains unclear, broad consensus exists as to what the original text of the Testimonium by Josephus would have looked like.Modern scholarship has largely acknowledged the authenticity of the reference in Book 20, Chapter 9, 1 of the Antiquities to "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James" and considers it as having the highest level of authenticity among the references of Josephus to Christianity. Almost all modern scholars consider the reference in Book 18, Chapter 5, 2 of the Antiquities to the imprisonment and death of John the Baptist also to be authentic and not a Christian interpolation. The references found in Antiquities have no parallel texts in the other work by Josephus such as The Jewish War, written 20 years earlier, but some scholars have provided explanations for their absence. A number of variations exist between the statements by Josephus regarding the deaths of James and John the Baptist and the New Testament accounts. Scholars generally view these variations as indications that the Josephus passages are not interpolations, for a Christian interpolator would have made them correspond to the New Testament accounts, not differ from them.

National Register of Historic Places listings in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 17 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the parish, including 2 National Historic Landmarks.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.

Nativity of Saint John the Baptist

The Nativity of John the Baptist (or Birth of John the Baptist, or Nativity of the Forerunner, or colloquially Johnmas or (in German) Johannistag) is a Christian feast day celebrating the birth of John the Baptist, a prophet who foretold the coming of the Messiah in the person of Jesus, whom he later baptised.

Nativity of St. John the Baptist Church, Piatra Neamț

The Nativity of St. John the Baptist Church (Romanian: Biserica Nașterea Sf. Ioan Botezătorul), located at 2 Piața Libertății, Piatra Neamț, Romania, is a Romanian Orthodox church. Established by Prince Stephen the Great of Moldavia, it was built in 1497-1498 as part of his royal court in the town. The bell tower dates to the year after the church was completed, and is a symbol of the city. Both church and tower are well preserved examples of late 15th century Moldavian religious architecture.

Saint John the Baptist Church, Yerevan

Saint John the Baptist Church (Armenian: Սուրբ Հովհաննես Մկրտիչ Եկեղեցի, Surp Hovhannes Mkrtich) is an active church in the old area of Kond, Yerevan, Armenia. First, it was built on the height of Kond district, in 1710, in the place of a medieval church ruined as the result of a destructive earthquake. It was built by a rich man, Melik Aghamal, living in Yerevan. Like the other medieval churches, this is a three-nave basilic church. The rectangular plan of the church includes the prayer-hall and the main altar on the eastern side, attached to which are the sacristies.

St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)

St. John the Baptist is a High Renaissance oil painting on walnut wood by Leonardo da Vinci. Probably completed from 1513 to 1516, it is believed to be his final painting. The original size of the painting was 69 x 57 cm. It is now exhibited at the Musée du Louvre in Paris, France.

St. John the Baptist Church (Manhattan)

The Church of St. John the Baptist is a Roman Catholic parish church in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, located at 211 West 30th Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues in the Fur District of the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. To the church's rear is the Capuchin Monastery of St. John the Baptist, located at 210 West 31st Street across from Pennsylvania Station and Madison Square Garden.

St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana

St. John the Baptist Parish (SJBP, French: Paroisse de Saint-Jean-Baptiste) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,924. The parish seat is Edgard, an unincorporated area, and the largest city is LaPlace, which is also unincorporated.

St. John the Baptist Parish was established in 1807 as one of the original 19 parishes of the Territory of Orleans, which became the state of Louisiana.St. John the Baptist Parish is part of the New Orleans–Metairie, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

This was considered part of the German Coast in the 18th and 19th centuries, named for numerous German immigrants who settled along the Mississippi River here in the 1720s. On January 8, 1811, the largest slave insurrection in US history, known as the German Coast Uprising, started here. It was short-lived, but more than 200 slaves gathered from plantations along the river and marched through St. Charles Parish toward New Orleans. This is part of the Sugarland or sugar parishes, which were devoted to sugar cane cultivation. Planters used large numbers of enslaved African-American workers before the war, and numerous freedmen stayed in the area to work on these plantations afterward.

The parish includes three nationally significant examples of 19th-century plantation architecture: Evergreen Plantation, Whitney Plantation Historic District, and San Francisco Plantation House.

St John the Baptist's Church, Bretherton

St John the Baptist's Church is in the village of Bretherton, Lancashire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Chorley, the archdeaconry of Blackburn and the diocese of Blackburn. Its benefice is united with that of St Michael and All Angels, Croston. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. It was a Commissioners' church, having received a grant towards its construction from the Church Building Commission.

St John the Baptist's Church, Tunstall

St John the Baptist Church is located to the northeast of the village of Tunstall, Lancashire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the united benefice of East Lonsdale, in the deanery of Tunstall, the archdeaconry of Lancaster and the diocese of Blackburn. The benefice of East Lonsdale combines this church with St Peter, Leck, St Wilfrid, Melling, St James the Less, Tatham, The Good Shepherd, Lowgill, and Holy Trinity, Wray. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building.

St John the Baptist Church, Reid

St John the Baptist Church is the oldest church in Canberra, Australia, and also the oldest building within Canberra's city precinct. It is sited at the corner of Anzac Parade and Constitution Avenue in the suburb of Reid.

St John the Baptist School, Woking

St John the Baptist School is a Catholic voluntary aided comprehensive school, located in Woking, Surrey, England. The school was one of the first 100 designated Teaching Schools in the United Kingdom.

The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist

The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, sometimes called The Burlington House Cartoon, is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci. The drawing is in charcoal and black and white chalk, on eight sheets of paper glued together. Because of its large size and format the drawing is presumed to be a cartoon for a painting. No painting by Leonardo exists that is based directly on this cartoon.

The drawing depicts the Virgin Mary seated on the knees of her mother, St Anne, while holding the Child Jesus as Jesus' young cousin, St. John the Baptist, stands to the right. It currently hangs in the National Gallery in London.

It was either executed in around 1499–1500, at the end of the artist's first Milanese period, or around 1506–1508, when he was shuttling between Florence and Milan. The majority of scholars prefer the latter date, although the National Gallery and others prefer the former.

Uddingston

Uddingston (Scots: Uddinstoun, Scottish Gaelic: Baile Udain) is a small town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. It is on the north side of the River Clyde, about 7 miles (11 km) south-east of Glasgow city centre. Uddingston acts as a dormitory suburb for the city.

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim

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