John Mullaly (1835–1915), known as father of the Bronx's park system, was a newspaper reporter and editor who was instrumental in forming the New York Park Association. He was born in Belfast, Ireland. After coming to the United States, he worked for the New York Herald, the New York Tribune, and the New York Evening Post. He was the editor of the Metropolitan Record, published by the Catholic Church in New York City.
He held public office, including serving as the New York Commissioner of Health, and serving on the board of tax assessors.
In 1887, he published a book with the impressive title, New Parks beyond the Harlem with Thirty Illustrations and Map; Descriptions of Scenery; Nearly 4000 Acres of Free Playground for the People; Abundant space for a Parade Ground, a Rifle Range, Base Ball, Lacrosse, Polo, Tennis and all athletic games; picnic and excursion parties and nine mile of waterfront for bathing fishing, yachting and rowing.
Mullaly was a controversial figure during the American Civil War, one of New York City's ardent opponents to the draft. On August 19, 1864, John Mullaly was arrested for inciting resistance to the draft and examined a few days later for possible trial.
At a rally in Union Square on May 19, 1863, Mullaly declared “the war to be wicked, cruel and unnecessary, and carried on solely to benefit the negroes, and advised resistance to conscription if ever the attempt should be made to enforce the law.” As editor of he Metropolitan Record, Mullaly’s call for armed resistance to the military draft led to his arrest following the July 1863 New York City Draft Riots. Over one hundred people died and at least nineteen Black men were beaten to death or lynched by rioters in the worst urban unrest in the United States during the 19th century. Although a racist, Mullaly did not support the murder of Blacks during the rioting. In one Metropolitan Record editorial he advised members of the “superior” race not to turn their anger against an “inferior” one.
Editorials in the Metropolitan Record written by Mullaly leading up to the Draft Riots accused the Lincoln Administration of perverting the war from an attempt to restore the Union into an “emancipation crusade.” He charged the “vile and infamous” Emancipation Proclamation would bring “massacre and rapine and outrage into the homes on Southern plantations, sprinkling their hearths with the blood of gentle women, helpless age, and innocent childhood.” According to Mullaly’s rampage, “Never was a blacker crime sought to be committed against nature, against humanity, against the holy precepts of Christianity.”
In the indictment, Mullaly was also charged with counseling Governor Seymour to “forcibly to resist an enrollment ordered by competent authority in pursuance of said act of Congress.” After a hearing, however, the case against Mullaly was discharged.
A biographer reports that after the Civil War Mullaly left the newspaper business and entered city government through connections with the corrupt Tweed Ring and Tammany Hall. This led to his involvement with the annexation of property in the Bronx and the eventual creation of public parks.
In 1874 when New York City annexed the west Bronx from Westchester County, Mullally sought to create public parks in the Bronx, and founded the New York Park Association in 1881. His efforts culminated in the 1884 New Parks Act and the city’s 1888-90 purchase of lands for Van Cortlandt, Claremont, Crotona, Bronx, St. Mary’s, and Pelham Bay Parks and the Mosholu, Pelham and Crotona Parkways.
Today, Mullaly Park in the south Bronx is named after him.
The 1910 Birthday Honours for the British Empire were announced on 24 June, to mark the occasion of the day set apart to celebrate the birthday of the late King Edward VII, who had died on 6 May. In the circumstances, the list was notably shorter than in preceding years.
The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.Concourse, Bronx
Concourse is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of the Bronx which includes the Bronx County Courthouse, the Bronx Museum of the Arts, and Yankee Stadium. The neighborhood is divided into three subsections: West Concourse, East Concourse, and Concourse Village.Copperhead (politics)
In the 1860s, the Copperheads, also known as Peace Democrats, were a faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War and wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
Republicans started calling anti-war Democrats "Copperheads", likening them to the venomous snake. Those Democrats accepted the label, reinterpreting the copper "head" as the likeness of Liberty, which they cut from Liberty Head large cent coins and proudly wore as badges. By contrast, Democratic supporters of the war were called War Democrats. The Copperheads represented the more extreme wing of the Northern Democrats. Notable Copperheads included two Democratic Congressmen from Ohio: Clement L. Vallandigham and Alexander Long. Republican prosecutors accused some prominent Copperheads of treason in a series of trials in 1864.Copperheadism was a highly contentious grass-roots movement. It had its strongest base in the area just north of the Ohio River as well as in some urban ethnic wards. Some historians have argued that it represented a traditionalistic element alarmed at the rapid modernization of society sponsored by the Republican Party and that it looked back to Jacksonian democracy for inspiration. Weber (2006) argues that the Copperheads damaged the Union war effort by opposing conscription (the "draft"), encouraging desertion and forming conspiracies, but other historians say that the draft was already in disrepute and that the Republicans greatly exaggerated the conspiracies for partisan reasons.
Historians such as Wood Gray and Jennifer Weber argue that the Copperheads were inflexibly rooted in the past and were naive about the refusal of the Confederates to return to the Union. Convinced that the Republicans were ruining the traditional world they loved, they were obstructionist partisans. In turn, the Copperheads became a major target of the National Union Party in the 1864 presidential election, where they were used to discredit the main Democratic candidates. Copperhead support increased when Union armies did poorly and decreased when they won great victories. After the fall of Atlanta in September 1864, Union military success seemed assured and Copperheadism collapsed.Enniscorthy
Enniscorthy, (Irish: Inis Córthaidh) is the second-largest town in County Wexford, Ireland. At the 2016 census, the population of the town and environs increased 11,381. The Placenames Database of Ireland sheds no light on the origins of the town's name. It may refer either to the "Island of Corthaidh" or the "Island of Rocks". With a history going back to 465, Enniscorthy is one of the longest continuously-occupied sites in Ireland. The cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferns is located in the town.Macombs Dam Park
Macombs Dam Park ( mə-KOOMZ) is a park in the Concourse section of the Bronx, New York City. The park lay in the shadow of the old Yankee Stadium when it stood, between Jerome Avenue and the Major Deegan Expressway, near the Harlem River and the Macombs Dam Bridge. The park is administered and maintained by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The majority of Macombs Dam Park was not open to the public from August 2006, when construction began on the new Yankee Stadium, to April 2012.The 28.425-acre (115,030 m2) park, prior to the stadium construction, featured baseball and softball diamonds, basketball courts, and football and soccer fields. Portions of the park are often used during New York Yankees home games to provide overspill parking for vehicles in an area underserved by garages and other parking facilities.Mullally
Mullally or Mulally or Mullaly or Mulaly is a surname of Irish origin (Ó Maolalaidh). Notable people with the surname include:
Alan Mulally (born 1945), American business executive, president of Ford Motor Company
Alan Mullally (born 1969), English cricketer
Anthony Mullally (born 1991), Irish rugby player
Connor Mullally (born 1996), British singer/song-writer
Dick Mullaly (1892-1971), Australian rules footballer
Erin Mullally (born 1990), Australian actor and model
Evelyn Mullally, British academic
Frederic Mullally (1918–2014), British journalist, public relations executive and novelist
John Mullaly (1835–1915), American newspaper reporter and editor, "father of the Bronx's park system"
John Mullally (born 1930), Canadian teacher and politician
Megan Mullally (born 1958), American actress, talk show host and singer
Mike Mullally (born c.1939), American college athletics administrator
Paddy Mullally (born 1976), Irish hurler
Richie Mullally (born 1978), Irish hurler
Dame Sarah Mullally (born 1962), British former nurse, now a Church of England bishop
Seán Ó Maolalaidh (fl.1419–1480), Chief of the Name
Una Mullally (born 1982/3), Irish broadcaster and journalist
William Ó Mullally (c.1530–1595), Archbishop of Tuam in the Church of IrelandNew Parks Act
The New Parks Act is a New York state law passed in 1884. It provided for the creation of parks in the New York City borough of the Bronx, which at the time was largely undeveloped. Three parkways and six parks were established as part of the New Parks Act.New York Park Association
The New York Park Association was formed in 1881 or 1882 (references differ) by John Mullaly and other citizens. The group was concerned about urban growth. The group lobbied for the acquisition of land to create parks and parkways in New York City, and was instrumental in the passage of the New Parks Act in 1884.According to The New York Times, the association was formed at the Fifth Avenue Hotel on November 26, 1881, with the objective of securing increased park space in New York City. John Mullaly was elected the association's secretary. Land suitable for parks could be bought at the time for under $1,000 to $1,500 an acre. It was stated that the parks should be for the use of the people, and not, as Central Park now is, a great ornamental spot which is practically closed to the public by reason of the many restrictions imposed upon visitors.The work of the association led to the creation of Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, Bronx Park, Crotona Park, and Claremont Park.Object-oriented user interface
In computing, an object-oriented user interface (OOUI) is a type of user interface based on an object-oriented programming metaphor. In an OOUI, the user interacts explicitly with objects that represent entities in the domain that the application is concerned with. Many vector drawing applications, for example, have an OOUI – the objects being lines, circles and canvases. The user may explicitly select an object, alter its properties (such as size or colour), or invoke other actions upon it (such as to move, copy, or re-align it). If a business application has any OOUI, the user may be selecting and/or invoking actions on objects representing entities in the business domain such as customers, products or orders.
Jakob Nielsen defines the OOUI in contrast to function-oriented interfaces: "Object-oriented interfaces are sometimes described as turning the application inside-out as compared to function-oriented interfaces. The main focus of the interaction changes to become the users' data and other information objects that are typically represented graphically on the screen as icons or in windows."Dave Collins defines an OOUI as demonstrating three characteristics:
Users perceive and act on objects
Users can classify objects based on how they behave
In the context of what users are trying to do, all the user interface objects fit together into a coherent overall representation.Jef Raskin suggests that the most important characteristic of an OOUI is that it adopts a 'noun-verb', rather than a 'verb-noun' style of interaction, and that this has several advantages in terms of usability.Pelham Bay Park
Pelham Bay Park is a municipal park located in the northeast corner of the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha), the largest public park in New York City. The park is more than three times the size of Manhattan's Central Park. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks).
Pelham Bay Park contains many geographical features, both natural and man-made. The park includes several peninsulas, including Rodman's Neck, Tallapoosa Point, and the former Hunter and Twin Islands. A lagoon runs through the center of Pelham Bay Park, and Eastchester Bay splits the southwestern corner from the rest of the park. There are also several recreational areas within the park. Orchard Beach runs along Pelham Bay on the park's eastern shore. Two golf courses and various nature trails are located within the park's central section. Other landmarks include the Bartow-Pell Mansion, a city landmark, as well as the Bronx Victory Column & Memorial Grove.
Before its creation, the land comprising the current Pelham Bay Park was part of Anne Hutchinson's short-lived dissident colony. Part of New Netherland, it was destroyed in 1643 by a Siwanoy attack in reprisal for the unrelated massacres carried out under Willem Kieft's direction of the Dutch West India Company's New Amsterdam colony. In 1654 an Englishman named Thomas Pell purchased 50,000 acres (200 km²) from the Siwanoy, land which would become known as Pelham Manor after Charles II's 1666 charter. During the American Revolutionary War, the land was a buffer between British-held New York City and rebel-held Westchester, serving as the site of the Battle of Pell's Point, where Massachusetts militia hiding behind stone walls (still visible at one of the park's golf courses) stopped a British advance.
The park was created in 1888, under the auspices of the Bronx Parks Department, largely inspired by the vision of John Mullaly, and passed to New York City when the part of the Bronx east of the Bronx River was annexed to the city in 1895. Orchard Beach, one of the city's most popular, was created through the efforts of Robert Moses in the 1930s.Purdue Grand Prix
The Purdue Grand Prix is a go-kart race that has been held annually on Purdue University's West Lafayette, Indiana campus since 1958. A primary function of the event is to raise money for scholarships for Purdue students under the aegis of the Purdue Grand Prix Foundation and its motto, "Students Helping Students."
Student organizations, including residence halls, co-op houses, and Greek organizations, build and race go-karts on a purpose-built race course located on the Purdue University campus. The event is open to all members of the student body, including students at regional campuses. Students at the Indianapolis campus (IUPUI) have won the race on several occasions, possibly due in part to the motorsports technology major offered on that branch campus.
Qualifications are held, weather permitting, on a single day a week before race day. The karts are divided into groups of four and are allowed 7 minutes on the track. Each kart's fastest lap is recorded as its qualifying time. The top 27 times are placed in the starting field from fastest to slowest. The remaining six positions are determined by 25-lap sprint races held prior to the main Grand Prix race. The top two finishers from each sprint race comprise the rest of the 33-kart starting grid.
Every five years alumni races are held where former students who participated in the Grand Prix return to race. Karts built prior to 1986 take part in a 15-lap Classic race. Newer karts race in the 35-lap Modern race.
The main feature is then held following the pre-race festivities.
The 2007 Grand Prix was the 50th anniversary celebration. Dr. David Wolf, a Purdue graduate and astronaut, was the Grand Marshal for that year's race.
The 2008 Grand Prix was the final race held on the track located north of Ross-Ade Stadium, modeled after the World Grand Prix Championship Track in Japan. This track was removed due to the Mackey Arena expansion project. Built in 1968, it was completed in time for the 11th running of Grand Prix. The new track, which has been used since the 2009 event, is located at the corner of McCormick Road and Cherry Lane, near the Northwest Sports Complex.
In 2010 the first Electric Vehicle Grand Prix was held at the Purdue Grand Prix track, following a similar format to its gasoline-powered counterpart. There is an annual race in Indianapolis in the infield of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in addition to some years where a race is held at the Purdue Grand Prix track on the West Lafayette campus. Purdue teams and teams from visiting universities are often allowed to test at Purdue's track on the days in which the gas karts are not practicing. While the EV Grand Prix does not attract as many karts as the Purdue Grand Prix, it has a much more widespread reach, attracting teams from three continents and across the United States.South Bronx
The South Bronx is an area of the New York City borough of the Bronx. As the name implies, the area comprises neighborhoods in the southern part of the Bronx, such as Concourse, Mott Haven, Melrose, and Port Morris. The South Bronx is known for its hip hop culture and graffiti.St. Mary's Park (Bronx)
St. Mary's Park is a park in the Mott Haven neighborhood in the southwest of the Bronx borough of New York City, in the United States. The park has sporting facilities and an indoor recreation center. In a New York Post exposé, it was claimed that the park is saturated with drug needles, drug users, and is hence unsafe, with 21,434 needles found within the park between May and October 2018. Efforts to stop the amount of needles within the park, particularly through specially placed receptacles, have not been successful according to the Post, with just 163 needles being collected between May and October 2018.Swill milk scandal
The Swill milk scandal was a major adulterated food scandal in New York in the 1850s. The New York Times reported an estimate that in one year 8,000 infants died from swill milk.The Bronx
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of Queens, across the East River. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States.The Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2) and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, and third-highest population density. It is the only borough predominantly on the U.S. mainland.
The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, and a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue. The West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center. These open spaces are situated primarily on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan.
The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639. The native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries (particularly Ireland, Germany, and Italy) and later from the Caribbean region (particularly Puerto Rico, Haiti, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic), as well as African American migrants from the southern United States. This cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of Latin music, hip hop and rock.
The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity also includes affluent, upper-income, and middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Fieldston, Spuyten Duyvil, Schuylerville, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, and Country Club. The Bronx, particularly the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, and the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson. Since then the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today.Van Cortlandt Park
Van Cortlandt Park is a 1,146-acre (464 ha) park located in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. Owned by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, it is managed with assistance from the Van Cortlandt Park Conservancy and the Friends of Van Cortlandt Park. The park, the city's third-largest, was named for the Van Cortlandt family, which was prominent in the area during the Dutch and English colonial periods.
Van Cortlandt Park's sports facilities include two golf courses and several miles of paths for running, as well as smaller facilities for swimming, baseball, soccer, tennis, horseback riding, cross-country running, and cricket. The park also contains five major hiking trails and other walking trails. Its natural features include Tibbetts Brook; Van Cortlandt Lake, the largest freshwater lake in the Bronx; old-growth forests; and outcrops of Fordham gneiss and Inwood marble. Contained within the park is the Van Cortlandt House Museum, the oldest surviving building in the Bronx, and the Van Cortlandt Golf Course, the oldest public golf course in the country.
The land that Van Cortlandt Park now occupies was purchased by Jacobus Van Cortlandt from John Barrett around 1691. His son Frederick built the Van Cortlandt House on the property, but died before its completion. Later, the land was used during the Revolutionary War when the Stockbridge militia was destroyed by the Queen's Rangers. In 1888, the family property was sold to the City of New York and made into a public parkland. The Van Cortlandt House, which would later be designated as a historic landmark, was converted into a public museum, and new paths were created across the property to make it more passable.
In the 1930s, the Robert Moses-directed construction of the Henry Hudson Parkway and Mosholu Parkway fragmented Van Cortlandt Park into its six discontinuous pieces. The last remaining freshwater marsh in New York State, Tibbetts Brook, was dredged and landscaped to accommodate construction, causing large-scale ecological disruption within the park.
The 1975 New York City fiscal crisis caused much of the park to fall into disrepair. Gradual improvements began taking place from the late 1980s on including the addition of new pathways, signage, and security. In 2014, the "Van Cortlandt Park Master Plan 2034" was published, providing a concrete blueprint of the park's proposed redevelopment in the following years.William Ó Mullally
William Mullally (Irish Ulliam Ó Maolalaidh), whose family name also appears as Ó Mullally, O'Mullally, Lally, Laly or Lawly, was Archbishop of Tuam in the Church of Ireland from 1573 to his death in 1595.