John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS (13 November 1718 – 30 April 1792) was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. During his life, he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. He is also known for the claim that he was the eponymous inventor of the sandwich.
The Earl of Sandwich
|Secretary of State for the Northern Department|
19 December 1770 – 12 January 1771
|Prime Minister||Lord North|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Rochdale|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Halifax|
9 September 1763 – 10 July 1765
|Prime Minister||George Grenville|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Halifax|
|Succeeded by||The Duke of Grafton|
|First Lord of the Admiralty|
|Prime Minister||Lord North|
|Preceded by||Sir Edward Hawke|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount Keppel|
|Prime Minister||The Earl of Bute|
|Preceded by||George Grenville|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Egmont|
|Prime Minister||Henry Pelham|
|Preceded by||The Duke of Bedford|
|Succeeded by||The Lord Anson|
|Prime Minister||The Duke of Grafton|
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Downshire|
|Succeeded by||Henry Carteret|
|Born||13 November 1718|
|Died||30 April 1792 (aged 73)|
|Spouse(s)||Dorothy Montagu, Countess of Sandwich |
|Alma mater||Eton College, Trinity College, Cambridge|
John Montagu was born in 1718, the son of Edward Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke. His father died when John was four, leaving him as his heir. His mother soon remarried and he had little further contact with her. He succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. He was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and spent some time travelling, initially going on the Grand Tour around Continental Europe before visiting the more unusual destinations of Greece, Turkey, and Egypt which were then part of the Ottoman Empire. This led him to later found a number of Orientalist societies. On his return to England in 1739, he took his seat in the House of Lords as a follower of the Duke of Bedford, one of the wealthiest and most powerful politicians of the era. He became a Patriot Whig and one of the sharpest critics of the Walpole government, attacking the government's strategy in the War of the Austrian Succession. Like many Patriot Whigs, Lord Sandwich was opposed to Britain's support of Hanover and strongly opposed the deployment of British troops on the European Continent to protect it, instead arguing that Britain should make greater use of its naval power. He gained attention for his speeches in parliament. His oratory earned him a reputation for clearly setting out his argument even if he lacked natural eloquence.
In 1744, the Duke of Bedford was invited to join the government, now headed by Henry Pelham, taking the post of First Lord of the Admiralty. Sandwich joined him as one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty, in effect serving as deputy under Bedford. The experienced Admiral Lord Anson also joined the Admiralty board and was an influential figure. Bedford spent much of his time at his country estate, and much of the day-to-day running of the Admiralty fell to Sandwich and Anson. Anson had control of the training and discipline of the navy, while Sandwich focused on the administration. Following a proposal by Admiral Edward Vernon, the concept of a Western Squadron was pioneered, which proved very successful. This marked a radical shift in British naval strategy, and led to British success at the Battles of Cape Finisterre.
The following year, Sandwich took a commission as a Colonel in the British Army as part of the response to the Jacobite rising and the prospect of a French invasion. In order to boost the relatively small British army, a number of units were raised by prominent figures, and Sandwich served in the regiment formed by Bedford. While serving in The Midlands, he fell seriously ill with fever and nearly died. After his recovery, he returned to his duties at the admiralty. He remained an army officer for the rest of his life, remaining on the half-pay list and eventually rising to the rank of General, even though he took no further active part in the army.
In 1746 he was sent as a plenipotentiary to the congress at Breda, and he continued to take part in the negotiations for peace until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded in 1748. Sandwich was also made British Ambassador to the Dutch Republic during the talks. Using the resources of the British secret service, Sandwich was able to outmanoeuvre his French counterpart by intercepting the latter's secret correspondence. His service at Breda drew him to the attention of the influential Duke of Newcastle, who lobbied for him to be given high office when he returned home.
It is possible that during his time at Breda, he played a role in the 1747 Dutch Revolution which brought The Prince of Orange wider powers, something supported by Britain as they hoped the Prince would improve the Dutch Republic's military performance in the ongoing war in the Low Countries. However, there is no firm evidence of this.
In February 1748 he became First Lord of the Admiralty, retaining this post until June 1751. By 1751 Newcastle, who had previously admired Sandwich for his forthright and hardline views, had increasingly begun to distrust him and his relationship with The Duke of Bedford whom Newcastle regarded as a rival. Newcastle engineered the dismissal of both of them, by sacking Sandwich. Bedford resigned in protest, as Newcastle had calculated, allowing him to replace them with men he considered more loyal personally to him.
For the next few years Sandwich spent time at his country estate, largely avoiding politics, though he kept in close contact with both Bedford and Anson and Britain's participation in the Seven Years' War. Partly thanks to naval reforms pioneered by Anson and Sandwich the Royal Navy enjoyed a series of successes and was able to blockade much of the French fleet in port.
In 1763 he returned to the Admiralty in the government of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, and encouraged a major rebuilding programme for the Royal Navy. Bute was a Tory who wished to bring the war to an end, which he did with the Treaty of Paris. It was during this time that Sandwich first met Martha Ray who became his long-standing mistress. He was soon dismissed from the office, but was offered the influential position of Ambassador to Madrid.
In August 1763 Sandwich became Secretary of State for the Northern Department, in the government of George Grenville who had replaced Bute. While filling this office he took a leading part in the successful prosecution of the radical M.P. John Wilkes for obscene libel. Although he had been allegedly associated with Wilkes in the notorious Hellfire Club (also known as the Monks of Medmenham), recent scholarship has suggested that the two had a more distant but cordial relationship than the friendship which was popularly portrayed at the time. John Gay's The Beggar's Opera was played in Covent Garden shortly thereafter, and the similarity of Sandwich's conduct to that of Jemmy Twitcher, betrayer of Macheath in that play, permanently attached to him that appellation. Wilkes was eventually expelled from the House of Commons.
He held the post of Northern Secretary until July 1765. His departure from the post coincided with the end of George Grenville's term as Prime Minister. He hoped to return to office swiftly, provided a united opposition could be formed.
Sandwich was Postmaster General from 1768 to 1771 and briefly Secretary of State again from December 1770 to January 1771.
Sandwich served again as First Lord of the Admiralty in Lord North's administration from 1771 to 1782. He replaced the distinguished Admiral Sir Edward Hawke in the post. His appointment to the post followed the Falklands Crisis which had nearly seen Britain go to war with Spain over the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean after the Capture of Port Egmont by Spanish forces. War had only been averted when Louis XVI of France refused to back the Spanish over the dispute. Both France and Spain resented what they considered British hegemony following the Seven Years' War, and desired to overturn the imbalance of power; war was widely expected to break out between the nations in the near future.
In 1774, only three years into his third term, Sandwich commissioned a series of ship models and a model of Chatham Dockyard as a gift to George III in an attempt to interest his king in naval matters. However, Sandwich's overall administration of the Navy in the lead up to and during the American War of Independence was traditionally portrayed as being incompetent, with insufficient ships being ready for the outbreak of war with France in 1778. When Britain and France went to war, Sandwich advocated a strategy of concentrating the British fleet in European waters to deter invasion in opposition to his colleague, Lord Germain, who pushed for more ships to be sent to North America. The cabinet largely followed Sandwich's policy, retaining footholds on the American coast which could be used as naval bases, while retaining the bulk of the fleet at home. Sandwich's problems increased when Spain entered the war on France's side in 1779 giving the Bourbon fleets a numerical advantage over the Royal Navy.
Prior to 1778 Keppel failed to persuade Sandwich to ignore technical difficulties and "copper sheath only a few ships"; he was later possibly unfairly to make political capital out of this in The London Magazine, March 1781. He had remarked that coppering "gave additional strength to the navy" and he reproached Lord Sandwich with having "refused to sheath only a few ships with copper" at his request, when he had since ordered the whole navy to be sheathed. The lack of coppering the Navy was one of the key reasons leading to Britain losing the Thirteen Colonies.
In 1778 the new Navy Board Controller Charles Middleton, who had the major problem at the time with supplying over 100 ships for the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), compounded that same year (1778) by French opportunism in declaring war on Britain to support the American rebels, effectively turned what was a local civil war into a global conflict. Others followed Spain (1779) and the Netherlands in (1780). Middleton took the view that the Britain was "outnumbered at every station", and the Navy was required to "extricate us from present danger". He understood that coppering allowed the navy to stay at sea for much longer without the need for cleaning and repairs to the underwater hull, making it a very attractive, if expensive, proposition. He wrote on 21 January 1779 wrote to the Admiralty, and petitioned King George directly. The King backed him for what was an expensive process for an untested technology, and in May 1779 he placed orders at the Portsmouth Docks for coppering a total 51 ships within a year.
During 1779 a combined Franco-Spanish fleet was able to sail into the English Channel to threaten the coast of Cornwall in the initial stage of a Franco-Spanish invasion of Britain. Sandwich was criticised for the failure of the smaller British Channel Fleet to prevent this, although the invasion never materialised.
After 1778, the primary objective in the war was maintaining control over the sugar-rich West Indian archipelago The lucrative sugar trade in the Caribbean was reckoned at the time as being of more importance to British interests than the 13 colonies. The sugar trade was paying for the costs of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783]] and the Anglo-French War (1778–1783). The Royal Navy's newly coppered ships as yet untested were used successfully by Rodney in defeating the French at the Battle of the Saintes off Dominica in February 1782.
By the time Sandwich's administration ended, he would take full credit for coppering the fleet as one of his great achievements when defending his record in office in January 1782.
For several years Sandwich had as a mistress Fanny Murray, the subject of Wilkes' An Essay on Woman (1763), but he eventually married Dorothy Fane, daughter of the 1st Viscount Fane, by whom he had a son, John, Viscount Hinchingbrooke (1743 – 1814), who later succeeded as 5th Earl. Sandwich's first personal tragedy was his wife's deteriorating health and eventual insanity. During his wife's decline, Sandwich started an affair with the talented opera singer Martha Ray. During their relationship, Ray bore him at least five and perhaps as many as nine children, including Basil Montagu (1770 – 1851), writer, jurist and philanthropist. Tragedy was to strike again in April 1779 when Ray was murdered in the foyer of the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden by a jealous suitor, James Hackman, Rector of Wiveton. Sandwich never recovered from his grief. The events surrounding Ray's murder were depicted in a popular novel Love and Madness (1780) by Herbert Croft.
In a famous exchange with the actor Samuel Foote, Sandwich declared, "Foote, I have often wondered what catastrophe would bring you to your end; but I think, that you must either die of the pox, or the halter." "My lord", replied Foote instantaneously, "that will depend upon one of two contingencies; -- whether I embrace your lordship's mistress, or your lordship's principles." This retort is often misattributed to John Wilkes.
Sandwich retired from public duty in 1782, and lived another ten years in retirement at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire, dying on 30 April 1792. His title of Earl of Sandwich passed to his eldest son, John Montagu, 5th Earl of Sandwich, who was 48 at the time.
Sandwich retired in 1782. Despite the number of important posts that he held during his career, Sandwich's incompetence and corruption inspired the suggestion that his epitaph should read: "Seldom has any man held so many offices and accomplished so little."
Recently, some historians have begun to suggest that Lord Sandwich was not perhaps as incompetent as suggested, but that previous historians have placed too much emphasis on sources from his political enemies.
The modern sandwich is named after Lord Sandwich, but the exact circumstances of its invention and original use are still the subject of debate. A rumour in a contemporaneous travel book called Tour to London by Pierre-Jean Grosley formed the popular myth that bread and meat sustained Lord Sandwich at the gambling table. But Sandwich was into many bad habits, including the Hellfire club, and any story may be a creation after the fact. Lord Sandwich was a very conversant gambler, the story goes, and he did not take the time to have a meal during his long hours playing at the card table. Consequently, he would ask his servants to bring him slices of meat between two slices of bread, a habit well known among his gambling friends. Other people, according to this account, began to order "the same as Sandwich!", and thus the "sandwich" was born. The sober alternative to this account is provided by Sandwich's biographer N. A. M. Rodger, who suggests that Sandwich's commitments to the navy, to politics, and to the arts mean that the first sandwich was more likely to have been consumed at his work desk.
Lord Sandwich was a great supporter of Captain James Cook. As First Lord of the Admiralty, Sandwich approved Admiralty funds for the purchase and fit-out of the Resolution, Adventure and Discovery for Cook's second and third expeditions of exploration in the Pacific Ocean. He also arranged an audience with the King, which was an unusual privilege for a lower ranking officer. In honour of Sandwich, Cook named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) after him, as well as Montague Island off the south east coast of Australia, the South Sandwich Islands in the Southern Atlantic Ocean and Montague Island in the Gulf of Alaska. Hinchinbrook Island was named for the House owned by the Montagu family. Lord Sandwich donated the various items given him by Cook to Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. He also met the young Ra'iatean Omai, whom Cook had brought to Europe, and took him to his country estate for a week, presenting him with a suit of armour.
Like his friends John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford and George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, Sandwich was keen on cricket. The earliest surviving record of his involvement in the sport comes from 1741 when, as the patron and captain of the Huntingdonshire county team, Sandwich and Halifax formed the Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire team which twice defeated Bedfordshire, first at Woburn Park and then at Cow Meadow, Northampton.
After his naval career, Sandwich turned his energy toward music. He became a great proponent of "ancient music" (defined by him as music more than two decades old). He was the patron of the Italian violinist Felice Giardini, and created a "Catch Club", where professional singers would sing "ancient" and modern catches, glees, and madrigals. He also put on performances of George Frideric Handel's oratorios, masques, and odes at his estate. Sandwich was instrumental in putting together the Concert of Ancient Music, the first public concert to showcase a canonic repertory of old works.
The Duke of Bedford
| First Lord of the Admiralty
The Lord Anson
| First Lord of the Admiralty
The Earl of Egmont
The Earl of Halifax
| Northern Secretary
The Duke of Grafton
The Earl of Rochford
| Northern Secretary
The Earl of Halifax
Sir Edward Hawke
| First Lord of the Admiralty
The Viscount Keppel
The Duke of Queensberry and Dover
| Senior Privy Counsellor
The Marquess of Downshire
|Peerage of England|
| Earl of Sandwich
The 1741 English cricket season was the 45th cricket season since the earliest recorded eleven-aside match was played. Details have survived of nine significant matches, including the first known appearance of Slindon Cricket Club. The earliest known tie in an elevel-a-side match occurred.Bedfordite
The Bedford Whigs (or Bedfordites) were an 18th-century British political faction, led by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. Other than Bedford himself, notable members included John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich; Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Gower; Richard Rigby, who served as principal Commons manager for the group; Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth; Edward Thurlow; and George Spencer, 4th Duke of MarlboroughEdward Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke
Edward Richard Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke (7 July 1692 – 3 October 1722) was a British Army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1713 to 1722.
Hinchingbrooke was the eldest son of Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of the Earl of Rochester. His mother kept his father, who was generally believed to be insane, much confined, leaving Hinchingbrooke to carry out the public business of his family.
On 12 April 1707, at the age of 14, Hinchingbrooke married Elizabeth Popham (died 20 March 1761), the daughter of Alexander Popham of Littlecote, Wiltshire (a grandson of Alexander Popham). After a tour of the continent in 1708, he was given command of a troop in Sir Richard Temple's Regiment of Horse for the 1709 campaign in Flanders. During this time, Hinchingbrooke was one of the infamous Mohocks, and was arrested for assaulting a watchman in 1712.
In 1713, Hinchingbrooke was elected as Member of Parliament for Huntingdon, for which he served until 1722.Hinchingbrooke became colonel of the 37th Regiment of Foot in 1717. In March 1722, he was named Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire and in April was returned as MP for Huntingdonshire. However, he died in October 1722, predeceasing his father. He left five children:
Hon. Mary Montagu
Hon. Elizabeth Montagu, married first in September 1737 Kelland Courtenay, married second William 'Gentleman' Smith
Hon. Edward Montagu
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792)
Capt. Hon. William Montagu (c. 1720–1757)His widow later married Francis Seymour.Fanny Murray
Fanny Murray (1729 in Bath – 2 April 1778 in London), née Fanny Rudman and later Fanny Ross, was an 18th-century English courtesan, mistress to John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich and dedicatee of the fateful Essay on Woman (1763) that led to the downfall of John Wilkes. A contemporary of Kitty Fisher and Charlotte Hayes, the "celebrated Fanny Murray" was one of the most prominent courtesans of her day; a celebrity and fashion leader who rose from destitution to wealth and fame, before settling down into a life of "respectable prosperity". The Memoirs of the Celebrated Miss Fanny Murray are one of the first examples of the "whore's memoir" genre of writing, although they are unlikely to have been actually written by Murray.Grenville ministry
The Grenville ministry was a British Government headed by George Grenville which served between 16 April 1763 – 13 July 1765. It was formed after the previous Prime Minister, the Earl of Bute, had resigned following fierce criticism of his signing of the Treaty of Paris with its perceived lenient terms for France and Spain despite Britain's successes in the Seven Years War. Grenville's government was made up largely of the same members as Bute's had. George III had a violent dislike of the new government because of his resentment of the way they had replaced his favourite Bute.During its two years, the Ministry confronted growing discontent in Britain's American colonies which were to lead to the American War of Independence breaking out in 1775. The Ministry also had to deal with the antics of John Wilkes.
The King's violent dislike of Grenville eventually forced him to dismiss him as first minister and replaced him with the Marquess of Rockingham, whom he hated almost equally.HMS Sandwich
Six ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Sandwich, either after the English seaside town of Sandwich, or one of the holders of the title Earl of Sandwich, particularly Vice-Admiral Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, or First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. A seventh ship was planned, but never completed:
HMS Sandwich (1679) was a 90-gun second rate launched in 1679. She was rebuilt in 1712 and hulked in 1752. She was broken up in 1770.
HMS Sandwich (1759) was a 98-gun second rate launched in 1759. She was converted to a floating battery in 1780, and used for harbour service from 1790. She was broken up in 1810.
HMS Sandwich (1780) was a 24-gun armed ship, formerly the civilian Marjory. The Royal Navy purchased her in 1780 but on 24 August 1781 she had the misfortune to encounter the French fleet under Admiral de Grasse of the coast of the Carolinas. The French 74-gun Souverain captured her. The French sold her in North America in December.
HMS Sandwich was the 12-gun hired armed cutter Sandwich that the Royal Navy hired in 1798, the French captured in 1799, and the Royal Navy recaptured in 1803, purchased in 1804, commissioned in 1805, and sold in 1805.
HMS Sandwich was a 12-gun schooner purchased in 1805 as HMS Pitt. She was renamed HMS Sandwich in 1807 and was broken up in 1809.
HMS Sandwich was to have been a 74-gun third rate. She was laid down in 1809 but was cancelled in 1811.
HMS Sandwich (L12) was a Bridgewater-class sloop launched in 1928 and sold for breaking up in 1946.Handel Commemoration
The Handel festival or "Commemoration" took place in Westminster Abbey in 1784, to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the death of George Frideric Handel in 1759.
The commemoration was organized by John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich and the Concerts of Antient Music and took the form of a series of concerts of Handel’s music, given in the Abbey by vast numbers of singers and instrumentalists.
Above Handel's own monument in the Abbey, there is a small additional tablet to record the commemoration. An account of the commemoration was published by Charles Burney in the following year (1785).
The commemoration established a fashion for large-scale performances of Handel’s choral works throughout the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth. E.D. Mackerness (in A Social History of English Music) described it as "the most important single event in the history of English music".Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island.
The U.S. state of Hawaii now occupies the archipelago almost in its entirety (including the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands), with the sole exception of Midway Island, which instead separately belongs to the United States as one of its unincorporated territories within the United States Minor Outlying Islands.
The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The islands are about 1,860 miles (3,000 km) from the nearest continent.Iris Bay
Iris Bay is a small bay immediately south of Muller Point at the east end of South Georgia, lying 6 miles (10 km) northwest of Cape Vahsel, along the embayment between Cape Vahsel and Cape Charlotte. The name "Sandwich Bay", for John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, was given to the whole embayment between Cape Vahsel and Cape Charlotte in 1775 by a British expedition under James Cook. The name was later restricted on maps to the small bay described, since a name for the large embayment was not considered useful. The South Georgia Survey, 1951–52, reported that the name Iris Bay for the same feature is well established in use among the whalers and sealers in South Georgia, and that the name Sandwich Bay is unknown locally, so Iris Bay was approved to conform with local usage.John Montagu
John Montagu may refer to:
John Montagu, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (1350–1400), English nobleman
John Montagu (Trinity) (c. 1650–1728), Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1683–1699
John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1690–1749), British peer
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792), British statesman, claimed to be the eponymous inventor of the sandwich
John Montagu (Royal Navy officer) (1719–1795), Commodore Governor for Newfoundland and Labrador, 1776–1778
John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer (1735–1770), British peer
John Montagu, 5th Earl of Sandwich (1744–1814), British peer and Tory politician
John Montagu (colonial secretary) (1797–1853), Tasmanian colonial secretary 1834–1842
John Montagu, 7th Earl of Sandwich (1811–1884), British peer and Conservative politician
John Montagu, 11th Earl of Sandwich (born 1943), British entrepreneur and politicianMartha Ray
Martha Ray (1746 – 7 April 1779) was a British singer of the Georgian era. Her father was a corsetmaker and her mother was a servant in a noble household. Good-looking, intelligent, and a talented singer, she came to the attention of many of her father's patrons. She is best known for her affair with John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. She lived with him as his mistress from the age of seventeen, while his wife was suffering from mental illness. She gave birth to nine children, five of which survived, including Basil Montagu. During this time, she conducted a successful singing career, for which she became well-known, as well as completed her education with Lord Sandwich's support.Montagu Island
Montagu Island is the largest of the South Sandwich Islands, located in the Weddell Sea off the coast of Antarctica. It is a part of the British Overseas Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It is located 60 km (37 mi) northeast from Bristol Island and 62 km (39 mi) south from Saunders Island.The island was first sighted by James Cook in 1775, and named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich and the First Lord of the British Admiralty at the time of its discovery. The first recorded landing was made by the Norwegian whaler and explorer Carl Anton Larsen in 1908.Montague Island (Alaska)
Montague Island lies in the Gulf of Alaska at the entrance to Prince William Sound, Alaska. The island has a land area of 790.88 km² (305.36 sq mi), making it the 26th largest island in the United States. As of the 2000 census, Montague did not have a permanent resident population, making it at that time the largest uninhabited island in the United States. Since then, the 2010 abandonment of the United States Coast Guard station on Attu Island in the Aleutian Islands, which at 892.8 km² (344.7 sq mi) is larger than Montague Island, causes Attu to claim that title. Montague Island was named by Captain James Cook in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, one of his greatest supporters.
Montague Island is well known in Seward, Alaska, for its sports fishery, and it is referred to as "The Land of the Giants." In 2007, the waters around the island produced a 350-pound (156-kg) halibut and many boats full of fish weighing over 100 pounds (45 kg) each.
The island's coastal ecology has been subjected to "unprecedented amounts of ocean trash" transported by wind and currents from Japan's March 2011 tsunami, according to the Center for Alaskan Coastal Studies in May 2012. A large-scale clean-up began on 22 May 2012, funded by The Marine Conservation Alliance Foundation.Sandwich
A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type. The sandwich began as a portable finger food in the Western world, though over time it has become prevalent worldwide.
Sandwiches are a popular type of lunch food, taken to work, school, or picnics to be eaten as part of a packed lunch. The bread can be either plain, or coated with condiments such as mayonnaise or mustard, to enhance its flavour and texture. As well as being homemade, sandwiches are also widely sold in restaurants and can be served hot or cold. There are both savoury sandwiches, such as deli meat sandwiches, and sweet sandwiches, such as a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
The sandwich is named after its supposed inventor, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The Wall Street Journal has described it as Britain's "biggest contribution to gastronomy".Twitcher Glacier
Twitcher Glacier (54°43′S 35°56′W) is a glacier, 4 miles (6 km) long, which flows east from the Salvesen Range to the east coast of South Georgia, immediately south of Herz Glacier and Iris Bay. The glacier was surveyed in 1951-52 by the SGS. Named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) for John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1771–82, who was popularly known as "Jemmy Twitcher."Twitcher Rock
Twitcher Rock (59°27′23.3″S 27°17′00.3″W) is a rock in the southern part of Douglas Strait, 55 meters high and 140 to 150 meters in diameter, lying 0.7 nautical miles (1.3 km) east of Hewison Point, the southeast point of Thule Island in the South Sandwich Islands. Discovered by a Russian expedition under Bellingshausen in 1820. Charted in 1930 by DI personnel on the Discovery II. They named it for John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, who was popularly known by the nickname "Jemmy Twitcher."William Augustus Montagu (MP)
Hon. William Augustus Montagu (1752–1776) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1774 to 1776.
Montagu was the second surviving son of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich and his wife Dorothy (in some sources Judith), daughter of Charles Fane, 1st Viscount Fane, and was baptized on 12 February 1752. He was educated at Eton College in 1759 and was admitted at Trinity College, Cambridge on 16 November 1768. He was also admitted at Lincolns Inn on 8 December 1768. It was said of Montagu that he possessed great talents, and by good education had every opportunity of cultivating them…. but [was ruined by] dissipated company, habits of extravagance and total neglect of his health and constitution.It would appear that Lord Sandwich intended to use his son to support his interest in Parliament when the opportunity arose. Montagu was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for Huntingdon at a by-election on 28 February 1774. He was returned again at the 1774 general election. He is not recorded as speaking or voting in Parliament.In 1775 for his health Montagu was “obliged to try the air of Lisbon”, “but what could change of air effect, after all the stamina of life were inwardly exhausted?” He died unmarried at Lisbon on 14 January 1776, shortly after his arrival there. His nephew, son of Lord Hinchingbrooke was also called William Augustus Montagu.William Skrine
William Skrine (c. 1721–1783) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1771 to 1780. He committed suicide after losing heavily at cards.
Skrine was the son of Dr. William Skrine, of Claverton, Somerset and his wife Ann Spurstow, daughter of Henry Spurstow of Cheshire. His father was a physician or apothecary at Bath and thus made many connections with titled families and built up a considerable fortune. Skrine succeeded his father who died when he was aged four on 5 December 1725 He matriculated at St John's College, Oxford on 24 January 1738, aged 16. In 1758, he sold Claverton Manor to Ralph Allen. He married firstly, Jane Sumner on 21 May 1764. She died in 1766. His second wife was Julia Maria Siordet of Piedmont whom he married in about.1776.Skrine was a close friend of Horace Walpole, and was returned on the Orford interest as Member of Parliament for Callington, after a contest at a by-election on 22 November 1771. He was returned unopposed in 1774. He voted steadily with the Government. His attendance at divisions was good, but there is no indication that he spoke in Parliament. He decided to relinquish his seat in 1780.Skrine played cards at Brook's. He lost very heavily on 8 March 1783, and shot himself in the head at a tavern in Newgate Street. He appointed Lord Barrngton executor, and guardian of his children. His daughter Louisa Skrine, who may have been an illegitimate child of Jane Sumner and John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, married Sir Thomas Clarges, 3rd Baronet in 1777. His other daughter Elizabeth Ann Skrine married Charles Loraine Smith in. 1781..Wiveton
Wiveton is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated on the west bank of the River Glaven, 3 km (1.9 mi) inland from the coast and directly across the river from the village of Cley next the Sea. The larger village of Blakeney is 2 km (1.2 mi) to the west, the town of Cromer is 20 km (12 mi) to the east, and the city of Norwich is 40 km (25 mi) to the south-east.Until the 17th century, the River Glaven was navigable and Wiveton was a port. The outline of the former harbour can still be seen in the fields between Wiveton and Cley. Alongside this, marks from mooring ropes belonging to large transport barges can still be seen etched into the wall on the east side of the church.
The civil parish has an area of 4.25 km2 (1.64 sq mi) and in the 2001 census had a population of 158 in 74 households, the population reducing to 127 at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of North Norfolk.Wiveton was in the national news in 1779 when James Hackman, its newly appointed Rector, was hanged for the murder of Martha Ray, mistress of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (the man credited with inventing the sandwich).Wiveton church has a memorial to Royal Geographical Society Gold Medal Winner Lt. Colonel Frederick Marshman Bailey, one of the heroes of 'The Great Game'. Inside the church there is the joint memorial to Anne Fleming and Catherine Jennis.
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