John Michel

Field Marshal Sir John Michel GCB PC (1 September 1804 – 23 May 1886) was a British Army officer. He commanded the 6th Regiment of Foot during the Eighth Xhosa War in 1851 and served as Chief of Staff of the British Army's Turkish contingent during the Crimean War in 1854 before transferring to India where he commanded the Malwa Field Force which pursued Tatya Tope in the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny. He then commanded the 1st Division at the Battle of Taku Forts in August 1860 during the Second Opium War and took part in the burning of the Old Summer Palace at Peking in October 1860 as a reprisal for the torture and murder of British prisoners before being appointed Commander of British Troops in China and Hong Kong in 1861. He later commanded the forces in British North America playing a key role in the organization of the militia volunteers in resistance to the Fenian raids invasions in 1866. His last appointment was as Commander-in-Chief of Ireland in 1875.

Michel was also an English cricketer with amateur status.

Sir John Michel
Sir John Michel
Born1 September 1804
Dewlish House, Dorset
Died23 May 1886 (aged 81)
Dewlish House, Dorset
AllegianceUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom
Service/branchFlag of the British Army.svg British Army
Years of service1823–1880
RankField Marshal
Commands held6th Regiment of Foot
Commander of British Troops in China and Hong Kong
Commander of the British Troops in Canada
Commander-in-Chief of Ireland
Battles/warsEighth Xhosa War
Crimean War
Indian Mutiny
Second Opium War
Fenian raids
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Medjidie, Second Class (Ottoman Empire)

Military career

Born the son of Lieutenant-General John Michel and Anne Michel (née Fane),[1] Michel was educated at Eton College and commissioned into the 57th Regiment of Foot on 3 April 1823.[2] He transferred to the 27th Regiment of Foot a few months later, then to the 60th Regiment of Foot on 6 November 1823[3] and then to the 64th Regiment of Foot in Gibraltar on 24 November 1823.[4] He was promoted to lieutenant on 28 April 1825,[5] to captain in an unattached company on 12 December 1826[6] and to captain the 64th Foot on 15 February 1827.[7]

Michel was associated with Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and made his first-class debut in 1831. He played for the Gentlemen in the Gentlemen v Players match.[8]

Michel attended the Royal Military College, Sandhurst in 1832 passing out as a staff officer the following year.[2] He returned to the 64th Foot before transferring to the 3rd Regiment of Foot in Bengal on 20 February 1835[9] and becoming Aide-de-Camp to General Sir Henry Fane there later that year.[2] Promoted to major in the 6th Regiment of Foot on 6 March 1840,[10] he became Commanding Officer of the 6th Foot with the rank of lieutenant colonel on 15 April 1842.[11]

Michel was deployed to South Africa in 1847 where he commanded his Regiment at the Battle of Waterkloof in March 1851 and the Battle of Mount Chaco in December 1851 during the Eighth Xhosa War.[1] Promoted to brevet colonel on 20 June 1854,[12] he became an Inspecting Field Officer for the recruiting districts on 1 October 1854[13] and then Chief of Staff of the British Army's Turkish contingent serving in the Crimean War with the local rank of major-general on 27 March 1855.[14] After returning to South Africa again with the local rank of major-general on 24 July 1856[15] to deal with attacks by the cattle-killing movement, he was transferred to India with the local rank of major-general on 7 August 1857[16] and commanded the Malwa Field Force which pursued Tatya Tope in the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny.[17] He was promoted to the substantive rank of major-general on 26 October 1858.[18]

Michel became Commander of the 1st Division and fought at the Battle of Taku Forts in August 1860 during the Second Opium War.[17] He took part in the burning of the Old Summer Palace at Peking in October 1860 as a reprisal for the torture and murder of British prisoners before being appointed Commander of British Troops in China and Hong Kong in 1861.[17]

Michel became Commander of the British Troops in Canada in British North America with the local rank of lieutenant-general on 25 April 1865,[19] succeeding Lieutenant-General Sir William Williams.[1] In this capacity, Michel played a key role in the organization of the militia volunteers in resistance to the Fenian raids invasions in 1866.[1] He was also a strong supporter of the OttawaFrench River navigation route advocated by Casimir Gzowski.[1] Promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant-general on 25 June 1866[20] and to full general on 28 March 1874,[21] he became the Commander-in-Chief, Ireland in 1875; in this capacity his social skills and ample means made him very popular.[17] He returned from Ireland on 1 October 1880.[22] He also became colonel of the 86th Regiment of Foot (later the 2nd Battalion the Royal Irish Rifles).[23]

Promoted to field marshal on 27 March 1886,[24] Michel retired[25] to Dewlish House in Dorset where he died on 23 May 1886.[17]

Upper North Taku Fort
The Taku Forts, just after the battle


Michel's honours included:


In May 1838 Michel married Louise Anne Churchill and together they went on to have two sons and three daughters.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "John Michel". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Heathcote, p. 207
  3. ^ "No. 17975". The London Gazette. 15 November 1823. p. 1912.
  4. ^ "No. 17979". The London Gazette. 29 November 1823. p. 1990.
  5. ^ "No. 18137". The London Gazette. 14 May 1825. p. 835.
  6. ^ "No. 18313". The London Gazette. 12 December 1826. p. 2924.
  7. ^ "No. 18343". The London Gazette. 13 March 1827. p. 596.
  8. ^ "John Michell". CricketArchive. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  9. ^ "No. 19242". The London Gazette. 20 February 1835. p. 310.
  10. ^ "No. 19833". The London Gazette. 6 March 1840. p. 555.
  11. ^ "No. 20091". The London Gazette. 15 April 1842. p. 1047.
  12. ^ "No. 21564". The London Gazette. 22 June 1854. p. 1934.
  13. ^ "No. 21594". The London Gazette. 15 September 1854. p. 2836.
  14. ^ "No. 21699". The London Gazette. 24 April 1855. p. 1575.
  15. ^ "No. 21911". The London Gazette. 8 August 1856. p. 2747.
  16. ^ "No. 22041". The London Gazette. 18 September 1857. p. 3144.
  17. ^ a b c d e Heathcote, p. 208
  18. ^ "No. 22194". The London Gazette. 26 October 1858. p. 4578.
  19. ^ "No. 22961". The London Gazette. 25 April 1865. p. 2188.
  20. ^ "No. 23139". The London Gazette. 17 July 1866. p. 4040.
  21. ^ "No. 24090". The London Gazette. 28 April 1874. p. 2298.
  22. ^ "No. 24876". The London Gazette. 24 August 1880. p. 4627.
  23. ^ "No. 22658". The London Gazette. 2 September 1862. p. 4306.
  24. ^ "No. 25572". The London Gazette. 26 March 1886. p. 1468.
  25. ^ "No. 24892". The London Gazette. 15 October 1880. p. 5288.
  26. ^ "No. 23739". The London Gazette. 20 May 1871. p. 2473.
  27. ^ "No. 22241". The London Gazette. 22 March 1859. p. 1214.
  28. ^ "No. 21509". The London Gazette. 6 January 1854. p. 44.
  29. ^ "No. 22107". The London Gazette. 2 March 1858. p. 1268.


  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir James Grant
Commander of British Troops in China and Hong Kong
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Staveley
Preceded by
Sir William Fenwick Williams
Commander of the British Troops in Canada
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Ash Windham
Preceded by
Lord Sandhurst
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Steele
Preceded by
Lord James Hay
Colonel of the 86th (Royal County Down) Regiment of Foot
Succeeded by
Amalgamated to form the Royal Irish Rifles
1871 Birthday Honours

The 1871 Birthday Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of the Queen, and were published in The London Gazette on 20 May 1871.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

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The cello ( CHEL-oh; plural cellos or celli) or violoncello ( VY-ə-lən-CHEL-oh; Italian pronunciation: [vjolonˈtʃɛllo]) is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are usually tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3. It is the bass member of the violin family, which also includes the violin, viola and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest (in pitch) bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra. The cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles (e.g., string quartet), string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, and some types of rock bands.

Music for the cello is generally written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a cellist or violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello typically plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece. In an orchestra of the Baroque era (ca. 1600–1750) and Classical period (ca. 1725–1800), the cello typically plays the bass part, generally doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is often used to play the basso continuo bassline, typically along with a keyboard instrument (e.g., pipe organ or harpsichord) or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument (e.g., lute or theorbo). In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments.

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John B. Michel

John B. Michel (1917–1969) was a science fiction author (sometimes publishing under the name Hugh Raymond) and editor associated with the Futurians, of which he was one of twelve founding members. He was elected Director of the Futurians in 1941. He was widely known for his Left-wing, utopian politics, which came to be known in SF fandom as "Michelism," or the belief that "science-fiction should by nature stand for all forces working for a more unified world, a more Utopian existence, the application of science to human happiness, and a saner outlook on life." Debates over Michelism and its association with Technocracy and Communism were an object of controversy in fanzines in the late 1930s, and its influence can be seen in much science fiction of the period, including Isaac Asimov's Foundation series.Michel was a member of the Young Communist League, and later joined the CPUSA, although he was asked to leave in 1949 for absenteeism.

In the early 1940s, Michel was briefly romantically associated with Judith Merril.

John Michael Rysbrack

Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack, original name Jan Michiel Rijsbrack (24 June 1694 – 8 January 1770), was an 18th-century Flemish sculptor, who spent most of his career in England. His birth-year is sometimes (wrongly) given as 1693 or 1684.

John Michel (British Army officer, born 1765)

General John Michel (10 February 1765 – 5 April 1844) was a British Army officer.

John Michel (disambiguation)

John Michel may refer to:

John Michel (1804–1886), British Army officer

John B. Michel, (1917–1969), science fiction author, member of the Futurians

John Michel (television), director of at least two episodes of the TV series Scrubs

John Michel (1660-1739), MP for Sandwich between 1698 and 1713

John Michel (Belfast MP) (1765–1844), British Army general and MP for Belfast 1816–18

John Mirona

John Michel Mirona (جون ميشيل ميرونا; born 1962) is a former Olympic boxer from Sudan.

Louis John Michel

Louis John Michel (1825–1904) is the person of which the suburb of Melbourne named Warrandyte was formed upon. He is credited with the first discovery of gold in Victoria. Gold was first discovered in Warrandyte, Victoria at Anderson's Creek in 1851. A cairn was erected in 1938 marking the spot.

Manuel de Falla

Manuel de Falla y Matheu (Spanish pronunciation: [maˈnwel ðe ˈfaʎa], 23 November 1876 – 14 November 1946) was a Spanish composer. Along with Isaac Albéniz, Francisco Tárrega, and Enrique Granados, he was one of Spain's most important musicians of the first half of the 20th century. His image appeared on Spain's 1970 100-pesetas banknote.

Now That I've Found You

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Sandwich was a parliamentary constituency in Kent, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1366 until 1885, when it was disfranchised for corruption.

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The sonatas for viola da gamba and harpsichord, BWV 1027–1029, are three sonatas composed by Johann Sebastian Bach for viola da gamba and harpsichord.

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