John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, KG, GMB, PC (1690 – 5 July 1749), styled Viscount Monthermer until 1705 and Marquess of Monthermer between 1705 and 1709, was a British peer.

John Montagu, Duke of Montagu
John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
The 2nd Duke of Montagu, Godfrey Kneller, 1709
Duke of Montagu
Reign
1709 – 5 July 1749
PredecessorRalph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu
SuccessorExtinct
Born1690
Died5 July 1749
SpouseMary Churchill
Issue
Isabella (d. 20 December 1786).
John (1706–1711)
George (died in infancy)
Mary (c 1711 - 1 May 1775).
Edward
FatherRalph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu
MotherElizabeth Wriothesley
Coat of arms of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, KG, GMB, PC
Coat of arms of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, KG, GMB, PC

Life

Montagu was a son of Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu, by his first wife Elizabeth Wriothesley. His maternal grandparents were Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton and Lady Elizabeth Leigh.[1]

Montagu went on the grand tour with Pierre Sylvestre. On 17 March 1705, John was married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough.[2]

On 23 October 1717, Montagu was admitted a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.[1] He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1719, and was made Order of the Bath, a fellow of the Royal Society in 1725, and a Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England.

On 22 June 1722, George I appointed Montagu governor of the islands of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent in the West Indies. He in turn appointed Nathaniel Uring, a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, and established settlement at Petit Carenage. Unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were quickly run off by the French.[3]

In 1739, the country's first home for abandoned children, the Foundling Hospital was created in London. Montagu was a supporter of this effort and was one of the charity's founding governors. He also financed the education of two notable Black British figures of the age, Ignatius Sancho (a butler at his Blackheath home, Montagu House) and Francis Williams, allegedly sending the latter to Cambridge University (the university has no record of him having studied there).[2]

In 1745, Montagu raised a cavalry regiment known as Montagu's Carabineers, which, however, was disbanded after the Battle of Culloden.[1]

Montagu was a notorious practical joker, his mother-in-law writing of him that "All his talents lie in things only natural in boys of fifteen years old, and he is about two and fifty; to get people into his garden and wet them with squirts, and to invite people to his country houses and put things in beds to make them itch, and twenty such pretty fancies as these."[4]

Montagu is said to have once dunked the political philosopher Montesquieu in a tub of cold water as a joke.[5]

Montagu's country place, Boughton House, Northamptonshire, was laid out by him as a miniature Versailles, and now belonging to the Buccleuch family. After his death, his town residence, Montagu House, Bloomsbury, on the present site of the British Museum, received and for many years held the national collections, which under the name of the British Museum were first opened to the public in 1759.[1]

Children

Montagu and his wife Lady Mary Churchill were parents to five children:[6]

Succession

As none of Montagu's sons survived him, his titles became extinct upon his death in 1749. His estates were inherited by his daughter Mary, whose husband, George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan assumed the name and arms of Montagu, and in 1766 was created 1st Duke of Montagu (second creation). In 1790 this second creation dukedom of Montagu also became extinct; his only son (who had been created Baron Montagu of Boughton) having predeceased him. His daughter Elizabeth married Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, 5th Duke of Queensberry who thus acquired all the unentailed property of the Dukes of Montagu.[7]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Chichester 1894.
  2. ^ a b Metzger 2004.
  3. ^ Uring, Nathaniel (1725). A relation of the late intended settlement of the islands of St. Lucia and St. Vincent in America: in right of the Duke of Montagu, and under His Grace's direction and orders, in the year 1722. London [England]: Printed for J. Peele, at Locke's Head in Pater-noster Row.
  4. ^ quoted in Martin C. Battestin's "General Introduction" to Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews. Middleton, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1967: xxvin. Montagu is believed by some literary critics to be the model for Fielding's "roasting squire," the vicious squire who plays practical jokes.
  5. ^ Battestin, xxivn.
  6. ^ "John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  7. ^ "Lady Elizabeth Montagu". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 4 August 2019.

Attribution

References

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Burlington
Captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners
1734–1740
Succeeded by
The Duke of Bolton
Court offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Montagu
Master of the Great Wardrobe
1709–1749
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Robinson
Military offices
Preceded by
The Lord Ashburnham
Captain and Colonel of
His Majesty's Own Troop of Horse Guards

1715–1721
Succeeded by
Lord Herbert
Preceded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Captain and Colonel of
His Majesty's Own Troop of Horse Guards

1737
Succeeded by
The Lord De La Warr
Preceded by
The 2nd Duke of Argyll
Master-General of the Ordnance
1740–1742
Succeeded by
The 2nd Duke of Argyll
Preceded by
William Evans
Colonel of The Queen's Regiment of Dragoon Guards
1740–1749
Succeeded by
Sir John Ligonier
Preceded by
The 2nd Duke of Argyll
Master-General of the Ordnance
1742–1749
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of Marlborough
Masonic offices
Preceded by
George Payne
Grand Master of the Premier
Grand Lodge of England

1721–1723
Succeeded by
The Duke of Wharton
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Peterborough
Lord Lieutenant of Northamptonshire
1715–1749
Succeeded by
The Earl of Halifax
Preceded by
The Earl of Northampton
Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire
1715–1749
Succeeded by
The Earl Brooke
New title Great Master of the Order of the Bath
1725–1749
Vacant
Title next held by
Prince Frederick,
Duke of York and Albany
Preceded by
The Earl of Macclesfield
Custos Rotulorum of Warwickshire
1728–1749
Succeeded by
The Earl Brooke
Preceded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Custos Rotulorum of Northamptonshire
1735–1749
Succeeded by
The Earl of Halifax
Preceded by
The Duke of Bolton
Governor of the Isle of Wight
1733–1734
Succeeded by
John Wallop, 1st Earl of Portsmouth
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Ralph Montagu
Duke of Montagu
1st creation
1709–1749
Extinct
Baron Montagu of Boughton
1st creation
1709–1749
1752 in art

Events from the year 1752 in art.

9th Regiment of Horse

9th Regiment of Horse or 9th Horse may refer to:

7th Dragoon Guards, ranked as 9th Horse from 1690 to 1694

Montagu's Carabineers (raised by John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu), ranked as 9th Horse from 1745 to 1746

9th Deccan Horse

Custos Rotulorum of Northamptonshire

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Northamptonshire.

Sir Edward Montagu bef. 1544–1557

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley bef. 1564 – aft. 1584

Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter bef. 1594–1623

Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland 1623–1625

Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland 1625–1629

William Spencer, 2nd Baron Spencer 1629–1636

Sir Christopher Hatton 1636–1646

Interregnum

Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester 1660–1671

James Compton, 3rd Earl of Northampton 1671–1681

Christopher Hatton, 1st Viscount Hatton 1681–1689

Charles Mordaunt, 1st Earl of Monmouth 1689

Christopher Hatton, 1st Viscount Hatton 1689–1706

vacant

George Brudenell, 3rd Earl of Cardigan 1711–1714

Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough 1714–1715

Thomas Fane, 6th Earl of Westmorland 1715–1735

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu 1735–1749For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Northamptonshire.

Custos Rotulorum of Warwickshire

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Warwickshire.

Sir George Throckmorton bef. 1544–1552

Sir Ambrose Cave bef. 1558–1568

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester bef. 1573–1588

Sir Fulke Greville bef. 1594 – aft. 1596

Sir Thomas Leigh bef. 1605–1626

Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke 1626–1628

William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh 1628–1643

Francis Leigh, 1st Baron Dunsmore 1643–1646

Interregnum

Basil Feilding, 2nd Earl of Denbigh 1660–1675

Edward Conway, 1st Earl of Conway 1675–1683

Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland 1683–1689

George Compton, 4th Earl of Northampton 1689–1719

Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield 1719–1728

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu 1728–1749For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire.

Duke of Montagu

The title of Duke of Montagu has been created several times for members of the Noble House of Montagu. It was first created in the Peerage of England in 1705 for Ralph Montagu, 3rd Baron Montagu of Boughton, with the subsidiary title Marquess of Monthermer, but became extinct in 1749. The first Duke had been created Earl of Montagu and Viscount Monthermer in 1689. The Dukedom was then recreated in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1766 for the late Duke's son-in-law, George Montagu (né Brudenell), 4th Earl of Cardigan, with the subsidiary title Marquess of Monthermer. On his death in 1790 the dukedom and marquessate became extinct, and the earldom passed to his brother, James Brudenell, 5th Earl of Cardigan. The dukedom is named for the ancient Anglo-Norman family rather than any place.

Earl of Cardigan

Earl of Cardigan is a title in the Peerage of England, currently held by the Marquesses of Ailesbury, and used as a courtesy title by the heir apparent to that Marquessate, currently David Brudenell-Bruce, Earl of Cardigan, son of the 8th Marquess. The Brudenell family descends from Sir Robert Brudenell, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas from 1520 to 1530. His great-grandson, Sir Thomas Brudenell, was created a Baronet in the Baronetage of England, styled "of Deene in the County of Northampton", on 29 June 1611. On 26 February 1628, he was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Brudenell, of Stanton Wyvill in the County of Leicester, and on 20 April 1661 he was further honoured when he was made Earl of Cardigan, also in the Peerage of England. On his death, the titles passed to his son, Robert, the 2nd Earl, and on the 2nd Earl's death to his grandson, George, the 3rd Earl, the 2nd Earl's only son, Francis, Lord Brudenell, having predeceased his father.

The 3rd Earl's eldest son George, the 4th Earl, married Lady Mary Montagu, daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, and succeeded to the Montagu estates on his father-in-law's death in 1749, including the Lordship of Bowland. He assumed the same year by Royal licence the surname of Montagu in lieu of Brudenell. In 1766, he was created Marquess of Monthermer and Duke of Montagu in the Peerage of Great Britain, revivals of the titles which had become extinct on his father-in-law's death in 1749. Montagu's only son and heir, John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer, had already been created Baron Montagu, of Boughton in the County of Northampton, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1762, a revival of another title held by his maternal grandfather. However, Lord Monthermer died childless in 1770, predeceasing his father. The barony of Montagu died with him. In 1786, the Duke of Montagu was also created Baron Montagu, of Boughton in the County of Northampton, in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to the younger sons of his daughter, Lady Elizabeth Montagu, wife of Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch. On the Duke's death in 1780, the marquessate and dukedom became extinct while he was succeeded in the barony of Montagu according to the special remainder by his grandson, Henry Scott (see Baron Montagu of Boughton for further history of this title; see also Duke of Montagu).

The earldom, barony of Brudenell and baronetcy passed to the Duke's younger brother, James, the 5th Earl, who already on 17 October 1780 had been created Baron Brudenell, of Deene in the County of Northampton, in the Peerage of Great Britain, in his own right. However, he died childless in 1811 when the barony of 1780 became extinct. He was succeeded in the remaining titles by his nephew, Robert, the 6th Earl, only son of the Honourable Robert Brudenell, third son of the 3rd Earl. The 6th Earl's only son, James, 7th Earl, gained fame for his role in the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War. He was childless and on his death in 1868 the titles were inherited by his second cousin, George, 2nd Marquess of Ailesbury, grandson of Thomas Brudenell, the fourth and youngest son of the 3rd Earl. Thomas had succeeded his maternal uncle, the 3rd Earl of Ailesbury and 4th Earl of Elgin, in 1747 as Baron Bruce, of Tottenham in the County of Wilts, had in 1766 assumed the surname "Brudenell-Bruce", and had in 1776 been created Earl of Ailesbury in the Peerage of Great Britain. The 1st Earl of Ailesbury was succeeded by his son, Charles, the 2nd Earl of Ailesbury, who in 1821 had been created Viscount Savernake, of Savernake Forest in the County of Wilts, Earl Bruce, of Whorlton in the County of York, and Marquess of Ailesbury, in the County of Buckingham. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned 2nd Marquess of Ailesbury and 8th Earl of Cardigan. For further history of the titles, see Marquess of Ailesbury.

The Earldom remains united with the Marquessate of Ailesbury; and indeed, since the descendants of the 1st Earl of Ailesbury are the only remaining descendants of the 1st Earl of Cardigan, the titles will never be separated. The Earldom remains visible, however, as it is used as a courtesy title by the heirs apparent to the Marquessate.

The family seat Deene Park was not united with the marquessate but was passed down to Commodore Lord Robert Thomas Brudenell-Bruce, second surviving son of the 3rd Marquess. Lord Robert's son George inherited the family seat along with the family's remaining estates in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire and reverted the family name back to "Brudenell" by Royal Licence. Deene Park is currently the residence of George's grandson Robert Brudenell.

Isabella Montagu, Duchess of Manchester

Isabella Montagu, Duchess of Manchester (c.1706 – 20 December 1786), formerly Lady Isabella Montagu, was the wife of William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester.

She was the daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu and his wife, the former Lady Mary Churchill. Her sister, Mary, became Countess of Cardigan. Their three brothers all died in childhood.

She married the Duke of Manchester on 16 April 1723, about two years after he had inherited the dukedom. They were childless, and remained married until the duke's death in 1739.

The duchess remarried, in 1743, the politician Edward Hussey-Montagu, who was raised to the peerage in 1762 as Baron Beaulieu and in 1784 was created Earl Beaulieu.

There were two children from this second marriage:

John Hussey-Montagu, Lord Montagu (1746-1787), MP for Windsor, who died unmarried and childless

Isabella Hussey-Montagu (1750-1772)Isabella was one of the twenty-one 'ladies of quality and distinction' who supported Thomas Coram's efforts to establish a Foundling Hospital, who are now credited with making the endeavour a success by lending it respectability and style. She added her name to his petition on 6 January 1730, which was later presented to King George II in 1735.The duchess was known as a talented amateur artist, who, according to Horace Walpole, "painted remarkably well in crayons".It was said that her second husband "lived in the shadow of his proud and wealthy wife: she, the daughter and widow of dukes, was determined that her husband's rank should correspond to her fortune." When the Montagu family title was given to the son of her younger sister, Lady Cardigan, she withdrew from court, and in 1776, when it was decided that the Duke of Montagu was to be created Earl of Montagu with remainder to his daughter, she claimed that had been promised this title for her husband. Lord North confirmed that he had given such a promise in 1772, but the King, George III, would not go back on his word. The Duke of Montagu waived his claim to the earldom, and Beaulieu was created an earl in 1784 but never received the title of Montagu.

John Hussey-Montagu, Lord Montagu

John Hussey-Montagu, Lord Montagu (18 January 1747 – 25 June 1787) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1772 to 1787.

He was born John Hussey, only son of Edward Hussey of Westown, County Dublin, by his wife Isabella, widow of William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester, and eldest daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu. Edward Hussey adopted the additional surname of Montagu in 1749 on the death of the Duke of Montagu. In 1762 he was created a Baron, and his son became The Hon. John Hussey-Montagu.

John Hussey-Montagu was elected to Parliament for Windsor on 9 November 1772 following the death of Richard Tonson. He was re-elected at the general elections of 1774, 1780 and 1784. In July 1784 his father was created Earl of Beaulieu, and Hussey-Montagu adopted the courtesy title Lord Montagu.

He died unmarried at the age of 40, and was buried on 10 July 1787 at Warkton in Northamptonshire. The Earl of Mornington was elected for Windsor in his place. As his only sibling was a sister Isabella. who had died in 1772, the earldom of Beaulieu became extinct on his father's death in 1802.

John Montagu

John Montagu may refer to:

John Montagu, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (1350–1400), English nobleman

John Montagu (Trinity) (c. 1650–1728), Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1683–1699

John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1690–1749), British peer

John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792), British statesman, claimed to be the eponymous inventor of the sandwich

John Montagu (Royal Navy officer) (1719–1795), Commodore Governor for Newfoundland and Labrador, 1776–1778

John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer (1735–1770), British peer

John Montagu, 5th Earl of Sandwich (1744–1814), British peer and Tory politician

John Montagu (colonial secretary) (1797–1853), Tasmanian colonial secretary 1834–1842

John Montagu, 7th Earl of Sandwich (1811–1884), British peer and Conservative politician

John Montagu, 11th Earl of Sandwich (born 1943), British entrepreneur and politician

John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer

John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer, 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton (18 March 1735 – 11 April 1770) was a British peer.

He was born John Brudenell, eldest son of George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan by his wife Mary, daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu. As heir-apparent to the Earldom of Cardigan he was styled Lord Brudenell from birth.

In 1749 the Duke of Montagu died, and his son-in-law Lord Cardigan inherited his estates. He and his children duly adopted the surname Montagu in lieu of that of Brudenell. One of the Montagu family titles was revived in the person of Lord Brudenell when he was created Baron Montagu of Boughton, of Boughton in the county of Northampton, on 8 May 1762. The Earl of Cardigan was created first Duke of Montagu of the second creation on 5 November 1766, and his son assumed the courtesy title Marquess of Monthermer.

Prior to his elevation to the peerage, Lord Brudenell was briefly a Tory Member of Parliament for Marlborough, sitting for the borough along with his uncle Colonel Robert Brudenell. In 1764 his portrait was painted by Pompeo Batoni.

Lord Monthermer died on 11 April 1770 at the age of thirty-five, unmarried. As he left no children, his barony of Montagu became extinct, but was recreated for his father on 21 August 1786, with remainder to the younger sons of his sister Elizabeth, Duchess of Buccleuch.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1718

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1718.

Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire

This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire. Since 1728, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Warwickshire.

Mary Montagu

Mary Montagu may refer to:

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689–1762), English writer

Mary Montagu, Duchess of Montagu (1689–1751), formerly Lady Mary Churchill, wife of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu

Mary Montagu, Countess of Cardigan (c.1711–1775), daughter of the above, wife of George Brudenelllater Montagu, 4th Earl of Cardigan, and later Duchess of Montagu

Mary Stuart, Countess of Bute (1718–1794), wife of John Stuart, 3rd Earl Stuart

Mary Montagu, Countess of Cardigan

Mary Montagu, Duchess of Montagu (c.1711 – 2 May 1775), known as Countess of Cardigan between 1730 and 1749, was the wife of George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan. She was the daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, on whose death in 1749 her husband inherited the family estates and took the surname "Montagu". Her mother was Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. In 1766, her husband the earl was made a duke, reviving the titles that had become extinct as a result of his father-in-law's death without a male heir.

Lady Mary married the earl on 7 July 1730 at St Giles-in-the-Fields. They had two children:

John Montagu, Marquess of Monthermer and 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton (18 March 1735–11 April 1770)

Lady Elizabeth Montagu (29 May 1743 – 21 November 1827), who married Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, and had children.Other children died in infancy.

The duchess died at the age of about 63, and was buried at St Edmund's Church, Warkton, Northamptonshire. Her memorial was sculpted by Peter Mathias van Gelder to a design by Robert Adam, and was completed in 1781.

Mary Montagu, Duchess of Montagu

Mary Montagu, Duchess of Montagu (15 July 1689 – 14 May 1751), formerly Lady Mary Churchill, was a British court official and noble, the wife of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu. She was the youngest surviving daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and his wife Sarah.She married Montagu on 17 March 1705, when he was Earl of Montagu. They had five children:

Isabella (d. 20 December 1786), who married first William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester, and second Edward Hussey-Montagu, 1st Earl of Beaulieu; there were children from her second marriage only.

John (1706–1711)

George (died in infancy)

Mary (c. 1711 – 1 May 1775), who married George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan, and had children.

Edward (27 December 1725 – May 1727)

From 1714 to 1717, the duchess was a Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales. She was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in 1740. A portrait of her with her husband and daughter was painted in about 1729 by Gawen Hamilton. The duchess is obliquely referred to in Delarivier Manley's 1709 satire, The New Atalantis.One of those who benefited from the duchess's will was Ignatius Sancho, an African slave whom she took on as a butler following her husband's death. She left him a pension, but, having failed to find an alternative career, he later returned to the service of the Montagu family.

Nathaniel Uring

Nathaniel Uring was an English merchant who traveled to Africa and the Americas in the early eighteenth century. His 1725 and 1726 accounts are important sources for the history of early colonial Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, and Belize, as well as the Kingdom of Loango, among other subjects.

By letters patent of 22 June 1722 George I of Great Britain granted John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu the islands of St. Lucia and St. Vincent's in the West Indies, and appointed him governor and captain-general thereof. Montagu appointed Uring deputy-governor, and sent him out with seven ships containing settlers and their families. The British men-of-war on the station would not directly support the enterprise, and when the French landed a body of troops from Martinique to oppose him, Uring was compelled to conclude a treaty agreeing to quit St. Lucia within seven days. A similar attempt to obtain a footing in St. Vincent's was opposed by the inhabitants, and also ended in failure, Montagu is said to have lost 40,000 pounds over the undertaking.

Premier Grand Lodge of England

The organisation known as the Premier Grand Lodge of England was founded on 24 June 1717 as the 'Grand Lodge of London and Westminster'. Originally concerned with the practice of Freemasonry in London and Westminster, it soon became known as the Grand Lodge of England. Because it was the first Masonic Grand Lodge to be created, convention calls it the Premier Grand Lodge of England in order to distinguish it from the Most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons according to the Old Constitutions, more usually referred to as the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, and the Grand Lodge of All England Meeting at York. It existed until 1813, when it united with the Ancient Grand Lodge of England to create the United Grand Lodge of England.The basic principles of the Grand Lodge of England were inspired by the ideal of tolerance and universal understanding of the Enlightenment and by the Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century.

Warkton

Warkton is a nucleated village and civil parish in the English county of Northamptonshire. It is about three miles north-east of the town of Kettering and forms part of the borough of Kettering. At the time of the 2001 census, the parish's population was 144 people, reducing slightly to 136 at the 2011 Census.The Grade I listed parish church of St Edmund is particularly noted for containing four Baroque marble monuments erected between the 1750s and 1830s to members of the local Montagu family of Boughton House. The monuments are housed in four niches in the specially constructed chancel. The original medieval (probably Norman) chancel was demolished to make way for its construction. The east window is large and of clear glass, flooding the chancel with light to show the white marble monuments at their best. Monuments to John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1690–1749), and his wife, Mary Churchill (1689–1752) are by the renowned sculptor Louis-François Roubiliac. A third monument to Mary Montagu (1711–1775), daughter of John and Mary, is by Pieter Mathias van Gelder (1742–1824). These first three monuments are of very high quality, rivalling the Roubilliacs in Westminster Abbey. The fourth monument, to Elizabeth Scott, Duchess of Buccleuch (1743–1827), daughter of Mary, is by Thomas Campbell (1790–1858) and, though very fine, is of significantly lesser quality than the other three. The private family burial vault, adjacent to the chancel, contains the mortal remains of those celebrated in the monuments, together with their children, many who died in infancy, and Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu (1638–c. 1709).

William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester

William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester, KB (April 1700 – 21 October 1739) was the son of Charles Montagu, 1st Duke of Manchester.

He married Lady Isabella Montagu, daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, on 16 April 1723.He was made a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath (KB) in 1725.He died in 1739, aged 39, childless and his titles passed to his brother, Robert Montagu. Prior to his death the Duke was involved with the establishment of a new charity in London which would work to save children abandoned by their parents due to poverty and miserable conditions. The charity became known as the Foundling Hospital and its royal charter, naming the Duke of Manchester one of its founding governors, was awarded only four days prior to the duke's death.

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