John Somers, 1st Baron Somers

John Somers, 1st Baron Somers, PC, PRS (4 March 1651 – 26 April 1716) was an English Whig jurist and statesman. Somers first came to national attention in the trial of the Seven Bishops where he was on their defence counsel. He published tracts on political topics such as the succession to the crown, where he elaborated his Whig principles in support of the Exclusionists. He played a leading part in shaping the Revolution settlement. He was Lord High Chancellor of England under King William III and was a chief architect of the union between England and Scotland achieved in 1707 and the Protestant succession achieved in 1714. He was a leading Whig during the twenty-five years after 1688; with four colleagues he formed the Whig Junto.


The Lord Somers

John Somers, Baron Somers by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt lowres color
Lord President of the Council
In office
25 November 1708 – 21 September 1710
Preceded byThe Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery
Succeeded byThe Earl of Rochester
Lord Chancellor
In office
1697–1700
Succeeded bySir Nathan Wright
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England
In office
1693–1697
Succeeded bySir Nathan Wright
Personal details
Born4 March 1651
Claines, Commonwealth of England
Died26 April 1716
North Mymms, England
Political partyWhig
Alma materTrinity College, Oxford
OccupationLawyer, politician

Early life

He was born at Claines, near Worcester, the eldest son of John Somers, an attorney in large practice in that town, who had formerly fought on the side of the Parliament, and of Catherine Ceaverne of Shropshire. After being at school at Queen Mary's Grammar School, Walsall, and The King's School, Worcester he was entered as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, Oxford, and afterwards studied law under Sir Francis Winnington, who became solicitor-general, and joined the Middle Temple.

Early political career

He soon became intimate with the leaders of the country party especially with Lord Essex, William Russell, and Algernon Sidney but never entered into their plans so far as to commit himself beyond recall. He was the author of a pamphlet supporting the Exclusion Bill, A Brief History of the Succession, Collected out of the Records and the Most Authentical Historians (1680).[1] Somers showed that Parliament had for centuries regulated the succession of the English crown against the arguments of those who believed that Parliament had no right to alter the succession. Before the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, the Anglo-Saxon kings had been elected, and even after it Parliament had deposed kings and kings in turn had confirmed their title by Act of Parliament.[2] Somers concluded:

...it hath been the constant opinion of all Ages that the Parliament of England had an unquestionable power to limit, restrain and qualify the Succession as they pleased, and that in all Ages they have put their power in practice; and that the Historian had reason for saying that seldom or never the third Heir in a right descent enjoyed the Crown of England.[3]

Simon Dubois - Portrait of John Somers, 1st Baron Somers
A painting of John Somers by Simon Du Bois

He was reputed to have written the Just and Modest Vindication of the Two Last Parliaments, which was published in April 1681 as the answer to Charles II's famous declaration of his reasons for dissolving them. The authorship of this has been disputed. According to Bishop Burnet it was "first penned by Sidney; but a new draught was made by Somers, and corrected by Jones".[4] Lord Hardwicke saw a copy in Somers's handwriting amongst his manuscripts before they were destroyed by fire in 1752.[4]

In 1681 Lord Shaftesbury was sent to the Tower of London without bail or recourse to a trial. In November he was charged at the Old Bailey for high treason, specifically for intending to levy war against the king. However the grand jury of Middlesex threw out the bill against Lord Shaftesbury, and were vehemently attacked for so doing by government supporters. Somers published anonymously The Security of Englishmen's Lives, or, The Trust, Power, and Duty of the Grand Juries of England in 1681. Somers acknowledged that judges may advise but juries "are bound by their Oaths to present the Truth, the whole Truth, and nothing but the Truth, to the best of their own, not the Judges', Knowledge". The monarch must ensure that justice is carried out:

Whosoever hath learnt that the Kings of England were ordained for the good Government of the Kingdom in the Execution of the Laws, must needs know, that the King cannot lawfully seek any other benefit in judicial proceedings, than that common Right and Justice be done to the People according to their Laws and Customs.[5]

Somers went on to argue that the monarch should hold the protection of the innocent above the punishment of the guilty:

If a Criminal should be acquitted wrongfully he may be reserved for future Justice from Man or God, if he doth not repent; but 'tis impossible that satisfaction or reparation should be made for innocent Bloodshed in the forms of Justice.[5]

In 1683 he was counsel for the sheriffs Thomas Pilkington and Samuel Shute before the Court of King's Bench, and secured a reputation which continually increased until the trial of the Seven Bishops, in which he was junior counsel. One of the bishops objected that "too young and obscure a Man" should be retained on the defence counsel but Sir Henry Pollexfen refused to participate in the trial without him, saying that Somers was "the Man who would take most Pains, and go deepest into all that depended on Precedents and Records".[6] In Macaulay's words: "Somers rose last. He spoke little more than five minutes: but every word was full of weighty matter; and when he sate down his reputation as an orator and a constitutional lawyer was established".[7] In his speech Somers cited the case of Thomas v. Sorrel (1674) whereby it was ruled that no Act of Parliament could be abrogated except through Parliament. The bishops' petition had been described as a false, malicious and seditious libel. In his peroration Somers answered this charge:

My Lord, as to all the matters of fact alleged in the Petition,—that they are perfectly true we have shown by the Journals of both Houses. In every instance which the petitioners mention, this power of dispensation was considered in Parliament, and, on debate, declared to be contrary to law. They could have no design to diminish the prerogative, because the King hath no such prerogative. Seditious, my Lord, the Petition could not be, for the matter of it must be seen to be strictly true. There could be nothing of malice, for the occasion, instead of being sought, was forced upon them. A libel it could not be, for the intent of the defendants was innocent, and they kept strictly within the bounds set by the law, which gives the subject leave to apply to his Prince by petition when he is aggrieved.[8]

Glorious Revolution

John Somers, Baron Somers from NPG
John Somers took a leading part in the secret councils of those who were planning the Glorious Revolution.

In the secret councils of those who were planning the Glorious Revolution Somers took a leading part, and in the Convention Parliament was elected a member for Worcester. He was immediately appointed one of the managers for the Commons in the conferences between the houses, and in arguing the questions whether James II had left the throne vacant by abdication and whether the acts of the Convention Parliament were legal—that parliament having been summoned without the usual writs—he displayed great learning and legal subtlety.

In his maiden speech on 28 January 1689, Somers argued that James II had forfeited his claim to the allegiance of the English by casting himself into the hands of Louis XIV of France and conspiring "to subject the Nation to the Pope, as much as to a foreign prince".[9] On 6 February Somers advocated the word "abdicate" rather than "desert" (which the House of Lords favoured) to describe James' flight to France. He concluded by stating that James' actions were a prime example of the act of abdicating:

That King James II, by going about to subvert the constitution, and by breaking the original contract between king and people, and by violating the fundamental laws, and withdrawing himself out of the kingdom, hath thereby renounced to be a king according to the constitution, by avowing to govern by a despotic power, unknown to the constitution, and inconsistent with it; he hath renounced to be a king according to the law, such a king as he swore to be at his coronation, such a king to whom the allegiance of an English subject is due.[10]

Challenged by the Lords to produce a precedent whereby England had been without a monarch, Somers referred to a parliamentary roll from 1399 that stated that the throne had been unoccupied between the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV. Somers could not point to the interregnum of 1649–1660 because by law the reign of Charles II had started after the execution of Charles I. The Lords replied by pointing to a roll from the first year of the reign of Edward IV which showed that the roll of 1399 had been annulled. Sir George Treby supported Somers by producing the roll of the first year of the reign of Henry VII which repealed Edward IV's roll.[11] Eventually the Lords accepted the abdication clause and that the throne was vacant at the behest of William, and passed a resolution affirming William and Mary's right to the crown.

Although some historians such as Macaulay have claimed Somers was made chairman of the committee which drew up the Declaration of Right, the committee's report was delivered to the Commons by Treby (the chairman always delivered the report to the House).[12] However Somers did play a leading part in drawing up the Declaration, which would be passed in Parliament and become known as the Bill of Rights 1689.[13][14] Although later generations exaggerated Somers role as architect of the Bill of Rights, his biographer asserts that no one else can have a better claim to that title.[13] Somers published anonymously A Vindication of the Proceedings of the Late Parliament of England in 1690. Here, Somers justified the war against France and the Bill of Rights:

The proceedings of the late parliament were so fair, so prudent, so necessary, and so advantageous to the nation, to the protestant interest in general, and in particular to the church of England, that all true Englishmen must needs acknowledge they owe to the then representatives of the nation, their privileges, their liberties, their lives, their religion, their present and future security from popery, slavery, and arbitrary power, had they done nothing else but enacted the rights and liberties of the subject, and settling the succession of the crown.[15]

Somers went on to place the abolition of the dispensing power of sovereigns first in importance, then the parliamentary control of taxation, the outlawing of standing armies in time of peace unless Parliament decided otherwise, and the royal succession. Somers argued for the vital importance of the rule of law:

Our happiness then consists in this, that our princes are tied up to the law as well as we, and upon an especial account obliged to keep it up in full force, because if they destroyed the law, they destroyed at the same time themselves, by overthrowing the very foundation of their kingly grandeur and regal power. So that our government not being arbitrary, but legal, not absolute but political, our princes can never become arbitrary, absolute, or tyrants, without forfeiting at the same time their royal character, by the breach of the essential conditions of their regal power, which are to act according to the ancient customs and standing laws of the nation.[15]

Ministerial career

Lord Justices of England
Somers was one of the Lords Justices who William appointed to govern whilst he was abroad in 1695.

In May 1689 Somers was made Solicitor General for England and Wales. He now became William III's most confidential adviser. In the controversy which arose between the Houses on the question of the legality of the decision of the Court of King's Bench regarding Titus Oates, and of the action of the Lords in sustaining this decision, Somers was again the leading manager for the Commons, and has left a clear and interesting account of the debates. He was next employed in January 1690 as chairman of the select committee of the House of Commons on the Corporation Bill, by which those corporations which had surrendered their charters to the Crown during the last two reigns were restored to their rights; but he refused to associate himself with the violent measures of retaliation which the Whigs on that occasion endeavoured to include in the bill.

Re-elected as MP for Worcester in March 1690, he gave a speech in April which carried through the lower house, without opposition, the bill which declared all the laws passed by the Convention Parliament (1689) to be valid. As Solicitor-General he had to conduct the prosecution of Lord Preston and John Ashton in 1691, and did so with a moderation and humanity which were in marked contrast to the customs of the former reigns. He was soon after appointed Attorney General for England and Wales and in that capacity strongly opposed the Bill for the regulation of trials in cases of high treason. In December 1692 Somers introduced into the Commons a Bill "for the preservation of their Majesties' persons and government". The two main provisions of the Bill were severe penalties for anyone who spoke or printed asserted or implied that William and Mary were monarchs only "in fact" and not "of right", and a new oath for all who held offices of profit under the Crown in which they had to swear to defend the government against the exiled King James and his adherents.[16] However the Bill was defeated by 200 to 175.[17]

John Somers
John Somers was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of the Realm on 23 March 1693

On 23 March 1693, the Great Seal of the Realm having meanwhile been in commission, Somers was appointed Lord Keeper, with a pension of £2000 a year from the day on which he should quit his office, and at the same time was made a privy councillor. He had previously been knighted. Somers now became the most prominent member of the Whig Junto, the small council which comprised the chief members of the Whig party. When William left in May 1695 to take command of the army in the Netherlands, Somers was made one of the seven Lords Justices to whom the administration of the kingdom during his absence was entrusted; and he was instrumental in bringing about a reconciliation between William and the Princess Anne.

In 1696 he delivered perhaps his best known judgement in the Bankers case, a claim for compensation by several bankers who had suffered severe loss due to the Great Stop of the Exchequer of 1672 whereby the Crown had simply refused to pay its debts. The Court of Exchequer Chamber, after litigation of almost unprecedented length, found for the bankers; but Somers reversed the judgement on the technical point that the claim should have been brought by way of petition of right. Although his judgement was noted for erudition, it was much criticised for the result, in that the plaintiffs, after almost 25 years, were denied justice on a technicality. The House of Lords in turn reversed Somers's judgement in 1700.

Lord Chancellor and impeachment

In April 1697 Somers was made Lord Chancellor, and was created a peer by the title of Baron Somers, of Evesham. When the discussion arose on the question of disbanding the army, he summed up the case against disbanding, in answer to John Trenchard in a remarkable pamphlet called The Balancing Letter. In August 1698 he went to Tunbridge Wells for his health. While there he received the king's letter announcing the first Partition Treaty, and at once replied with a memorandum representing the necessity in the state of feeling in England of avoiding further war. When the king, on the occasion of the Disbanding Bill, expressed his determination to leave the country, Somers boldly remonstrated, while he dearly expressed in a speech in the Lords the danger of the course that was being taken. Hitherto Somers's character had kept him free from attack at the hands of political opponents; but his connection in 1699 with the notorious Captain William Kidd, to the cost of whose expedition Somers had given £1,000, afforded an opportunity; the vote of censure, however, proposed upon him in the House of Commons for giving Kidd a commission under the great seal was rejected by 199 to 131. The attack was renewed shortly on the ground of his having accepted grants of Crown property to the amount of £1600 a year, but was again defeated. On the subject of the Irish forfeitures a third attack was made in 1700, a motion being brought forward to request the king to remove Somers from his counsels and presence for ever; but this again was rejected by a large majority. In consequence, however, of the incessant agitation William now requested Somers to resign; this he refused to do, but gave up the seals to William's messenger. In 1701 he was impeached by the Commons on account of the part he had taken in the negotiations relating to the Partition Treaty in 1698, and defended himself most ably before the House, answering the charges seriatim. The impeachment was voted and sent up to the Lords, but was there dismissed. On the death of the King, Somers retired almost entirely into private life.

Later life

He was President of the Royal Society from 1698 to 1703. He was, however, active in 1702 in opposing the Occasional Conformity Bill, and in 1706 was one of the managers of the Act of Union 1707. In the same year he carried a bill regulating and improving the proceedings of the law courts. He was made Lord President of the Council in 1708 upon the return of the Whigs to power, and retained the office until their downfall in 1710; while Queen Anne had long detested the Whig Junto, she came to like and admire Somers: Jonathan Swift called him " the perfect courtier" whose charm and good manners were almost irresistible. He spent his later years at Brookmans Park in Hertfordshire. Somers died on the day the Septennial Bill—which extended the maximum life of parliaments from three years to seven—passed the Commons. A story, possibly apocryphal, goes that Lord Townshend visited Somers during his last illness, with Somers saying to Townshend on his death bed:

I have just heard of the work in which you are engaged, and [I] congratulate you upon it. I never approved the Triennial Bill, and always considered it, in effect, the reverse of what it was intended. You have my hearty approbation of this business, and I think it will be the greatest support possible to the liberty of the country.[18]

Somers never married, but left two sisters, of whom the eldest, Mary, married Charles Cocks, whose grandson, Charles became the second Baron Somers in 1784, the title subsequently descending in this line.

Legacy

1stLordSomers
A posthumous engraving of John Somers by Charles Grignion the Elder

Somers is immortalised in St Stephen's Hall, where he and other notable Parliamentarians look on at visitors to Parliament.[19] In the eighteenth century Somers was hailed as the chief constitutional architect of the Protestant succession. The achievements of Somers and other Whig lawyers defined Whiggism for those living in the reigns of King George I and George II.[20] William Pitt the Elder stated in 1761 that "he learnt his maxims and principles" from "the greatest lawyers, generals and patriots of King William's days: named Lord Somers".[21] For the later eighteenth century Whig politician, Edmund Burke, Somers was of the "Old Whigs" whom he admired against the New Whigs who supported the French Revolution. Burke wrote that: "I never desire to be thought a better whig than Lord Somers".[22] The Whig historian Thomas Macaulay, writing in the nineteenth century, held Somers in high esteem:

...the greatest man among the members of the Junto, and in some respects, the greatest man of that age, was the Lord Keeper Somers. He was equally eminent as a jurist and as a politician, as an orator, and as a writer. His speeches have perished; but his State papers remain, and are models of terse, luminous, and dignified eloquence. He had left a great reputation in the House of Commons, where he had, for four years, been always heard with delight; and the Whig members still looked up to him as their leader, and still held their meetings under his roof. ... In truth, he united all the qualities of a great judge, an intellect comprehensive, quick and acute, diligence, integrity, patience, suavity. In council, the calm wisdom, which he possessed in a measure rarely found among men of parts so quick and of opinions so decided as his, acquired for him the authority of an oracle. ... From the beginning to the end of his public life he was a steady Whig.[23]

A fire at the law offices of Charles Yorke in Lincoln's Inn Square on 27 January 1752 destroyed a large amount of Somers's surviving private papers.[24]

The Town of Somers, Connecticut was incorporated in 1734 by the General Court of Massachusetts and named for Somers.[25]

Notes

  1. ^ William L. Sachse, Lord Somers. A Political Portrait (Manchester University Press, 1975), p. 15.
  2. ^ J. C. D. Clark, Reflections on the Revolution in France. A Critical Edition (Stanford University Press, 2001), p. 168 + n. 83.
  3. ^ Clark, p. 168 + n. 83.
  4. ^ a b Sachse, p. 16.
  5. ^ a b Sachse, p. 18.
  6. ^ Sachse, p. 21.
  7. ^ Thomas Babington Macaulay, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second. Popular Edition in Two Volumes. Volume I (London: Longmans, 1889), p. 515.
  8. ^ Sachse, pp. 22–23.
  9. ^ Sachse, p. 29.
  10. ^ Sachse, p. 34.
  11. ^ Sachse, p. 35.
  12. ^ Michael Landon, The Triumph of the Lawyers. Their Role in English Politics, 1678–1689 (University of Alabama Press, 1970), p. 238 + n. 50.
  13. ^ a b Sachse, p. 36.
  14. ^ Stuart Handley, 'Somers, John, Baron Somers (1651–1716)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2008, accessed 6 June 2009.
  15. ^ a b Sachse, p. 37.
  16. ^ Henry Horwitz, Parliament, policy and politics in the reign of William III (Manchester University Press, 1977), p. 108.
  17. ^ Horwitz, p. 109.
  18. ^ J. P. Kenyon, Revolution Principles. The Politics of Party, 1689–1720 (Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 183.
  19. ^ parliament.uk: "Architecture of the Palace – St Stephen's Hall"
  20. ^ Clark, p. 40.
  21. ^ Peter D. Brown and Karl W. Schweizer (eds.), The Devonshire Diary. William Cavendish, Fourth Duke of Devonshire. Memoranda on State Affairs. 1759–1762 (London: Butler & Tanner Ltd, 1982), p. 111.
  22. ^ Clark, p. 168.
  23. ^ Macaulay, History of England. Volume II, pp. 458–9.
  24. ^ R. M. Adams, 'In search of Baron Somers', in Perez Zagorin (ed.), Culture and Politics from Puritanism to the Enlightenment (University of California Press, 1980), p. 166.
  25. ^ The Connecticut Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly. Connecticut Magazine Company. 1903. p. 334.

References

  • R. M. Adams, 'In search of Baron Somers', in Perez Zagorin (ed.), Culture and Politics from Puritanism to the Enlightenment (University of California Press, 1980), pp. 165–93.
  • J. C. D. Clark, Reflections on the Revolution in France. A Critical Edition (Stanford University Press, 2001).
  • Stuart Handley, 'Somers, John, Baron Somers (1651–1716)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2008, accessed 6 June 2009.
  • Henry Horwitz, Parliament, policy and politics in the reign of William III (Manchester University Press, 1977).
  • Michael Landon, The Triumph of the Lawyers. Their Role in English Politics, 1678–1689 (University of Alabama Press, 1970).
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second. Popular Edition in Two Volumes. (London: Longmans, 1889).
  • William L. Sachse, Lord Somers. A Political Portrait (Manchester University Press, 1975)

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Somers, John Somers, Baron" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 384–385.

Further reading

  • Richard Cooksey, Essay on the Life and Character of John Lord Somers (1791).
  • Henry Maddock, Account of the Life and Writings of Lord-Chancellor Somers (1812).
  • John Oldmixon, Memoirs of the Life of John, Lord Somers (1716).
  • L. G. Schwoerer, The Declaration of Rights, 1689 (1981).
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sir George Treby
Solicitor General for England and Wales
1689–1692
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Trevor
Preceded by
Sir George Treby
Attorney General for England and Wales
1692–1693
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Ward
Political offices
Preceded by
In Commission
Lord Keeper
1693–1697
Succeeded by
Sir Nathan Wright
(Lord Keeper)
Lord Chancellor
1697–1700
Preceded by
The Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery
Lord President of the Council
1708–1710
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rochester
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Plymouth
Custos Rotulorum of Worcestershire
1715–1716
Vacant
Title next held by
The Lord Parker
Peerage of England
New creation Baron Somers
1697–1716
Extinct
1651

1651 (MDCLI)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1651st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 651st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1651, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1651 in England

Events from the year 1651 in England.

1716

1716 (MDCCXVI)

was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1716th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 716th year of the 2nd millennium, the 16th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1716, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1716 in Great Britain

Events from the year 1716 in Great Britain.

April 26

April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 249 days remain until the end of the year.

Baron Somers

Baron Somers, of Evesham in the County of Worcester, is a title that has been created twice. The title was first created in the Peerage of England in 1697 for Sir John Somers, so that he could sit in the House of Lords and serve as Lord Chancellor. The title became extinct on Lord Somers' death in 1716. His sister and co-heiress, Mary Somers, married Charles Cocks, a member of a prominent Worcestershire family. Their grandson Charles Cocks represented Reigate in Parliament from 1747 to 1784, and was created a baronet, of Dumbleton in the County of Gloucester, in the Baronetage of Great Britain in 1772. In 1784 the barony held by his great-uncle was revived when he was made Baron Somers, of Evesham in the County of Worcester, in the Peerage of Great Britain.

His eldest son, the second Baron, sat as a Member of Parliament for West Looe, Grampound and Reigate and also served as Lord Lieutenant of Herefordshire. In 1821 he was created Viscount Eastnor, of Eastnor Castle in the County of Hereford, and Earl Somers. Both titles were in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented Reigate and Hereford in the House of Commons and like his father served as Lord Lieutenant of Herefordshire. In 1841 Lord Somers assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Somers. His son, the third Earl, sat as a Conservative Member of Parliament for Reigate.

However, on his death in 1883 the viscountcy and earldom became extinct. He was succeeded in the baronetcy and barony by his first cousin once removed, the fifth Baron. He was the son of Hon. Philip James Cocks, third son of the first Baron. On his death the title passed to his great-nephew, the sixth Baron. He was a Conservative politician and also served as Governor of Victoria. He was succeeded by his uncle, the seventh Baron. His son, the eighth Baron, was a Professor at the Royal College of Music. On his death in 1995 the titles passed to his second cousin once removed, the ninth and (As of 2019) present holder of the baronetcy and barony. He is a great-grandson of Hon. John James Thomas Somers Cocks, younger brother of the fifth Baron.

The ancestral seat of the Cocks family was Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire. It is now in the hands of a female-line grandson of the sixth Baron Somers.

The title of the barony is pronounced "Summers".

Charles Cocks, 1st Baron Somers

Charles Cocks, 1st Baron Somers (29 June 1725 – 30 January 1806), known as Sir Charles Cocks, 1st Baronet, from 1772 to 1784, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1747 to 1784.

Cocks was the son of John Cocks and his wife Mary Cocks who was his cousin and daughter of Thomas Cocks of Castleditch and was born on 29 June 1725. His paternal grandfather Charles Cocks was the husband of Mary Somers, sister of John Somers, 1st Baron Somers, Lord Chancellor of England. He matriculated at Worcester College, Oxford in 1742 and entered Lincoln's Inn in 1745, where he was called to the bar in 1750.Cocks was elected Member of Parliament for Reigate in the 1747 general election and held the seat until 1784. He was appointed Clerk of Deliveries of the Ordnance for 1758 to 1772 and Clerk of the Ordnance from 1772 to 1782.He succeeded his father in 1771 and the following year was created a baronet of Dumbleton in the County of Gloucester, and on 17 May 1784 the barony inherited from his great-uncle was revived when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Somers, of Evesham in the County of Worcester.Lord Somers married, firstly, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Eliot and Harriot, natural daughter of James Craggs the Younger, in 1759. After her death in 1771 he married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Reginald Pole, in 1772. There were children from both marriages. Lord Somers died in January 1806, aged 80, and was succeeded in his titles by his son from his first marriage, John, who was created Earl Somers in 1821. Anne, Lady Somers, died in 1833.

Custos Rotulorum of Worcestershire

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Worcestershire.

Sir John Pakington 1544–1551

William Sheldon bef. 1558–1570

Sir Thomas Russell bef. 1573–1574

Sir John Lyttelton bef. 1577–1590

Sir John Pakington bef. 1594–1623

Sir John Pakington, 1st Baronet 1623–1624

Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry 1624–1628

Thomas Coventry, 2nd Baron Coventry 1628–1646

Interregnum

Thomas Coventry, 2nd Baron Coventry 1660–1661

George Coventry, 3rd Baron Coventry 1661–1680

John Coventry, 4th Baron Coventry 1681–1687

Francis Smith, 2nd Viscount Carrington 1688–1689

Thomas Coventry, 1st Earl of Coventry 1689–1699

Thomas Coventry, 2nd Earl of Coventry 1699–1710

Other Windsor, 2nd Earl of Plymouth 1710–1715

John Somers, 1st Baron Somers 1715–1716

vacant

Thomas Parker, 1st Baron Parker 1719

William Coventry, 5th Earl of Coventry 1719–1751For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire.

George Vertue

George Vertue (1684 – 24 July 1756) was an English engraver and antiquary, whose notebooks on British art of the first half of the 18th century are a valuable source for the period.

John Somers (disambiguation)

John Somers, 1st Baron Somers (1651–1716) was an English Whig jurist and statesman.

John Somers may also refer to:

John Somers (motorcycle racer) in 1963 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season

John Somers (sport shooter) (1874–1942), represented Great Britain at the 1912 Summer Olympics

John Patrick Somers (1791–1862), Irish politician

List of Trinity College, Oxford people

A list of notable people affiliated with Trinity College, Oxford, Oxford University, England. It includes former students, current and former academics and fellows. When available, year of matriculation is provided in parentheses, as listed in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography or another available source. The overwhelming maleness of this list is explained by the fact that for over 90% of its history (from its foundation in 1555 until 1979), Trinity was an all-male institution.

Lord High Steward

The position of Lord High Steward is the first of the Great Officers of State in England, nominally ranking above the Lord Chancellor.

The office has generally remained vacant since 1421, and is now an ad hoc office that is primarily ceremonial and is filled only for a coronation.

At coronations of the British monarch, the Lord High Steward bears St Edward's Crown. The Lord High Steward has the sole legal power to preside over impeachment trials of peers (a rare occurrence in the House of Lords). The trial of peers by their peers (a law which applied for felonies) was abolished in 1948. In general, but not invariably, the Lord Chancellor was deputised (to act as Lord High Steward) in the felony trials. There was a "Court of the Lord High Steward" which served this purpose when Parliament was not in session.

Initially the position was largely an honorary one. It grew in importance until its holder became one of the most powerful men of the kingdom. From the late 12th century, the office was considered to be bound with the Earldom of Leicester. When the House of Lancaster ascended the throne in 1399, Henry IV made his second son, Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence, Lord High Steward. He held the post until his death in 1421.

The equivalent offices in Scotland and Ireland respectively are the Great Steward of Scotland (always held by the heir to the throne, known in Scotland as the Duke of Rothesay) and the Lord High Steward of Ireland (held by the Earls of Shrewsbury, who are also Earls of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland).

March 4

March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 302 days remain until the end of the year.

Queen Mary's Grammar School

Queen Mary's Grammar School (QMGS) is a selective boys' grammar school with academy status located in Sutton Road, Walsall, England, about a mile from the town centre and one of the oldest schools in the country. The sixth form is coeducational.

Sir Nicholas Williams, 1st Baronet

Sir Nicholas Williams, 1st Baronet (1681 – 19 July 1745) was a British politician.

He was the eldest son of Sir Rice Williams, of Edwinsford, Carmarthenshire, by his second wife, Mary Vaughan, daughter and co-heir of John Vaughan of Llanelly. He was educated at Eton College and Queens' College, Cambridge.He was High Sheriff of Carmarthenshire from

1697–98, and was created a baronet on 30 July 1707. From 1724 until his death, he was a Member of Parliament for Carmarthenshire in the Parliament of Great Britain, and was Lord Lieutenant of the county from 1735 to 1740. He was a supporter of Robert Walpole.He married Mary Cocks, the daughter of Charles Cocks and niece of John Somers, 1st Baron Somers, on 19 June 1712 at St Mildred, Poultry, London. They had no children, and the baronetcy

became extinct on his death in 1745. His estate eventually devolved to the second and third Hamlyn-Williams baronets.After his death, his brother Thomas took over as Custos Rotulorum of Carmarthenshire.

Somers, Connecticut

Somers is a town in Tolland County, Connecticut. The population was 11,444 at the 2010 census. The town center is listed by the U.S. Census Bureau as a census-designated place (CDP). In 2007, Money Magazine named Somers, Connecticut 53rd on its list of 100 Best Places to Live, based on "economic opportunity, good schools, safe streets, things to do and a real sense of community."

Bordering Massachusetts, Somers is considered part of the City of Springfield, Massachusetts NECTA. Somers is only 9 miles from the City of Springfield, Massachusetts, and considered more oriented toward it than the City of Hartford, Connecticut, which lies 16 miles to the south.

Somers (surname)

Somers is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Adeline Marie Somers (1852–1920), British humanitarian and advocate for penal reform

Alan Somers (born 1941), American swimmer

Alex Somers (born 1984), American visual artist and musician; partner of Jónsi

Andrew Lawrence Somers (1895–1949), American (New York) politician

Armonía Somers (1914–1994), Uruguayan feminist, pedagogue, novelist and short story writer

Art Somers (1902–1992), Canadian ice hockey player

Arthur Somers-Cocks, 6th Baron Somers (1887–1944), British Army officer, Governor of Victoria 1926–31

Bart Somers (born 1964), Belgian politician, Minister-President of Flanders 2003-04

Brett Somers (1924–2007), Canadian-born American actress, singer, and comedian

Charles Somers (1868–1934), American executive and investor in baseball

Daryl Somers (born 1951), Australian television personality

George Somers, (1554–1610), British admiral who founded the colony of Bermuda in 1609

Hans Somers (born 1978), Belgian football midfielder

Harry Somers (1925–1999), Canadian composer and pianist

Jeff Somers (born 1971), American science fiction author

John Somers, 1st Baron Somers 1651–1716, Lord Chancellor of England under William III

John Somers-Smith (1887–1916), British rower

Joseph Somers (1917–1966), Belgian racing cyclist

Joseph Somers (born 1950s/60s), American artist

Linda Somers (born 1961), American long-distance runner

Luke Somers (1981–2014), British-American photojournalist who was kidnapped in 2013

Marc Somers (born 1961), Belgian racing cyclist

Marlies Somers (born 1973), Dutch voice actress

Peter Somers (1878–1914), Scottish footballer

Peter J. Somers (1850–1924), American politician, mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Richard Somers (1778–1804 †), officer of the United States Navy

Steve Somers (born 1947), radio host on the New York City sports radio station WFAN

Suzanne Somers (born 1946), American actress

Thomas Somers (athlete) (born 1997), British sprinter

Vaughan Somers (born 1951), Australian golfer

Walter Somers (1839–1917), English industrialist

Wieki Somers (born 1976), Dutch designer

Treaty of Union

The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", At the time it was more often referred to as the Articles of Union.

The details of the Treaty were agreed on 22 July 1706, and separate Acts of Union were then passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to put the agreed Articles into effect. The political union took effect on 1 May 1707.

William Gregg (clerk and spy)

William Gregg (died 1708) was a Scottish spy who had been a clerk to the Secretary of State, Robert Harley. He was executed for treason after it was discovered that he had been selling State secrets to the French. The affair gravely damaged Harley politically, as he was rightly criticised for facilitating Gregg's treason though his lax security arrangements, although it is generally accepted that he had no knowledge of the treason itself.

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18th century
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21st century

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