John Winthrop the Younger

John Winthrop the Younger (February 12, 1606 – April 6, 1676) was an early governor of the Connecticut Colony, and he played a large role in the merger of several separate settlements into the unified colony.

John Winthrop the Younger
Born12 February 1606
Groton, England
Died6 April 1676 (aged 70)
Appletons' Winthrop John - John signature
Winthrop Gristmill
Grist mill built by Winthrop in New London in 1650 as it appeared in 1910
Diary of journey from Boston to Saybook by John Winthrop the Younger
First page of a diary kept by Winthrop of his journey from Boston to Saybrook, Connecticut in 1645


Winthrop was born in Groton, Suffolk, England, the son of John Winthrop, founding governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was educated at the Bury St. Edmunds grammar school, King Edward VI School, and Trinity College, Dublin, and he studied law for a short time after 1624 at the Inner Temple, London. He also accompanied the ill-fated expedition of the Duke of Buckingham for the relief of the Protestants of La Rochelle, and then travelled in Italy and the Levant, returning to England in 1629.[1]

In 1631, he followed his father to Massachusetts Bay Colony and was one of the assistants of the Colony in 1635, 1640, and 1641 and from 1644 to 1649.[1] He was the chief founder of Agawam (now Ipswich, Massachusetts) in 1633, then went to England in 1634. He returned in 1635 as governor of lands that had been granted to Lord Say and Sele and Lord Brooke, and he sent out a party to build a fort named Saybrook in their honor, located at the mouth of the Connecticut River. He then lived for a time in Massachusetts, where he devoted himself to the study of science and attempted to interest the settlers in the development of the colony's mineral resources.[1]

He was again in England in 1641–43, then returned to establish iron works at Lynn and Braintree, Massachusetts. In 1645, he obtained title to lands in southeastern Connecticut and founded New London in 1646, where he settled in 1650.[1] He built a grist mill in the town and was granted a monopoly on the trade for as long as he or his heirs maintained it. This was one of the first monopolies granted in New England.[2]

He became one of the magistrates of the Connecticut Colony in 1651, was governor of the colony in 1657–58, and again became governor in 1659, being annually re-elected until his death. During his tenure as Governor of Connecticut, he oversaw the acceptance of Quakers who were banned from Massachusetts. In 1662, he obtained the charter in England which united the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven. He was also one of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England in 1675.

While in England, he was elected as a Fellow of the newly organized Royal Society, and he contributed two papers to their Philosophical Transactions: "Some Natural Curiosities from New England" and "Description, Culture and Use of Maize".[1] His correspondence with the Royal Society was published in series I, vol. xvi of the Massachusetts Historical Society's Proceedings.[1] He died in Boston on April 6, 1676 where he had gone to attend a meeting of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England.[1][3]


Winthrop married his cousin Mary Fones on February 8, 1630/1. She and their infant daughter died in Agawam (Ipswich) in 1634. Winthrop's second wife was Elizabeth Reade (1615–1672), with whom he had nine children.[4] Their eldest son Fitz-John Winthrop (1638–1707) served as major-general in the army, an agent in London for Connecticut (1683–1687), and governor of Connecticut from 1696 until his death in 1707.[1] Grandson John Winthrop, F.R.S. (1681–1747, by their second son Waitstill) married Ann Dudley, daughter of Joseph Dudley and granddaughter of Thomas Dudley, both governors of Massachusetts. This was one of a number of unions between the two families.

Winthrop's daughter Katharine (1711–1781) first married Samuel Browne of Salem, then Epes Sargent of Gloucester.[5] Her eldest child by Sargent was Paul Dudley Sargent, a colonel in the American War of Independence. Daughter Mary Winthrop (1712–1776) married Gurdon Saltonstall, Jr. (1708–1785), son of Connecticut Governor Gurdon Saltonstall (1666–1724). Gurdon and Mary were the parents of Dudley Saltonstall (1738–1796), a Revolutionary War naval commander most notable for his involvement in the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Chisholm 1911, p. 736.
  2. ^ Technical World Magazine. Armour Institute of Technology. 1910. pp. 96–97.
  3. ^ Waters 1899, p. 75.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2006-08-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Sargent 1923, p. .


External links

Political offices
New office Governor of the Saybrook Colony
Succeeded by
George Fenwick
Preceded by
John Webster
Governor of the Connecticut Colony
Succeeded by
Thomas Welles
Preceded by
Thomas Welles
Governor of the Connecticut Colony
Succeeded by
William Leete
1725 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).


Arbella or Arabella was the flagship of the Winthrop Fleet on which Governor John Winthrop, other members of the Company (including Dr. William Gager), and Puritan emigrants transported themselves and the Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company from England to Salem between April 8 and June 12, 1630, thereby giving legal birth to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. John Winthrop is reputed to have given the famous "A Model of Christian Charity" sermon aboard the ship. Also on board was Anne Bradstreet, the first European female poet to be published from the New World, and her family.

The ship was originally called Eagle, but her name was changed in honor of Lady Arabella Johnson, a member of Winthrop's company, as was her husband Isaac. Lady Arabella was the daughter of Thomas Clinton, 3rd Earl of Lincoln.

Beekman Winthrop

Beekman Winthrop (September 18, 1874 – November 10, 1940) was an American lawyer, government official and banker. He served as Governor of Puerto Rico from 1904 to 1907, as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury in 1907-1909, and Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1909-1913.

Chief Masconomet

Masconomet, spelled many different ways in colonial deeds, was sagamore or chief of the Agawam tribe among the Algonquian peoples during the time of the English colonization of the Americas. He is known for his quitclaim deed ceding all the tribal land, which extended from Cape Ann to the Merrimack River, as far inland as North Andover, Massachusetts and Middleton, Massachusetts, and as far to the southwest as the Danvers River, to John Winthrop the Younger, his heirs and all the settlers of eastern Essex County for a sum of 20 pounds, about 100 dollars.

Although he could not read or write at the time of the deed, Masconomet understood that he was effecting a union of the remnant of the tribe after decimation by disease (probably smallpox) with the English colonists. He testified to that effect before the General Court of Massachusetts, which was questioning the legality of the younger Winthrop's transactions. Winthrop and his heirs were seeking public reimbursement of the 20 pounds. The tribal members did not take up residence in distinct villages of "praying Indians" as did the other tribes but remained distributed on individual farms adjoining those of the English and became integrated into the settlements. Giving up their native language and other marks and affiliations of native identity, they soon vanished into Essex County. Masconomet, henceforward "John the Sagamore", gave his children English names. Memory of their ancestry persisted throughout the 17th century, a few generations after Masconomet's death in 1658. A memorial stone on Sagamore Hill in northeastern Hamilton marks where Masconomet was buried with his gun and tomahawk. In 1667, nine years later, a man was prosecuted for digging up his bones and carrying his skull on a pole. The Agawams avoided playing a native role in King Philip's War, the first united effort by the Indians to dislodge the English from New England, obliterating the colony. They were not identified as "praying Indians." Masconomet's deed was at first kept in the Winthrop family. At about the time of King Philip's War eastern Essex County also endured a legal attack by the heirs of Captain John Mason, who, based on the Mason Grant of 1621, were claiming all of former Agawam. Masconomet's quitclaim was then registered and was duplicated in every village of eastern Essex County as the original deed of the rightful owner ceding the land to the English in perpetuity. The Mason claim failed, but the settlements had to pay a fee to be rid of it.

Masconomet Regional High School, serving Topsfield, Boxford and Middleton, Massachusetts, honors the sagamore by taking his name.

Deane Winthrop

Deane Winthrop (23 March 1623 - 16 March 1704) was the sixth son (the third son by his father's third marriage) of the English Puritan colonist John Winthrop, a founder and the 2nd, 6th, 9th and 12th Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. His mother was Margaret Tyndal. He was named after his mother's half-brother, Sir John Deane. He outlived all of his full and half-siblings. There is no known portrait of him.

Deane was born in the village of Groton in Suffolk, England. At the age of 12, he departed London, England with his older brother John Winthrop the Younger, age 29, on the ship the Abigail in July 1635. He later settled and farmed in an area of the Town of Boston known as Pullen Point (Pulling Point), part of the area known to the native Massachusett tribe as Winnisimmet, which is today the Town of Winthrop, Massachusetts.

Fitz-John Winthrop

Fitz-John Winthrop (March 14, 1637 – November 27, 1707), was the governor of the Colony of Connecticut from 1698 until his death on November 27, 1707.

George Corwin

George Corwin (February 26, 1666 – April 12, 1696) was the High Sheriff of Essex County, Massachusetts during the Salem witch trials, which he signed warrants for the arrest and execution of those condemned of witchcraft. Corwin was also responsible for choosing the execution site in Salem for the 19 innocent people hanged. On September 16, 1692, he was ordered by the Court of Oyer and Terminer to preside over the interrogation under torture of Giles Corey, who was pressed to death for refusing to stand trial for witchcraft.Corwin died of a heart attack on April 12, 1696, at the age of 30, after which his burial was delayed by a Salem resident named Phillip English, who was accused during the Witch trials, and had his property seized by Corwin. English put a lien on Corwin's corpse, and delayed its burial until he had been reimbursed for the property he lost to Corwin. He was eventually reimbursed, allowing the burial to proceed.

George Corwin was the grandson of John Winthrop the Younger, the Governor of Connecticut. His wife, Lydia Gedney, was the daughter of Bartholomew Gedney, one of the magistrates involved in the witch trials.

Sheriff Corwin was portrayed on the Comedy Central show Drunk History by actor Joel McHale.

George Fenwick (Parliamentarian)

George Fenwick (1603?–1657), was an English Parliamentarian, and a leading colonist in the short-lived Saybrook Colony.

Groton, Suffolk

Groton is a village and civil parish in Suffolk, England, located around a mile north of the A1071 between Hadleigh and Sudbury. It is part of Babergh district.

The parish church dedicated to Saint Bartholomew is flint faced and has some 15th-century features; it was heavily restored in the 19th century. It is a Commonwealth War Grave site. The village has no shops but does have the pub the Fox and Hounds. In addition to Groton village, the parish contains the hamlets of Broad Street, Castling's Heath, Gosling Green, Horner's Green, and Parliament Heath. It is home to several Ancient Woodlands: the Groton Wood SSSI, the Mill Wood and Winding Wood nature reserves, and a section of Bull's Cross Wood (part of the Milden Thicks SSSI). Also found in the parish are a tributary to the River Box and Pitches Mount, the remaining earthworks of a wooden castle.

Hamilton Fish Kean

Hamilton Fish Kean (February 27, 1862 – December 27, 1941) was a U.S. Senator from New Jersey.

John Winthrop (disambiguation)

John Winthrop (1587/8–1649) was the founding governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

John Winthrop may also refer to:

John Winthrop the Younger (1606–1676), colonial governor of Connecticut

John Winthrop (educator) (1714–1779), early American astronomer and professor at Harvard College

List of colonial governors of Connecticut

The territory of the United States state of Connecticut was first settled by Europeans in the 1620s, when Dutch traders established trading posts on the Connecticut River. English settlers, mainly Puritans fleeing repression in England, began to arrive in the 1630s, and a number of separate colonies were established. The first was the Saybrook Colony in 1635, based at the mouth of the Connecticut; it was followed by the Connecticut Colony (first settlement 1633, government from 1639) and the New Haven Colony (settled 1638, government from 1639). The Saybrook Colony merged with the Connecticut Colony in 1644, and the New Haven Colony was merged into Connecticut between 1662 and 1665 after Connecticut received a royal charter.

The Connecticut Colony was one of two colonies (the other was the neighboring Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations) that retained its governor during the American Revolution. The last colonial governor, Jonathan Trumbull, became the state of Connecticut's first governor in 1776.

Newman-Fiske-Dodge House

The Newman-Fiske-Dodge House is a historic First Period house at 162 Cherry Street in Wenham, Massachusetts. The house contains a rare instance of preserved 17th century decoration. Like many First Period houses, it was built in stages. The first part, the now-central chimney and right-side two stories, was built c. 1658, with the left-side rooms being added c. 1695–96. The fireplace in the right-side room contains original detailing that was covered over by paneling sometime in the 18th century, and the trim on the staircase to the second floor was probably added at the time of the addition.There have been several later additions to the house. A leanto section was added to the rear in the 18th century, and single story wings were added to either side in the 19th century. The interior was also partially redecorated in the 19th century, giving the left side front room some Greek Revival character. In the early 20th century the house underwent a major restoration, in which the left side front room was opened up to the leanto section, creating a large living space.The first documented owner of the house (and for whom it may have been built) was the Rev. Antipas Newman, who married Elizabeth, the daughter of John Winthrop the Younger. The modifications in the 1690s were probably made by William Fiske, Jr.The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. It also includes a barn which may be of 18th century origin.

Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site

Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is a National Historic Site about 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Boston in Saugus, Massachusetts. It is the site of the first integrated ironworks in North America, founded by John Winthrop the Younger and in operation between 1646 and approximately 1670. It includes the reconstructed blast furnace, forge, rolling mill, shear, slitter and a quarter-ton drop hammer.

The facility is powered by seven large waterwheels, some of which are rigged to work in tandem with huge wooden gears connecting them. It has a wharf to load the iron onto ocean-going vessels, as well as a large, restored 17th-century house.

Saybrook Colony

The Saybrook Colony was established in late 1635 at the mouth of the Connecticut River in present-day Old Saybrook, Connecticut by John Winthrop, the Younger, son of John Winthrop, the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Winthrop the Younger was designated Governor by the original settlers, including Colonel George Fenwick and Captain Lion Gardiner. They claimed possession of the land via a deed of conveyance from Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick. The colony was named in honor of Lords Saye and Brooke, prominent Parliamentarians and holders of the colony's land grants.

Early settlers of the colony were ardent supporters of Oliver Cromwell and of democracy. In the 1630s in what became Connecticut, it was rumored that Cromwell's emigration was imminent from England to Saybrook, along with the departure from Old England of other prominent Puritan sponsors of the colony, including John Pym, John Hampden, Arthur Haselrig, and Lords Saye and Brooke. Even as late as the 1770s, residents of Old Saybrook still talked about which town lots would be given to prominent Parliamentarians.

Settlement preparations included sending a ship with an unusual cargo of ironwork for a portcullis and drawbridges, and even an experienced military engineer.[2] Saybrook's fort was to be the strongest in New England. However, prominent Puritans soon "found the countrie [England] full of reports of their going" and were worried that they would not be allowed to sell their estates and take ship. By 1638, the plans for Saybrook were abandoned. Cromwell's financial difficulties had been cleared up by an inheritance and he moved from Huntingdon to nearby Ely. Thus, the sponsors remained in England and played their respective political and military roles in the English Civil War and its aftermath. As a consequence, the colony struggled and, by 1644, Fenwick agreed to merge the colony with the more vibrant Connecticut Colony a few miles up river.

In 1647, Major John Mason assumed command of Saybrook Fort, which controlled the main trade and supply route to the upper river valley. The fort mysteriously burned to the ground, but another improved fort was quickly built nearby. He spent the next twelve years there and served as Commissioner of the United Colonies, its chief military officer, Magistrate, and peacekeeper. He was continually called upon to fairly negotiate the purchase of Indian lands, write a treaty, or arbitrate some Indian quarrel, many of which were instigated by his friend Uncas.

Sergeant Samuel Willard

Sergeant Simon Willard was a founding father of Old Saybrook, Connecticut. Sergeant Willard along with Lieutenant Edward Gibbons, were sent by John Winthrop the Younger. to occupy the mouth of the Connecticut River with 20 carpenters and workmen. On November 24, 1635, the group landed on the west bank at the mouth of what is now the Connecticut River. They located the Dutch coat of arms and replaced it with a shield that had a grinning face painted on it. The group established a small fort with a cannon. When the Dutch returned to the mouth of the river they spotted the English fort and withdrew. The fort was one of the first military establishments in the Connecticut Colony.

Thomas Welles

Thomas Welles (c.10 July 1594 – 14 January 1660) is the only person in Connecticut's history to hold all four top offices: governor, deputy governor, treasurer, and secretary. In 1639, he was elected as the first treasurer of the Colony of Connecticut, and from 1640–1649 served as the colony's secretary. In this capacity, he transcribed the Fundamental Orders into the official colony records on 14 January 1638, OS, (24 January 1639, NS).

Wait Winthrop

Waitstill Winthrop (27 February 1641/1642 – 7 November 1717) was a colonial magistrate, military officer, and politician of New England.

Winthrop (surname)

Winthrop is a surname.

The Dudley–Winthrop family tree
Hamlets in the civil parish of Groton
Other features

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