John Nash (18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was one of the foremost British architects of the Regency and Georgian eras, during which he was responsible for the design, in the neoclassical and picturesque styles, of many important areas of London. His designs were financed by the Prince Regent, and by the era's most successful property developer, James Burton, with whose son Decimus Burton he collaborated extensively. Nash's best-known solo designs are the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, Marble Arch, and Buckingham Palace; his best known collaboration with James Burton is Regent Street; and his best-known collaborations with Decimus Burton are Regent's Park and its terraces and Carlton House Terrace. The majority of his buildings, including those to the design of which the Burtons did not contribute, were built by the company of James Burton.
|Born||18 January 1752|
Lambeth, London, England
|Died||13 May 1835 (aged 83)|
East Cowes Castle, Isle of Wight, England
|Partner(s)||James Burton; Decimus Burton|
Nash was born during 1752 in Lambeth, south London, the son of a Welsh millwright also called John (1714–1772). From 1766 or 67, John Nash trained with the architect Sir Robert Taylor; the apprenticeship was completed in 1775 or 1776.
On 28 April 1775, at the now demolished church of St Mary Newington, Nash married his first wife Jane Elizabeth Kerr, daughter of a surgeon. Initially he seems to have pursued a career as a surveyor, builder and carpenter. This gave him an income of around £300 a year. The couple set up home at Royal Row Lambeth. He established his own architectural practice in 1777 as well as being in partnership with a timber merchant, Richard Heaviside. The couple had two children, both were baptised at St Mary-at-Lambeth, John on 9 June 1776 and Hugh on 28 April 1778.
In June 1778 "By the ill conduct of his wife found it necessary to send her into Wales in order to work a reformation on her", the cause of this appears to have been the claim that Jane Nash "Had imposed two spurious children on him as his and her own, notwithstanding she had then never had any child" and she had contracted several debts unknown to her husband, including one for milliners' bills of £300. The claim that Jane had faked her pregnancies and then passed babies she had acquired off as her own was brought before the Consistory court of the Bishop of London.
His wife was sent to Aberavon to lodge with Nash's cousin Ann Morgan, but she developed a relationship with a local man Charles Charles. In an attempt at reconciliation Jane returned to London in June 1779, but she continued to act extravagantly so he sent her to another cousin, Thomas Edwards of Neath. She gave birth just after Christmas, and acknowledged Charles Charles as the father. In 1781 Nash instigated action against Jane for separation on grounds of adultery. The case was tried at Hereford in 1782, Charles who was found guilty was unable to pay the damages of £76 and subsequently died in prison. The divorce was finally read 26 January 1787.
His career was initially unsuccessful and short-lived. After inheriting £1000 in 1778 from his uncle Thomas, he invested the money in building his first known independent works, 15–17 Bloomsbury Square and 66–71 Great Russell Street in Bloomsbury. But the property failed to let and he was declared bankrupt on 30 September 1783. His debts were £5000, including £2000 he had been lent by Robert Adam and his brothers.
Nash left London in 1784 to live in Carmarthen, to where his mother had retired, her family being from the area. In 1785 he and a local man Samuel Simon Saxon re-roofed the town's church for 600 Guineas. Nash and Saxon seem to have worked as building contractors and suppliers of building materials. Nash's London buildings had been standard Georgian terrace houses, and it was in Wales that he matured as an architect. His first major work in the area was the first of three prisons he would design, Carmarthen 1789–92, this prison was planned by the penal reformer John Howard and Nash developed this into the finished building. He went on to design the prisons at Cardigan (1791–96) and Hereford (1792–96). It was at Hereford that Nash met Richard Payne Knight, whose theories on the picturesque as applies to architecture and landscape would influence Nash. The commission for Hereford Gaol came after the death of William Blackburn, who was to have designed the building, Nash's design was accepted after James Wyatt approved of the design.
By 1789 St David's Cathedral was suffering from structural problems, the west front was leaning forward by one foot, Nash was called in to survey the structure and develop a plan to save the building, his solution completed in 1791 was to demolish the upper part of the facade and rebuild it with two large but inelegant flying buttresses.
In 1790 Nash met Uvedale Price, whose theories of the Picturesque would have a major future influence on Nash's town planning. In the short term Price would commission Nash to design Castle House Aberystwyth (1795). Its plan took the form of a rightangled triangle, with an octagonal tower at each corner, sited on the very edge of the sea. This marked a new and more imaginative approach to design in Nash's work.
One of Nash's most important developments were a series of medium-sized country houses that he designed in Wales, these developed the villa designs of his teacher Sir Robert Taylor. Most of these villas consist of a roughly square plan with a small entrance hall with a staircase offset in the middle to one side, around which are placed the main rooms, there is then a less prominent Servants' quarters in a wing attached to one side of the villa. The buildings are usually only two floors in height, the elevations of the main block are usually symmetrical. One of the finest of these villas is Llanerchaeron, at least a dozen villas were designed throughout south Wales. Others, in Pembrokeshire, include Ffynone, built for the Colby family at Boncath near Manordeifi, and Foley House, built for the lawyer Richard Foley (brother of Admiral Sir Thomas Foley) at Goat Street in Haverfordwest.
He met Humphry Repton at Stoke Edith in 1792 and formed a successful partnership with the landscape garden designer. One of their early commissions was at Corsham Court in 1795–96. The pair would collaborate to carefully place the Nash-designed building in grounds designed by Repton. The partnership ended in 1800 under recriminations, Repton accusing Nash of exploiting their partnership to his own advantage.
As Nash developed his architectural practice it became necessary to employ draughtsmen, the first in the early 1790s was Augustus Charles Pugin, then a bit later in 1795 John Adey Repton son of Humphry.
In 1796, Nash spent most of his time working in London, this was a prelude to his return to the capital in 1797.
In June 1797, he moved into 28 Dover Street, a building of his own design. He built a larger house next door at 29, into which he moved the following year. Nash married 25-year-old Mary Ann Bradley on 17 December 1798 at St George's, Hanover Square. In 1798, he purchased a plot of land of 30 acres (12 ha) at East Cowes on which he erected 1798–1802 East Cowes Castle as his residence. It was the first of a series of picturesque Gothic castles that he would design.
Nash's final home in London was No.14 Regent Street that he designed and built 1819–23, No. 16 was built at the same time the home of Nash's cousin John Edwards, a lawyer who handled all of Nash's legal affairs. Located in Lower Regent Street, near Waterloo Place, both houses formed a single design around an open courtyard. Nash's drawing office was on the ground floor, on the first floor was the finest room in the house, the 70-foot-long picture and sculpture gallery; it linked the drawing room at the front of the building with the dining room at the rear. The house was sold in 1834 and the gallery interior moved to East Cowes Castle.
The finest of the dozen country houses that Nash designed as picturesque castles include the relatively small Luscombe Castle Devon (1800–04), Ravensworth Castle (Tyne and Wear) begun 1807 only finally completed in 1846, was one of the largest houses by Nash, Caerhays Castle in Cornwall (1808–10), Shanbally Castle, County Tipperary (1818–1819) was the last of these castles to be built. These buildings all represented Nash's continuing development of an asymmetrical and picturesque architectural style, that had begun during his years in Wales, at both Castle House Aberystwyth and his alterations to Hafod Uchtryd. This process would be extended by Nash in planning groups of buildings, the first example being Blaise Hamlet (1810–1811); there a group of nine asymmetrical cottages was laid out around a village green. Nikolaus Pevsner described the hamlet as "the ne plus ultra of the Picturesque movement". The hamlet has also been described as the first fully realized exemplar of the garden suburb. Nash developed the asymmetry of his castles in his Italianate villas; his first such exercise was Cronkhill (1802), others included Sandridge Park (1805) and Southborough Place, Surbiton, (1808).
He advised on work to the buildings of Jesus College, Oxford in 1815, for which he required no fee but asked that the college should commission a portrait of him from Sir Thomas Lawrence to hang in the college hall.
Nash was a dedicated Whig and was a friend of Charles James Fox through whom Nash probably came to the attention of the Prince Regent (later King George IV). In 1806 Nash was appointed architect to the Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases. From 1810 Nash would take very few private commissions and for the rest of his career he would largely work for the Prince.
His first major commissions in (1809–1826) from the Prince were Regent Street and the development of an area then known as Marylebone Park. With the Regent's backing, Nash created a master plan for the area, put into effect from 1818 onwards, which stretched from St James's northwards and included Regent Street, Regent's Park (1809–1832) and its neighbouring streets, terraces and crescents of elegant town houses and villas. Nash did not design all the buildings himself; in some instances, these were left in the hands of other architects such as James Pennethorne and the young Decimus Burton. Nash went on to re-landscape St. James's Park (1814–1827), reshaping the formal canal into the present lake, and giving the park its present form. A characteristic of Nash's plan for Regent Street was that it followed an irregular path linking Portland Place to the north with Carlton House, London (replaced by Nash's Carlton House Terrace (1827–1833)) to the south. At the northern end of Portland Place Nash designed Park Crescent, London (1812) & (1819–1821), this opens into Nash's Park Square, London (1823–24), this only has terraces on the east and west, the north opens into Regent's Park.
The terraces that Nash designed around Regent's park though conforming to the earlier form of appearing as a single building, as developed by John Wood, the Elder, are unlike earlier examples set in gardens and are not orthogonal in their placing to each other. This was part of Nash's development of planning, this found it is most extreme example when he set out Park Village East and Park Village West (1823–34) to the north-east of Regent's Park, here a mixture of detached villas, semi-detached houses, both symmetrical and assymmetrical in their design are set out in private gardens railed off from the street, the roads loop and the buildings are both classical and gothic in style. No two buildings were the same, and or even in line with their neighbours. The park Villages can be seen as the prototype for the Victorian suburbs.
Nash was employed by the Prince from 1815 to develop his Marine Pavilion in Brighton, originally designed by Henry Holland. By 1822 Nash had finished his work on the Marine Pavilion, which was now transformed into the Royal Pavilion. The exterior was based on Mughal architecture, giving the building its exotic form, the Chinoiserie style interiors are largely the work of Frederick Crace.
Nash was also a director of the Regent's Canal Company set up in 1812 to provide a canal link from west London to the River Thames in the east. Nash's masterplan provided for the canal to run around the northern edge of Regent's Park; as with other projects, he left its execution to one of his assistants, in this case James Morgan. The first phase of the Regent's Canal was completed in 1816 and finally completed in 1820.
Together with Robert Smirke and Sir John Soane, he became an official architect to the Office of Works in 1813, (the appointment ended in 1832) at a salary of £500 per annum, following the death in September of that year of James Wyatt, this marked the high point in his professional life. As part of Nash's new position he was invited to advise the Parliamentary Commissioners on the building of new churches from 1818 onwards. Nash produced ten church designs, each estimated to cost around £10,000 with seating for 2000 people, the style of the buildings were both classical and gothic. In the end Nash only built two churches for the Commission, the classical All Souls Church, Langham Place (1822–24) terminating the northern end of Regent Street, and the gothic St. Mary's Haggerston (1825–27), bombed during The Blitz in 1941.
Nash was involved in the design of two of London's theatres, both in Haymarket. The King's Opera House (now rebuilt as Her Majesty's Theatre) (1816–1818) where he and George Repton remodelled the theatre, with arcades and shops around three sides of the building, the fourth being the still surviving Royal Opera Arcade.
The other theatre was the Theatre Royal Haymarket (1821), with its fine hexastyle Corinthian order portico, which still survives, facing down Charles II Street to St. James's Square, Nash's interior nolonger survives (the interior now dates from 1904).
In 1820 a scandal broke, when a cartoon was published showing a half dressed King George IV embracing Nash's wife with a speech bubble coming from the King's mouth containing the words "I have great pleasure in visiting this part of my dominions". Whether this was based on just a rumour put about by people who resented Nash's success or if there is substance behind is not known.
Further London commissions for Nash followed, including the remodelling of Buckingham House to create Buckingham Palace (1825–1830), and for the Royal Mews (1822–24) and Marble Arch (1828) The arch was originally designed as a triumphal arch to stand at the entrance to Buckingham Palace. It was moved when the east wing of the palace designed by Edward Blore was built, at the request of Queen Victoria whose growing family required additional domestic space. Marble Arch became the entrance to Hyde Park and The Great Exhibition.
The parents of John Nash, and Nash himself during his childhood, lived in Southwark, where James Burton worked as an 'Architect and Builder' and developed a positive reputation for prescient speculative building between 1785 and 1792. Burton built the Blackfriars Rotunda in Great Surrey Street (now Blackfriars Road) to house the Leverian Museum, for land agent and museum proprietor James Parkinson. However, whereas Burton was vigorously industrious, and quickly became 'most gratifyingly rich', Nash's early years in private practice, and his first speculative developments, which failed either to sell or let, were unsuccessful, and his consequent financial shortage was exacerbated by the 'crazily extravagant' wife whom he had married before he had completed his training, until he was declared bankrupt in 1783. To resolve his financial shortage, Nash cultivated the acquaintance of James Burton, who consented to patronize him. James Burton responsible for the social and financial patronage of the majority of Nash's London designs, in addition to for their construction. Architectural scholar Guy Williams has written, 'John Nash relied on James Burton for moral and financial support in his great enterprises. Decimus had showed precocious talent as a draughtsman and as an exponent of the classical style... John Nash needed the son's aid, as well as the father's'. Subsequent to the Crown Estate's refusal to finance them, James Burton agreed to personally finance the construction projects of Nash at Regent’s Park, which he had already been commissioned to construct: consequently, in 1816, Burton purchased many of the leases of the proposed terraces around, and proposed villas within, Regent's Park, and, in 1817, Burton purchased the leases of five of the largest blocks on Regent Street. The first property to be constructed in or around Regent's Park by Burton was his own mansion: The Holme, which was designed by his son, Decimus Burton, and completed in 1818. Burton's extensive financial involvement 'effectively guaranteed the success of the project'. In return, Nash agreed to promote the career of Decimus Burton. Nash was a vehement advocate of the neoclassical revival endorsed by Soane, although he had lost interest in the plain stone edifices typical of the Georgian style, and instead advocated the use of stucco. Decimus Burton entered the office of Nash in 1815, where he worked alongside Augustus Charles Pugin, who detested the neoclassical style. Decimus established his own architectural practice in 1821. In 1821, Nash invited Decimus to design Cornwall Terrace in Regent's Park, and Decimus was also invited by George Bellas Greenough, a close friend of the Prince Regent, Humphrey Davy, and Nash, to design Grove House in Regent's Park. Greenough's invitation to Decimus Burton was 'virtually a family affair', for Greenhough had dined frequently with Decimus's parents and Decimus's brothers, including the physician Henry Burton. Greenough and Decimus finalized their designs during numerous meetings at the opera. Decimus's design, when the villa had been completed, was described in The Proceedings of the Royal Society as, 'One of the most elegant and successful adaptations of the Grecian style to purposes of modern domestic architecture to be found in this or any country'. Subsequently, Nash invited Burton to design Clarence Terrace, Regent's Park. Such were James Burton’s contributions to the Regent's Park project that the Commissioners of Woods described James, not Nash, as ‘the architect of Regent’s Park’. Contrary to popular belief, the dominant architectural influence in many of the Regent's Park projects - including Cornwall Terrace, York Terrace, Chester Terrace, Clarence Terrace, and the villas of the Inner Circle, including The Holme and the London Colosseum attraction (the latter to Thomas Hornor's specifications) all of which were constructed by James Burton's company - was Decimus Burton, not John Nash, who was appointed architectural 'overseer' for Decimus's projects. To the chagrin of Nash, Decimus largely disregarded his advice and developed the Terraces according to his own style, to the extent that Nash sought unsuccessfully, to demolish and completely rebuild Chester Terrace. Decimus subsequently eclipsed his master and emerged as the dominant force in the design of Carlton House Terrace, where he exclusively designed No. 3 and No.4. Decimus also designed some of the villas of the Inner Circle: his villa for the Marquess of Hertford has been described as, 'decorated simplicity, such as the hand of taste, aided by the purse of wealth can alone execute'.
Nash's career effectively ended with the death of George IV in 1830. The King's notorious extravagance had generated much resentment and Nash was now without a protector. The Treasury started to look closely at the cost of Buckingham Palace. Nash's original estimate of the building's cost had been £252,690, but this had risen to £496,169 in 1829 the actual cost was £613,269 and the building was still unfinished. This controversy ensured that Nash would not receive any more official commissions nor would he be awarded the Knighthood that other contemporary architects such as Jeffry Wyattville, John Soane and Robert Smirke received. Nash retired to the Isle of Wight to his home, East Cowes Castle.
On 28 March 1835 Nash was described as "very poorly and faint". This was the beginning of the end. On 1 May Nash's solicitor John Wittet Lyon was summonsed to East Cowes Castle to finalise his will. By 6 May he was described as 'very ill indeed all day', he died at his home on 13 May 1835. His funeral took place at St. James's Church, East Cowes on 20 May, where he was buried in the churchyard, where the monument takes the form of a stone sarcophagus.
His widow acted to clear Nash's debts (some £15,000), she held a sale of the Castle's contents, including three paintings by J. M. W. Turner painted on the Isle of Wight, two by Benjamin West and several copies of old master paintings by Richard Evans. These artworks were sold at Christie's on 11 July 1835 for £1,061. His books, medals, drawings and engravings were bought by a bookseller named Evans for £1,423 on 15 July. The Castle itself was sold for a reported figure of £20,000 to Henry Boyle, 3rd Earl of Shannon within the year.
Nash had many pupils and assistants including Decimus Burton, Humphry Repton's sons, John Adey Repton and George Stanley Repton, as well as Anthony Salvin, John Foulon (1772–1842), Augustus Charles Pugin, F.H. Greenway, James Morgan, James Pennethorne, the brothers Henry, James and George Pain.
Works in London include:
Work in Wales include:
Nash's only known work in Scotland is:
Events from the year 1752 in Great Britain.1752 in Wales
Events from the year 1752 in Wales.1788 in Wales
This article is about the particular significance of the year 1788 to Wales and its people.1830s in Wales
This article is about the particular significance of the decade 1830 - 1839 to Wales and its people.1832 in Wales
This article is about the particular significance of the year 1832 to Wales and its people.1835 in Wales
This article is about the particular significance of the year 1835 to Wales and its people.1835 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1835 in the United Kingdom.Carmarthen
Carmarthen (; Welsh: Caerfyrddin [kɑːɨrˈvərðɪn], "Merlin's fort" or "Sea-town fort") is the county town of Carmarthenshire in Wales and a community. It lies on the River Towy 8 miles (13 km) north of its estuary in Carmarthen Bay. Carmarthen has a claim to be the oldest town in Wales – Old Carmarthen and New Carmarthen became one borough in 1546. Carmarthen was the most populous borough in Wales in the 16th–18th centuries, described by William Camden as "the chief citie of the country". Growth was stagnating by the mid-19th century, as new economic centres developed in the South Wales coalfield. The population in 2011 was 14,185, down from 15,854 in 2001. Dyfed–Powys Police headquarters, Glangwili General Hospital and a campus of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David are located in Carmarthen.County surveyor
A county surveyor is a public official in the United States and the United Kingdom.Dover Street
Dover Street is a street in Mayfair, London. The street is notable for its Georgian architecture as well as the location of historic London clubs and hotels, which have been frequented by world leaders and historic figures in the arts. It also hosts a number of contemporary art galleries. An equestrian sculpture by Elisabeth Frink stands on the junction of Dover Street and Piccadilly, opposite the Ritz Hotel.East Cowes
East Cowes is a town and civil parish to the north of the Isle of Wight, on the east bank of the River Medina next to its neighbour on the west bank, Cowes.
The two towns are connected by the Cowes Floating Bridge, a chain ferry operated by the Isle of Wight Council.
East Cowes is the site of Norris Castle, and Osborne House, the former summer residence of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The Prince had a major influence on the architecture of the area, for example on the building of St Mildred's Church in nearby Whippingham, which features distinctive turrets imitating those found on a German castle.List of people from the London Borough of Lambeth
Among those who were born in the London Borough of Lambeth, or have dwelt within the borders of the modern borough are (alphabetical order):
Naveen Andrews, actor, born in Lambeth in 1969
Elias Ashmole, alchemist, died in Lambeth in 1692
Winifred Barnes (1892-1935), musical theatre comedy actress and singer, born in Brixton
William Blake, religious visionary, poet and artist
Daniel Bott, Mayor of Strathfield, born in Lambeth
David Bowie, singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, arranger, and actor
Jamal Campbell-Ryce, professional footballer for Carlisle United FC, born in Lambeth
Charlie Chaplin, film actor and comedian, spent his early life in Lambeth
Gordon Comstock, fictional poet from George Orwell's book Keep the Aspidistra Flying
John Doulton and Sir Henry Doulton, founded pottery company Royal Doulton in Lambeth
John Dimmer, Lieutenant colonel, recipient of the Victoria cross in 1914.
Kieran Gibbs, professional footballer, currently playing for Arsenal FC, born in Lambeth
Christopher Newman Hall, founded the Christ Church complex in Lambeth of which only the Lincoln Memorial Tower survives today
Ken Livingstone, former London Mayor, born in Lambeth in 1945
Rob Lord, composer of music for films, TV and computer games
Geoff Marshall, video producer and presenter; born in Lambeth
W. Somerset Maugham, completed his training in obstetrics in Lambeth and used that experience as the basis for his novel Liza of Lambeth
Stella McCartney, English fashion designer
Elliot Rodger, perpetrator of the 2014 Isla Vista killings, born in Lambeth in 1991
Carl McCoy, frontman for gothic rock band Fields of the Nephilim, born there in 1963
F. B. Meyer, pastored Christ Church in Lambeth
William Chester Minor, major contributor to the Oxford English Dictionary; while living at Lambeth, he murdered George Merrett, for which crime he was found criminally insane and confined for the rest of his life at Broadmoor.
John Nash, architect and urbanist, born in Lambeth in 1752
Akai Osei, street dancer; winner of Got To Dance; born in Lambeth
Scott Parker, professional footballer for West Ham United FC, born in Lambeth
Shirley Pitts (1934–1992), English fraudster and thief, the "queen of shoplifters", born on the Lambeth Walk
Guy Pratt, bass guitarist, born in Lambeth
Frederick Ruffell (born 1997), cricketer
Tony Selby, actor, born 1942, played Corporal Marsh in the comedy series Get Some In (ITV 1975 to 1978); starred in Eastenders, Dr Who, The Good Life, and Bless This House
Katie Seymour, Gaiety Theatre dancer, Lambeth resident
Charlie Smirke, Derby-winning jockey, born in Lambeth
James Stephen Undersecretary of state for the colonies (1836-1847)
Sir Arthur Sullivan, composer of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, born in Lambeth in 1842
Edward Thomas, poet, born in Lambeth
Arthur Tooth, ritualist clergyman in the Church of England, curate of St. Mary's Lambeth in 1863
Harriet Vernon, music hall performer and principal boy; born in Lambeth in 1858Rheola House
Rheola House is a Grade II* listed country house between Glynneath and Resolven, in the Neath valley, South Wales. Designed by John Nash, it was built between 1812 and 1814 for Nash's cousin, John Edwards. It passed through inheritance to members of the Edwards, Vaughan, and Lee families, until in 1939, with the house becoming run down, it was bought by an aluminium company for use as offices, and part of the land was put to industrial uses. In 2012 an application was made for housing on the industrialised area, to enable restoration of the house and a leisure complex to sustain the estate. The application was granted in 2014.Sir Thomas Bernard, 3rd Baronet
Sir Thomas Bernard, 3rd Baronet (27 April 1750 – 1 July 1818) was an English social reformer whose father, as governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay (1760–1770), played a responsible part in directing the British policy which led to the revolt of the American colonies.St George's Hanover Square Church
St George's Hanover Square Church is an Anglican church in the City of Westminster, central London, built in the early eighteenth century. The land on which the church stands was donated by General William Steuart, who laid the first stone in 1721. The church was designed by John James and was constructed under a project to build fifty new churches around London (the Queen Anne Churches). The building is one small block south of Hanover Square, near Oxford Circus, in what is now the City of Westminster. Owing to its Mayfair location, it has frequently been the venue for high society weddings.Street names of Regent's Park
This is a list of the etymology of street names in the area of Regent’s Park in London (i.e. the park, its immediately surrounding terraces, and Regent's Park Estate to the east); the area has no formal boundaries, though it generally thought to be delimited by Prince Albert Road to the north, Park Village East and Hampstead Road/the Euston railway line/Eversholt Street to the east, Euston Road and Marylebone Road to the south and Park Road and Baker Street to the west,
Albany Street, Albany Terrace and Little Albany Street – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Allsop Place – as this area was formerly Allsop’s farm, after Thomas Allsop
Augustus Street – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Avenue Road – simply a descriptive name
Baker Street – after Edward Baker, friend and business partner of the Portman family
The Broad Walk – descriptive
Brunswick Place – after Caroline of Brunswick, wife of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Cambridge Gate, Cambridge Gate Mews, Cambridge Terrace and Cambridge Terrace Mews – after Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Cardington Street – after the Dukes of Bedford, who also owned land at Cardington, Bedfordshire
Chester Close North, Chester Close South, Chester Court, Chester Gate, Chester Place, Chester Road and Chester Terrace – after the Prince Regent (George IV), also Earl of Chester
Clarence Gardens, Clarence Gate and Clarence Terrace – after the future William IV, Duke of Clarence, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Cobourg Street – after Leopold I of Belgium off Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, husband of Princess Charlotte of Wales, George IV’s daughter
Cornwall Terrace and Cornwall Terrace Mews
Cumberland Market, Cumberland Place, Cumberland Terrace and Cumberland Terrace Mews – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Drummond Street – after Lady Caroline Drummond, a member of the Duke of Grafton's family
Edward Mews and Little Edward Street – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Euston Grove, Euston Road, Euston Square, Euston Station Colonnade, Euston Street and Euston Underpass – after the earl of Euston, son of the duke of Grafton, local landowners when the road was built in the 1760s
Eversholt Street –after the Dukes of Bedford, whose seat was at Woburn Abbey near Eversholt, Bedfordshire
Exmouth Mews – presumably by relation to Exmouth Street, now Starcross Street
George Mews – presumably for the Prince Regent (George IV)
Gloucester Gate, Gloucester Gate Bridge and Gloucester Gate Mews – after Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, sister of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Granby Terrace – after John Manners, Marquess of Granby, noted Georgian-era military commander
Hampstead Road – as it leads to the north London district of this name
Hanover Gate, and Hanover Terrace and Hanover Terrace Mews – after the House of Hanover, reigning dynasty when the square and street were built in 1713
Harrington Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington
Inner Circle and Outer Circle – simply descriptive names
Kent Passage and Kent Terrace – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Laxton Place – after its 1806 developer, the baker George Laxton
Macclesfield Bridge – after George Parker, 4th Earl of Macclesfield, chairman of the Regent’s Canal Company in the 17th century
MacFarren Place – after George Alexander Macfarren, composer and principal at the nearby Royal Academy of Music
Mackworth Street – after Thomas Mackworth, local landowner who is buried nearby; it was formerly Rutland Street, after John Manners, Marquess of Granby (also Duke of Rutland), but was changed in 1938 to avoid confusion with several other similarly named streets
Marylebone Road – from a church dedicated to St Mary, represented now by St Marylebone Parish Church (1817); the original church was built on the bank of a small stream or "bourne", called the Tybourne or Tyburn. This stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the surrounding area later became known as St Mary at the Bourne which, over time, became shortened to its present form, Marylebone
Melton Street – unknown
Mornington Street – after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, noted 18th - 19th century statesman
Munster Square – after the future William IV, Earl of Munster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Nash Street – after John Nash, architect of the terraces around Regent’s Park
Netley Street – possibly after Netley in Hampshire
North Gower Street – after Gertrude Leveson-Gower, wife of local landowner John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford; it is the northern extension of Gower Street
Nottingham Terrace – after Nottinghamshire, where local landowners the dukes of Portland owned property
Osnaburgh Street and Osnaburgh Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Osnaburgh in English), brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Park Road – after the adjacent Regent’s Park
Park Square, Park Square East, Park Square Mews and Park Square West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park
Park Village East and Park Village West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park
Peto Place – after Samuel Morton Peto, MP, entrepreneur, civil engineer and railway developer, who paid for a Batist chapel to be built here in 1855 (since closed)
Prince Albert Road – after Albert, Prince Consort; formerly Primrose Hill Road
Prince of Wales Passage – after the Royal family
Prince Regent Mews – after the Prince Regent, later George IV, by association with Regent’s Park
St Andrew’s Place – after the later William IV, Duke of St Andrews, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
St Katherine’s Precinct – after the former Anglican chapel of St Katharine's Hospital, which retains its original dedication to Saint Katharine, and was built in 1826-8 (now the Danish Church)
Stanhope Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington
Starcross Street – formerly Exmouth Street, it was renamed after the town of this name in Devon to avoid confusion with similarly named streets
Station Approach – descriptive, next to Euston station
Stephenson Way – after Robert Stephenson, Victoria-era builder of the adjacent Euston station
Sussex Place – after Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Tolmers Square – after the village of this name in Hertfordshire; the New River flowed from the county and this land was formerly a reservoir owned by the New River Company
Triton Square and Triton Street – after the Greek god of this name
Ulster Place and Ulster Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
Varndell Street – after the architect CE Varndell, who took over as surveyor the Regent’s Park development from John Nash
William Road – after the later William IV, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)
York Bridge, York Gate, York Terrace East and York Terrace West – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)Temple Druid
Temple Druid is a grade II listed John Nash house in west Wales, Pembrokeshire.
Temple Druid, named after a series of standing stones and cromlech, is a house located about 3/4 of a mile east of the village of Maenclochog.Thomas Ellis Owen
Thomas Ellis Owen (1805 – 1862) was an English architect and developer responsible for many of the buildings that still exist in Southsea and Gosport. He designed many churches in Hampshire and some of his work that still stands today can be found in Shropshire, Dorset and Pembrokeshire.
Owen was born in Middlesex, the son of Jacob Owen, who worked for the Royal Engineers Ordnance Department in Portsmouth. He trained as an architect and, although his architecture was probably influenced by John Nash (architect) Owen had a lighter touch that belonged more to his Georgian roots than the Victorian times he mainly practised in.
Owen was instrumental in shaping the development of Southsea during the middle part of the 19th century, developing it from poorly drained farmland into a garden suburb. He designed and built 106 villas and 54 terrace houses in Southsea, including Queens Terrace, Portland Terrace, and Eastern Parade. In addition, he designed a range of commercial, religious, and civic buildings, including St Jude's Church in central Southsea.
In addition to his work as an architect and developer, Owen was a prominent civic figure. He became Mayor of Portsmouth twice (in 1847 and 1862) and also served as a magistrate. A fuller account of his life can be found in Thomas Ellis Owen Shaper of Portsmouth, 'Father of Southsea'