John McGraw

John Joseph McGraw (April 7, 1873 – February 25, 1934), nicknamed "Little Napoleon" and "Mugsy", was a Major League Baseball (MLB) player and manager of the New York Giants. He stood 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m) tall and weighed 155 pounds (70 kg). He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. While primarily a third baseman throughout his career, he also played shortstop and the outfield in the major leagues.

Much lauded as a player, McGraw was one of the standard-bearers of dead-ball era baseball. He was known for his quick temper and for bending the rules, but he also stood out as a great baseball mind. McGraw was a key player on the pennant-winning 1890s Baltimore Orioles, and later applied his talents and temper while a captain (playing)-manager, transitioning in 1902 to the New York Giants, for whom he became a bench manager in 1907 until his retirement in 1932.

Even with his success and fame as a player, he is best known for his managing, especially since it was with a team as popular as the New York Giants. His total of 2,763 victories in that capacity ranks second overall behind only Connie Mack; he still holds the National League record with 2,669 wins in the senior circuit.[1] McGraw is widely held to be "the best player to become a great manager" in the history of baseball.[2] McGraw also held the MLB record for most ejections by a manager (132) until Bobby Cox broke the record in 2007.

John McGraw
John McGraw 1924
McGraw in 1924
Third baseman / Manager
Born: April 7, 1873
Truxton, New York
Died: February 25, 1934 (aged 60)
New Rochelle, New York
Batted: Left Threw: Right
MLB debut
August 26, 1891, for the Baltimore Orioles
Last MLB appearance
September 12, 1906, for the New York Giants
MLB statistics
Batting average.334
Home runs13
Runs batted in462
Stolen bases436
Managerial record2,763–1,948
Winning %.586
As player

As manager

Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Election MethodVeterans Committee

Early years

McGraw's father (whose name was also John) and his older brother Michael emigrated from Ireland in 1856. Their last name was spelled "McGrath" but is pronounced "McGraw" in Ireland. He and his brother had arrived in time for the Civil War, and were drawn into the conflict as part of the Union army. Shortly after the war, he married; and McGraw's older half-sister was born. John McGraw, Sr.'s first wife died, and he began moving around looking for work — a search that ultimately led him to Truxton, New York, in 1871. It was there that the elder John McGraw married young Ellen Comerfort. They had the younger John McGraw on April 7, 1873.

The younger John McGraw was named "John" after his father, and "Joseph" after his grandfather back in Ireland. Even as a baby, young Johnny (as he was called) had raven hair, and eyes so dark that many people thought they were black. The boy's birth was the first of many to the family, as seven more children were born over the course of the next 12 years. The sheer number of children, combined with the paucity of well-compensated work, led to hard times for the large family. It was often a struggle simply to have ample food for everyone and clothing enough to protect them all from the harsh winters of upstate New York.

Tragedy struck the family in the summer of 1883, when a debilitating fever swept through the family. Johnny's half-sister Annie, 13, was the first to succumb; and his mother died shortly thereafter. By the time September 1883 had passed, three more McGraw children had died. The devastated family moved from their house in the country into a hotel in town. Johnny's father, understandably bitter, heaped even more responsibility on the young boy's shoulders, and had very little patience for his son's passion for baseball. He became abusive toward the boy; and later on in 1885 (still only 12 years old), Johnny ran away. From that day onward, young John was raised by a kindly neighbor, Mary Goddard, under whose care he did quite well.

During his years as part of Goddard's household, John took on several jobs that allowed him to save money to buy baseballs and the Spalding magazines that chronicled the rules changes in the rival major leagues of baseball, the National League and the American Association. He quickly became the best player on his school team. Shortly after his 16th birthday, he began playing for his town's team, the Truxton Grays, making a favorable impression on their manager, Albert "Bert" Kenney. While he could play any position, his ability to throw a big curveball made him the star pitcher. McGraw's relationship with Kenney precipitated his professional playing career.[3]

Stars players of the Baltimore Orioles
A young McGraw (standing, to the right), 22 years old, with outfielder Joe Kelley (seated left), shortstop Hugh Jennings (seated right), and Willie Keeler (standing left)

Playing career

Minor leagues

In 1890, Kenney bought a portion of the new professional baseball franchise in Olean, New York. The team was to play in the newly formed New York–Pennsylvania League. In return for this investment, he was named player/manager of the team (this was called "captain" at the time).

When McGraw heard the news, he immediately went to visit his former coach, begging him for a chance to play on the new team. Kenney had seen a lot of baseball by this time, and doubted that his former pitcher's one great pitch (the "outcurve", as it was called) would work as effectively against professional competition. Yet the man liked the teenaged McGraw very much, and when the boy insisted that he could play any position available, Kenney decided to give him a chance. McGraw signed his first contract to play professional baseball on April 1, 1890.

Olean was located 200 miles from Truxton, and this was the farthest the youngster had ever traveled from his hometown. His debut with his new team was inauspicious and short-lived. He began the season on the bench. After two days, Kenney inserted him into the starting lineup at third base. McGraw would describe the moment of his first fielding chance decades later:

[F]or the life of me, I could not run to get it. It seemed like an age before I could get the ball in my hands and then, as I looked over to first, it seemed like the longest throw I ever had to make. The first baseman was the tallest in the league, but I threw the ball far over his head.[3]

1896 Baltimore Orioles
McGraw (2nd from left, front row) with the 1896 Baltimore Orioles

Seven more errors in nine more chances followed that day, a debacle that McGraw would not soon forget. After the team opened with no wins in six contests, Kenney and the other members of the ownership of the team—in the face of attendance that had dwindled to nearly nothing—were forced to overhaul the team. McGraw was given his release from the team, but Kenney also loaned him $70 and wished him luck if he wanted to try to catch on with another squad. McGraw could not bear the thought of going home a failure, as both his father and Mary Goddard had urged him to stay home and take a regular job, instead of chasing his dream of being a ballplayer. McGraw was resolute in his determination to make a name for himself as a professional baseball player, even if that meant struggling along in poverty for a time.

Thus it was that he began his journey again, this time in Wellsville, New York, a team that played in the Western New York League. The level of baseball played there was the lowest of the minor leagues, and McGraw still struggled with his fielding. But during his 24-game stint with the club, he managed to hit .365, flashing a glimpse of what would later become his hitting prowess. On October 1, 1890, he finished his first season as a professional baseball player, still only 17 years old.

After that first season, McGraw caught on with the traveling team of flamboyant promoter and fellow player, Al Lawson. Then only 21 himself, Lawson had gathered a ragtag group of players. These he took to Gainesville, Florida, in February 1891, hoping to play against major league teams who were training in the area. After defeating a team from Ocala a couple of times, Lawson began calling his team "the champions of Florida", and was able to convince the National League team from Cleveland to play against his team. It was during this game that McGraw gained his first renown as a player. The Cleveland squad was led by Denton True "Cy" Young, who had already become famous for his "cyclone"-like fastball.

While the young Gainesville club lost the game 9–6, McGraw managed three doubles in five at-bats. He also scored half his team's six runs, crossing the plate three times. He played error-free defense at shortstop as well. Reports of the game — and of his masterful play in it — made it to the Cleveland papers. McGraw's name began to become widely known after other daily papers as well as some national baseball weeklies, such as The Sporting News. Shortly (around a week later), McGraw heard from many professional clubs requesting his services for the upcoming season.

Lawson acted as the boy's agent, and advised him to request $125 monthly and a $75 advance. The manager of the Cedar Rapids club in the Illinois–Iowa League was the first to wire the money, and McGraw decided to make that his next stop. It was later claimed by several other clubs that McGraw had signed with them and had accepted their $75 advances. Though they threatened to sue, the clubs were never able to substantiate these claims; and McGraw was allowed to play in the league.

It was with the Canaries — as his Cedar Rapids club was called — that his greatest opportunity would arise. The Chicago White Stockings arrived in town for an exhibition game against McGraw's team. The White Stockings were led by Adrian "Cap" Anson, the major leagues' first true superstar. Unfazed by his famous opponents, the brash young McGraw led his teammates in giving their foes a hard time. During the game, on a field covered in mud, McGraw made a dazzling play at shortstop, leaping high to steal a hit from Cap Anson. After the game, Anson — impressed with the 18-year-old's solid play — asked him whether he would like to play for Chicago's team some day, which greatly increased the young man's confidence.

Conference on the field at the Columbia Avenue Grounds, 1905 World Series
McGraw discusses an issue with an umpire and two members of the Philadelphia Athletics.

When the call came for McGraw to report to the major leagues — the National League's Baltimore club specifically — his teammates accompanied him to the rail station. McGraw arrived at Camden Station in Baltimore on August 24, 1891, still only 18 years old, but now a major league baseball player. McGraw described his new home upon his arrival as "a dirty, dreary, ramshackle sort of place."[4]

John McGraw in the Chicago Eagle, 1919[5]

Major leagues

McGraw made his major league debut in 1891 in the American Association with the Baltimore Orioles. After the Orioles moved to the National League a year later, he remained with the team until 1899.[6] During this time, McGraw established himself as an adept batsman with a keen eye, and an excellent third baseman. He walked over 100 times in a season three times, scored over 100 runs in a season five times, batted .320 or higher in every year from 1893 on, and also boasted an on-base percentage of .400 or higher in every year from 1893 on, including a career high mark of .547 in 1899. McGraw also took on managerial duties for the 1899 Oriole team and posted an 86–62 record.

McGraw's playing time diminished over the following years as he played for the St. Louis Cardinals (1900), the American League Baltimore Orioles (19011902), and the New York Giants (1902–1906). 1902 was his last season as a full-time player; he never played in more than 12 games or tallied more than 12 at bats in any season thereafter. He retired having accumulated 1,024 runs, 13 home runs, 462 RBI, a .334 batting average and a .466 on-base percentage. His .466 career on-base percentage remains third all-time behind only baseball legends Ted Williams (.482) and Babe Ruth (.474).

Style of play

When, as a young player, McGraw tried to block Cleveland's Buck Ewing from third base, Ewing "went into him with such force that he knocked McGraw off his feet", John B. Foster of The Cleveland Leader wrote. "McGraw is rather a light youngster to be so anxious to block men off the bases. Another year in the league is likely to teach him a sorry lesson."[7]

Former Baltimore teammate Sadie McMahon said in 1948, "McGraw wouldn't give the bag to the base runner like they do today" and also that he would "stand on the inside corner and make the runner go around."[8]

In his 1998 The League That Failed, David Voigt said McGraw believed that "only by mastering the rules could he circumvent them." So "he became a master at finding loopholes."[9] Voigt added, "Among tactics used by McGraw was the opportunistic base runner's trick of slapping a ball from an infielder's grasp, the psychological ploy of wearing wickedly sharpened spikes, and vocally abusing opposing players and umpires."[10]

Voigt also wrote that McGraw had a reputation as a "dirty player" as of 1895 that was "the talk of the league." By 1895, some were singling out McGraw for his mouth."[11]

In 1899, the Pittsburg Leader said the following after he was "as quiet as a lamb" one day at Pittsburgh: "McGraw, although having the reputation of being a rowdy ball player, has never shown any rowdy tactics in this city."[12]

McGraw figures prominently in an Orioles-spiked-umpires recollection in Fred Lieb's 1950 The Baseball Story, which quotes 1890s umpire John Heydler, later a National League president, as saying: "We hear much of the glories and durability of the old Orioles, but the truth about this team seldom has been told. They were mean, vicious, ready at any time to maim a rival player or an umpire, if it helped their cause. The things they would say to an umpire were unbelievably vile, and they broke the spirits of some fine men. I've seen umpires bathe their feet by the hour after McGraw and others spiked them through their shoes. The club never was a constructive force in the game. The worst of it was they got by with much of their browbeating and hooliganism. Other clubs patterned after them, and I feel the lot of the umpire never was worse than in the years when the Orioles were flying high."[13]


1891 18 Baltimore Orioles AA 33 115 17 31 3 5 0 14 4 17 .270 .359 .383 .741
1892 19 Baltimore Orioles NL 79 286 41 77 13 2 1 26 15 21 .269 .355 .339 .694
1893 20 Baltimore Orioles NL 127 480 123 154 9 10 5 64 38 11 .321 .454 .413 .866
1894 21 Baltimore Orioles NL 124 512 156 174 18 14 1 92 78 12 .340 .451 .436 .887
1895 22 Baltimore Orioles NL 96 388 110 143 13 6 2 48 61 9 .369 .459 .448 .908
1896 23 Baltimore Orioles NL 23 77 20 25 2 2 0 14 13 4 .325 .422 .403 .825
1897 24 Baltimore Orioles NL 106 391 90 127 15 3 0 48 44 15 .325 .471 .379 .849
1898 25 Baltimore Orioles NL 143 515 143 176 8 10 0 53 43 13 .342 .475 .396 .871
1899 26 Baltimore Orioles NL 117 399 140 156 13 3 1 33 73 21 .391 .547 .446 .994
1900 27 St. Louis Cardinals NL 99 334 84 115 10 4 2 33 29 9 .344 .505 .416 .921
1901 28 Baltimore Orioles AL 73 232 71 81 14 9 0 28 24 6 .349 .508 .487 .995
1902 29 Baltimore Orioles/New York Giants AL/NL 55 170 27 43 3 2 1 8 12 17 .253 .420 .312 .732
1903 30 New York Giants NL 12 11 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 .273 .467 .273 .739
1904 31 New York Giants NL 5 12 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 .333 .467 .333 .800
1905 32 New York Giants NL 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
1906 33 New York Giants NL 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .000 .333 .000 .333

Managerial career


1912 John McGraw by Conlon.jpeg
McGraw in 1912
Managers John McGraw, New York NL, and Jake Stahl, Boston AL, at World Series (baseball) (LOC)
John McGraw greets fellow manager Jake Stahl at the 1912 World Series.

Despite great success as a player, McGraw is most remembered for his tremendous accomplishments as a manager. In his book The Old Ball Game, National Public Radio's Frank Deford calls McGraw "the model for the classic American coach—a male version of the whore with a heart of gold—a tough, flinty so-and-so who was field-smart, a man's man his players came to love despite themselves."[14] McGraw took chances on players, signing some who had been discarded by other teams, often getting a few more good seasons out of them. Sometimes these risks paid off; other times, they did not work out quite so well. McGraw took a risk in signing famed athlete Jim Thorpe in 1913. Alas, Thorpe was a bust, not because he lacked athletic ability, but because "he couldn't hit a ball that curved."[14] McGraw was one of the first to use a relief pitcher to save games. He pitched Claude Elliott in relief eight times in his ten appearances in 1905. Though saves were not an official statistic until 1969, Elliot was retroactively credited with six saves that season, a record at that time.[15][16]

McGraw believed that he had to eliminate any potential distractions that could cause his teams to lose. For example, Casey Stengel, who played for the Giants from 1921 to 1923, recalled that McGraw would go over the meal tickets at the team hotel, and wasn't shy about telling his players that they weren't eating right. For most of his tenure, he set a curfew for 11:30 pm. According to Rogers Hornsby, who served as a player-coach for the Giants in 1927, either McGraw or one of his coaches would knock on the players' hotel room doors at 11:30 sharp—and someone was expected to answer. He was known to be extremely competitive; he would fine players for fraternizing with members of other teams and would not tolerate smiling in the dugout. According to Bill James, with McGraw "the rules were well understood."[17]

Over 33 years as a manager with the Baltimore Orioles of both leagues (1899 NL, 1901–1902 AL) and New York Giants (1902–1932), McGraw compiled 2,763 wins and 1,948 losses for a .586 winning percentage. His teams won 10 National League pennants and three World Series championships, and they had 11 second-place finishes while posting only two losing records. In 1918, he broke Fred Clarke's major league record of 1,670 career victories; he was later passed by Mack. McGraw led the Giants to first place each year from 1921 to 1924, becoming the only National League manager to win four consecutive pennants. At the time of his retirement, McGraw had been ejected from games 131 times (at least 14 of these came as a player). This record would stand until Atlanta Braves manager Bobby Cox broke it on August 14, 2007.

In 1919, McGraw became a part-owner of the Giants when Charles Stoneham bought the club. As part of the deal, McGraw became vice president of the Giants, with complete authority over the baseball side of the operation. However, he'd had a more-or-less free hand in baseball matters since his arrival. McGraw wrote an autobiography of his years in baseball, published in 1923, in which he expressed grudging respect for several opposing players.[18] McGraw managed his last game on June 1, 1932, losing 4–2 to the Philadelphia Phillies at the Polo Grounds, taking the Giants to 17–23 on the season. On June 3, he announced his resignation from the ballclub, with Bill Terry (who had served as the first baseman for the team since 1923) picked as his successor.[19][20] McGraw finished with a record of 2,583 wins and 1,948 losses with the Giants.[21] The following year, he returned to manage the National League team in the inaugural 1933 All-Star Game.

Although for most of his career McGraw wore the same baseball uniform his players wore, he eventually took a page out of Mack's book toward the end of his career and began managing in a three piece suit. He continued to do so until his retirement.

Managerial record

Overall record

Team From To Regular season record Post-season record
G W L Win % G W L Win %
Baltimore Orioles (NL) 1899 1899 148 86 62 .581
Baltimore Orioles (AL) 1901 1902 190 94 96 .495
New York Giants 1902 1924 3249 1961 1288 .604 47 23 24 .489
New York Giants 1924 1925 94 55 39 .585 7 3 4 .429
New York Giants 1925 1927 379 199 180 .525
New York Giants 1928 1932 651 368 283 .565
Total 4711 2763 1948 .586 54 26 28 .481

New York Giants managerial record

McGraw became the third of three managers for the New York Giants in 1902, and held the position until 1932.[21] He briefly stood down as manager in the middle of the 1924 season due to illness, and coach and former Orioles teammate Hughie Jennings served as interim manager.[22] Jennings spelled him again in the middle of the 1925 season.[23] He took another leave of absence during the 1927 season; player-coach Hornsby served as interim manager during this time.[24]

From To Regular season record Post–season record
G W L Win % G W L Win %
1902 1924 3249 1961 1288 .604 47 23 24 .489
1924 1925 94 55 39 .585 7 3 4 .429
1925 1927 379 199 180 .525
1928 1932 651 368 283 .565
Total 4373 2583 1790 .591 54 26 28 .481

Personal life

McGraw married Minnie Doyle, the daughter of prominent Baltimore politician Michael Doyle, on February 3, 1897. This was at the height of his fame as a player for the old Baltimore Orioles of the National League. Two years later, while McGraw was on a road trip with his team, Minnie developed appendicitis. An emergency appendectomy was performed, and McGraw was called back from Louisville, Kentucky. Her condition worsened; and, surrounded by McGraw and other members of the family, Minnie died on September 1, 1899 at the age of 23.[25]

McGraw married his second wife, Blanche Sindall, on January 8, 1902. She outlived McGraw by nearly 30 years, dying on November 4, 1962. Even after her husband's death, Mrs. McGraw was a devoted fan of the team he had managed for so long.[26] In 1951, she threw out the first pitch during a World Series game in which her beloved Giants played the New York Yankees.[27] The Yankees won that day, 6–2, and went on to win the championship — their third in a row — in six games.

As owners of a bowling, billiards, and pool hall in Baltimore, McGraw and Wilbert Robinson introduced the sport of duckpin bowling within the city of Baltimore in 1899.

Later years

In 1923, only nine years before he retired, McGraw reflected on his life inside the game he loved in his memoir My Thirty Years in Baseball.[18] He stepped down as manager of the New York Giants in the middle of the 1932 season. He was reactivated briefly when he accepted the invitation to manage the National League team in the 1933 All-Star Game.

Less than two years after retiring, McGraw died of uremic poisoning[28] at age 60 and is interred in New Cathedral Cemetery in Baltimore, Maryland.[29]

Connie Mack would surpass McGraw's major league victory total just months later. After McGraw's death, his wife found, among his personal belongings, a list of all the black players he wanted to sign over the years.[30]

Posthumous honors

McGraw was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937; his plaque stated that he was considered the greatest assessor of baseball talent. In honor of the days he spent coaching at St. Bonaventure, St. Bonaventure University named its athletic fields after McGraw and his teammate, fellow coach and fellow Hall of Famer Hugh Jennings.

Although McGraw played before numbers were worn on jerseys, the Giants honor him along with their retired numbers at Oracle Park.

The John McGraw Monument stands in his hometown of Truxton.

See also


  • Alexander, Charles C. (1995). John McGraw. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-5925-5.
  • Threston, Christopher (2003). The Integration of Baseball in Philadelphia. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1423-5.
  • Markoe, Arnie. The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. ISBN 0-684-80665-7.


  1. ^ "Manager records index". Retrieved May 3, 2008.
  2. ^ profile of McGraw Archived May 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Alexander, Charles (1995). John McGraw. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-5925-5.
  4. ^ Charles Alexander 1995, pp. 22.
  5. ^ Donovan, Henry. "Chicago Eagle". Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  6. ^ Graham, Frank (2007). Mcgraw of the Giants – an Informal Biography. City: Chauhau Press. ISBN 1-4067-3462-4.
  7. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p. 82, citing, in part, the Cleveland Leader, September 15, 1893.
  8. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., pp. 47-48, citing, in part, the Baltimore Sun, July 11, 1948.
  9. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p.233, citing David Quentin Voigt, The League That Failed (Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow, 1998), 61.
  10. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p. 233, citing, in part, Voigt, The League That Failed (1998), 61.
  11. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., pp. 233-234, citing, in part, Voigt, The League That Failed (1998), 61.
  12. ^ Rosenberg, Howard W. Cap Anson 3., p. 234, citing, in part, Pittsburg Leader and Pittsburgh Commercial Gazette, May 23, 1899.
  13. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 3., p. 217, citing, in part, Frederick G. Lieb, The Baseball Story (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1950), 141.
  14. ^ a b Deford, Frank (2006). The Old Ball Game. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-4247-8.
  15. ^ Morris, Peter (2006). A Game of Inches: The Game on the Field. Ivan R. Dee. p. 318. ISBN 1-56663-677-9.
  16. ^ McNeil, William (2006). The Evolution of Pitching in Major League Baseball. McFarland & Company. p. 53. ISBN 9780786424689. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  17. ^ James, Bill (1997). The Bill James Guide to Baseball Managers. Diversion Books.
  18. ^ a b Mcgraw, John (1995). My Thirty Years in Baseball. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8139-0.
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b c d "John McGraw". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  22. ^ "1924 New York Giants". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  23. ^ "1925 New York Giants". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  24. ^ "1927 New York Giants". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  25. ^ "Manager McGraw's Wife Dead" (PDF). The New York Times. September 1, 1899. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  26. ^ "Mrs. John J. McGraw, 81, Dies". The New York Times. November 5, 1962. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  27. ^ "Mrs. John McGraw, Wife Of Former Giant Manager, Tossed Out First Ball", by Whitney Martin, for The Hartford Courant, October 6, 1951.
  28. ^ "John McGraw Long Baseball Leader Dies", The Hartford Courant, February 26, 1934.
  29. ^ Markoe, pp. 87
  30. ^ Threston (2003). The Integration of Baseball in Philadelphia. p. 11.

Further reading

  • "Mister Muggsy". Profiles. The New Yorker. 1 (6): 9–10. March 28, 1925.

External links

1894 Baltimore Orioles season

The Baltimore Orioles won their first National League pennant in 1894. They won 24 of their last 25 games. After the regular season's conclusion, the Orioles participated in the first Temple Cup competition against the second-place New York Giants. The Orioles lost to the Giants in a sweep, four games to none.

The Orioles roster contained six future Hall of Famers: Wilbert Robinson, John McGraw, Dan Brouthers, Hughie Jennings, Wee Willie Keeler and Joe Kelley. Every man in their starting line up hit .300 for the season. They bunted, hit-and-ran, Baltimore chopped, backed up throws, cut off throws, and had pitchers cover first. They also deadened balls by icing them, tilted baselines so bunts would roll fair, and put soap around the mound so opposing pitchers would get slippery fingers if he tried to dry his hands in the dirt.

1901 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1901 Baltimore Orioles season finished with the Orioles in 5th in the American League with a record of 68–65. The team was managed by John McGraw and played at Oriole Park.

1902 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1902 Baltimore Orioles season finished with the Orioles in 8th in the American League (AL) with a record of 50–88. The team was managed by John McGraw and Wilbert Robinson. The team played at Oriole Park in Baltimore, Maryland.

During the season, Andrew Freedman, principal owner of the National League's (NL) New York Giants, with the financial backing of John T. Brush, principal owner of the NL's Cincinnati Reds, purchased the Orioles from John Mahon, who was deeply in debt. They raided the Orioles roster, releasing several of Baltimore's better players so that they could sign them to the Giants and Reds. AL president Ban Johnson seized control of the Orioles the next day and restocked their roster with players received on loan from other AL teams.

The Orioles' second season in Baltimore would ultimately prove to be their last, as the team was moved to New York after the season, where they became known as the New York Highlanders.

1902 New York Giants season

The 1902 New York Giants season was the franchise's 20th season. The team finished in eighth place, last, in the National League with a 48–88 record, 53.5 games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates. Their .353 winning percentage remains (as of 2016) the worst in franchise history.

1903 New York Giants season

The 1903 New York Giants season was the franchise's 21st season. The team finished in second place in the National League with an 84–55 record, 6.5 games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1904 New York Giants season

The 1904 New York Giants season was the 22nd season in franchise history. They led the National League in both runs scored and fewest runs allowed, on their way to 106 wins and the pennant.

The first modern World Series had been played the previous year, but manager John McGraw and owner John T. Brush refused to play the American League champion Boston Americans in a 1904 World Series. They would change their position the following year.

1905 New York Giants season

The 1905 New York Giants season was the franchise's 23rd season, and the team won their second consecutive National League pennant. They beat the Philadelphia Athletics in the World Series.

1906 New York Giants season

The 1906 New York Giants season was the franchise's 24th season. The team finished in second place in the National League with a 96-56 record, 20 games behind the Chicago Cubs.

1911 New York Giants season

The 1911 New York Giants season was the franchise's 29th season. It involved the Giants winning their first of three consecutive National League pennants. They were beaten by the Philadelphia Athletics in the World Series.

Led by manager John McGraw, the Giants won the NL by 7½ games. On the offensive side, they finished second in total runs scored. On the defensive side, they allowed the fewest. Hall of Famer Christy Mathewson led the league in ERA, and Rube Marquard had the most strikeouts.

Taken together with the 1912 and 1913 pennant winners, this team is considered one of the greatest of all-time.

1913 New York Giants season

The 1913 New York Giants season was the franchise's 31st season. It involved the Giants winning the National League pennant for the third consecutive year. Led by manager John McGraw, the Giants dominated the NL and finished 12½ games in front of the second place Philadelphia Phillies. They were beaten by the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1913 World Series.

Ace pitcher Christy Mathewson went 25–11 and led the NL with a 2.06 ERA. Rube Marquard and Jeff Tesreau also won over 20 games, and the Giants easily allowed the fewest runs of any team in the league.

Taken together with the 1911 and 1912 pennant winners, this team is considered one of the greatest of all-time. The roster was basically unchanged from 1912.

Art Fletcher

Arthur Fletcher (January 5, 1885 – February 6, 1950) was an American shortstop, manager and coach in Major League Baseball. Fletcher was associated with two New York City baseball dynasties: the Giants of John McGraw as a player; and the Yankees of Miller Huggins and Joe McCarthy as a coach.

Baltimore Orioles (1882–1899)

The Baltimore Orioles were a 19th-century American Association and National League (organized 1876) team from 1882 to 1899. The early ball club, which featured numerous future Hall of Famers, finished in first place three consecutive years (1894–1895–1896) and won the "Temple Cup" national championship series in 1896 and 1897. Despite their success, the dominant Orioles were contracted out of the League after the 1899 season, when the N.L. reduced its number of teams and franchises from 12 to 8, with a list of teams and cities limited to just the northeastern United States which endured for the next half-century. This controversial action resulting in the elevation of the former Western League by leaders such as Ban Johnson (1864-1931), into a newly-organized American League in 1901 of which the new reorganized Baltimore Orioles were a prominent member for its first two seasons which "waged war" on the elder "Nationals".

Cornell Chimes

The Cornell Chimes is a 21-bell chime in McGraw Tower on the central campus of Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, United States.

The chime originally had nine bells, donated by Jennie McGraw. They first rang at the University's opening ceremonies on October 7, 1868, and have since marked the hours and been used for chiming concerts.

The tower, long called "the Library Tower", was renamed in 1961. Whether the new name was intended to honor Jennie McGraw or her father, trustee John McGraw, was not specified at the time.

History of the New York Giants (baseball)

The San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball originated in New York City as the New York Gothams in 1883 and were known as the New York Giants from 1885 until the team relocated to San Francisco after the 1957 season. During most of their 75 seasons in New York City, the Giants played home games at various incarnations of the Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan.

Numerous inductees of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York played for the New York Giants, including John McGraw, Mel Ott, Bill Terry, Willie Mays, Monte Irvin, and Travis Jackson. During the club's tenure in New York, it won five of the franchise's eight World Series wins and 17 of its 23 National League pennants. Famous moments in the Giants' New York history include the 1922 World Series, in which the Giants swept the Yankees in four games, the 1951 home run known as the "Shot Heard 'Round the World", and the defensive feat by Willie Mays during the first game of the 1954 World Series known as "the Catch".

The Giants had intense rivalries with their fellow New York teams the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, facing the Yankees in six World Series and playing the league rival Dodgers multiple times per season. Games between any two of these three teams were known collectively as the Subway Series. The rivalry with the Dodgers continues to be played as the Dodgers joined the Giants in moving also to along the Pacific Ocean on the West Coast in California after the 1957 season when they relocated to Los Angeles. The New York Giants of the National Football League are named after the team.

John McGraw (governor)

John Harte McGraw (October 4, 1850 – June 23, 1910) was the second Governor of Washington state.

List of Baltimore Orioles (19th century) managers

The Baltimore Orioles were a 19th-century Major League Baseball team that played in Baltimore, Maryland. They played in the American Association when it was considered a major league from 1882 through 1891 and in the National League from 1892 through 1899. During their history, the 19th century Baltimore Orioles employed six managers. The duties of the team manager include team strategy and leadership on and off the field.The Orioles first manager was their shortstop, Henry Myers. Myers managed the team for only one season, 1882, and led them to a record of 19 wins and 54 losses, for a winning percentage of .260. In 1883, Myers was replaced by Billy Barnie, who managed the team throughout the remainder of its time in the American Association, through 1891. Barnie managed the Orioles to a record of 470 wins and 548 lossess, for a .462 winning percentage. The 1050 games Barnie managed were the most in Orioles' history, and the 548 games he lost were also the most in Orioles' history.In 1892, the Orioles joined the National League and outfielder George Van Haltren became the team's manager. Van Haltren lasted only eleven games as manager, winning just one. Van Haltren's winning percentage of .091 is the lowest in Orioles' history. He was by John Waltz, who won just two of the eight games he managed. The third manager the Orioles employed in 1892 was outfielder Ned Hanlon. Hanlon managed the team through the 1898 season, leading the Orioles to three consecutive National League pennants in 1894, 1895 and 1896. In all, Hanlon managed the team for 946 games, winning 555, the most in Orioles history. His .601 winning percentage is also the highest of any Orioles manager.In 1899, Hanlon became the manager of the Brooklyn Superbas, and third baseman John McGraw replaced him. McGraw managed the team to a 4th-place finish in 1899 with a record of 86 wins and 62 losses, after which the team was disbanded. Both McGraw and Hanlon were eventually elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

List of National League pennant winners

Each season, a National League team wins the league's pennant, signifying that they are its champion and they win the right to play in the World Series against the champion of the American League. In addition to the pennant, the team that wins the National League playoffs receives the Warren C. Giles Trophy, named after Warren Giles, who was the league president from 1951 to 1969. Warren's son Bill Giles, the honorary league president and owner of the Philadelphia Phillies, presents the trophy to the National League champion at the conclusion of each National League Championship Series (NLCS). The current National League pennant winners are the Los Angeles Dodgers, who won their second-consecutive NL pennant in October 2018.For most of the history of the National League (94 years), the pennant was presented to the team with the best win–loss record at the end of the season. The first modern World Series was played in 1903, and after a hiatus in 1904, continued until 1994, when a players' strike forced the cancellation of the postseason, and resumed in 1995. In 1969, the league split into two divisions, and the teams with the best records in each division played one another in the NLCS to determine the pennant winner. The format of the NLCS was changed from a best-of-five to a best-of-seven format for the 1985 postseason. In 1995, an additional playoff series was added when Major League Baseball restructured the two divisions in each league into three. As of 2010, the winners of the Eastern, Central, and Western Divisions, as well as one wild card team, play in the National League Division Series, a best-of-five playoff to determine the opponents who will play for the pennant.By pennants, the Los Angeles Dodgers (formerly the Brooklyn Dodgers; 23 pennants, 31 playoff appearances) and the San Francisco Giants (formerly the New York Giants) (23 National League pennants, 27 playoff appearances) are tied for the winningest teams in the National League. In third place is the St. Louis Cardinals (19 pennants and 28 playoff appearances), followed by the Atlanta Braves (17 pennants and 23 postseason appearances between their three home cities of Atlanta, Milwaukee, and Boston) and the Chicago Cubs (17 pennants and 20 playoff appearances [as the Cubs and White Stockings]). The Philadelphia Phillies won the league in back-to-back seasons in 2008 and 2009, becoming the first National League team to do so since the Braves in 1995 and 1996. The Los Angeles Dodgers would also win the league in back-to-back seasons in 2017 and 2018. Before 1903 there was no World Series as we know it today because the leagues were only loosely affiliated. As of 2018, the New York/San Francisco Giants and the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have the most World Series appearances at 20, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 19.

The team with the best record to win the National League pennant was the 1906 Cubs, who won 116 of 152 games during that season and finished 20 games ahead of the Giants, playing in New York at the time. The best record by a pennant-winner in the Championship Series era is 108–54, which was achieved by the Cincinnati Reds in 1975 and the New York Mets in 1986; both of these teams went on to win the World Series.National League champions have gone on to win the World Series 48 times, most recently in 2016. Pennant-winners have also won the Temple Cup and the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup, two pre-World Series league championships, although second-place teams won three of the four Temple Cup meetings. The largest margin of victory for a pennant-winner, before the league split into two divisions in 1969, is ​27 1⁄2 games; the Pittsburgh Pirates led the Brooklyn Superbas (now the Dodgers) by that margin on the final day of the 1902 season.The only currently-existing National League team to have never won a pennant is the Washington Nationals (formerly the Montreal Expos). While the Milwaukee Brewers have never won a National League pennant, they did win a pennant during their time in the American League.

List of World Series champions

The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) and concludes the MLB postseason. First played in 1903, the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff and is a contest between the champions of baseball's National League (NL) and American League (AL). Often referred to as the "Fall Classic", the modern World Series has been played every year since 1903 with two exceptions: in 1904, when the NL champion New York Giants declined to play the AL champion Boston Americans; and in 1994, when the series was canceled due to the players' strike.The best-of-seven style has been the format of all World Series except in 1903, 1919, 1920, and 1921, when the winner was determined through a best-of-nine playoff. Although the large majority of contests have been played entirely during the month of October, a small number of Series have also had games played during September and November. The Series-winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy. Players, coaches, and others associated with the team are generally given World Series rings to commemorate their victory; however, they have received other items such as pocket watches and medallions in the past. The winning team is traditionally invited to the White House to meet the President of the United States.

A total of 114 Series have been contested, with the NL champion winning 48 and the AL champion winning 66. The New York Yankees of the AL have played in 40 World Series through 2018—winning 27—the most Series appearances and most victories of any Major League Baseball franchise. The Los Angeles Dodgers of the NL have the most losses with 14. The St. Louis Cardinals have represented the NL 19 times, and won 11 championships, second-most among all teams and most among NL clubs. Both the Giants and the Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in more World Series, with 20 each.

The Seattle Mariners and the Washington Nationals (formerly Montreal Expos) are the only current Major League Baseball franchises to have never appeared in a World Series; the San Diego Padres, Colorado Rockies, Texas Rangers (formerly the 1961–1971 version of the Washington Senators), Tampa Bay Rays, and Milwaukee Brewers (formerly Seattle Pilots) have all played in the Series but have never won. The Toronto Blue Jays are the only franchise from outside the United States to appear in a World Series, winning in 1992 and 1993. The Houston Astros have represented both the NL (2005) and the AL (2017), winning the Series in 2017. The current World Series champions are the Boston Red Sox.

Third baseman

A third baseman, abbreviated 3B, is the player in baseball whose responsibility is to defend the area nearest to third base — the third of four bases a baserunner must touch in succession to score a run. In the scoring system used to record defensive plays, the third baseman is assigned the number '5'.

The third baseman requires good reflexes in reacting to batted balls, as he is often the closest infielder (roughly 90–120 feet) to the batter. The third base position requires a strong and accurate arm, as the third baseman often makes long throws to first base. The third baseman sometimes must throw quickly to second base in time to start a double play. The third baseman must also field fly balls in fair and foul territory.

Third base is known as the "hot corner", because the third baseman is relatively close to the batter and most right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball hard in this direction. A third baseman must possess good hand-eye coordination and quick reactions in order to catch hard line drives sometimes in excess of 125 miles per hour (201 km/h). Third basemen often must begin in a position even closer to the batter if a bunt is expected, creating a hazard if the ball is instead hit sharply. As with middle infielders, right-handed throwing players are standard at the position because they do not need to turn their body before throwing across the infield to first base. Mike Squires, who played fourteen games at third base in 1982 and 1983, is a very rare example of a third baseman who threw lefty. Some third basemen have been converted from middle infielders or outfielders because the position does not require them to run as fast.

Expectations of how well a third baseman should be able to hit have varied a great deal over time; in the early years of the sport, these expectations were similar to those for shortstops, the third baseman being merely the less skilled defensive player. Players who could hit with more ability often were not suited for third base, either because they were left-handed or because they were not mobile enough for the position. However, the beginning of the live-ball era in the 1920s created a greater demand for more offense, and third basemen have since been expected to hit either for a high average (.290 or better) or with moderate to substantial power. Since the 1950s the position has become more of a power position with sluggers such as Eddie Mathews, Mike Schmidt and Ron Santo becoming stars.

There are fewer third basemen in the Baseball Hall of Fame than there are Hall of Famers of any other position. Furthermore, with the notable exception of John McGraw and Bobby Cox, few third basemen have gone on to have successful managing careers, with Jimmy Dykes and Negro Leaguer Dave Malarcher being perhaps the next most prominent managers who began their careers at third base.

Veterans Committee
Inducted as a Giant
Inductees who played
for the Giants
Giants managers
Frick Award
Inductees in Yankees cap
Inductees who played
for the Yankees
Yankees' managers
Yankees' executives
Frick Award
Inducted as a Cardinal
Inductees who played
for the Cardinals
Cardinals managers
Cardinals executives
Frick Award
Spink Award
First basemen
Second basemen
Third basemen
Designated hitters
Executives /
1901 Baltimore Orioles Inaugural Season Roster
Retired numbers
Pre-World Series Champions (2)
Temple Cup Champions (1)
World Series Champions (8)
National League
Championships (23)
Division titles (8)
Wild card (3)
Minor league affiliates

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