John McCausland, Jr. (September 13, 1836 – January 22, 1927) was a brigadier general in the Confederate army, famous for the ransom of Hagerstown, Maryland, and the razing of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, during the American Civil War.
John McCausland, Jr.
|Born||September 13, 1836|
St Louis, Missouri, U.S.
|Died||January 22, 1927 (aged 90)|
Point Pleasant, West Virginia, U.S.
Henderson, West Virginia, U.S.
|Allegiance||Confederate States of America|
|Service/||Confederate States Army|
|Years of service||1861–1865|
|Commands held||36th Virginia Infantry|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
McCausland was born in St. Louis, Missouri on September 13, 1836, the son of an immigrant from Ireland. He became an orphan in 1843 and went to live with relatives near Point Pleasant, Virginia, now in Mason County, West Virginia. He graduated with first honors in the class of 1857 at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI). In 1858, after graduating from the University of Virginia, McCausland became an assistant professor of mathematics at VMI until 1861. In 1859 he was present with a group of VMI cadets at the execution of John Brown at Charles Town.
Immediately after the start of the U.S. Civil War, on July 16, 1861, McCausland was commissioned as a colonel and placed in command of the 36th Virginia Infantry Regiment. The regiment had been formed from the 2nd Kanawha Regiment and part of the 3rd Kanawha Regiment, which had been recruited heavily from the south-western counties of present-day West Virginia. He served in the brigade of Brigadier General John B. Floyd in western Virginia and was transferred with his regiment to Bowling Green, Kentucky, to serve in General Albert Sidney Johnston's army. He fought at the Battle of Fort Donelson and escaped with his command before the Confederates surrendered the fort in February 1862. For the remainder of 1862 and 1863 he fought in the Department of Southwest Virginia.
At the death of Confederate Brigadier General Albert Gallatin Jenkins, who was mortally wounded during the Union Army victory at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain on May 9, 1864, McCausland took command of the Confederate forces. McCausland was promoted to brigadier general on May 18, 1864, and served as a cavalry brigade commander in the Valley Campaigns of 1864, under Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early, raiding into Maryland and Pennsylvania. Under Early's orders, on July 30, 1864, McCausland burned the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, after it failed to pay an extortion demand, in retaliation for the destruction of private property by Union Army Major General David Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley, including the burning of the Virginia Military Institute. After the failure of Early's campaign, McCausland rejoined the Army of Northern Virginia in the Siege of Petersburg, the Battle of Five Forks, and the Appomattox Campaign. He escaped with his cavalry from Appomattox Court House before Robert E. Lee's surrender, but disbanded his unit soon after. He was paroled in Charleston, West Virginia, on May 22, 1865.
After the war, McCausland spent two years in Europe and Mexico before returning to the United States. He faced arson charges for the burning of Chambersburg, but was pardoned by President Ulysses S. Grant. He acquired a tract of 6,000 acres (24 km²) in Mason County, West Virginia, where he lived as a farmer for more than 60 years.
McCausland died at his farm, "Grape Hill", in Pliny, near Point Pleasant, West Virginia, on January 22, 1927, the last Confederate general to die. McCausland is buried in Henderson, West Virginia.
Eight years after his death, McCausland's son, Sam McCausland, shot and killed World War I Medal of Honor recipient Chester H. West, who was working for Sam as a farmhand, over what may have been a fight over Gen. John McCausland's gun. Sam was convicted of second-degree murder.
Events from the year 1735 in Ireland.36th Virginia Infantry
The 36th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought mostly in western Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky.
The 36th Virginia, also known as the 2nd Kanawha Regiment, was organized in July, 1861. Assigned to Floyd's Brigade, the unit fought at Cross-Lanes and Carnifax Ferry in western Virginia, then moved to Tennessee. Here it escaped surrender and later returned to Virginia and served in McCausland's and T. Smith's Brigade. The 36th went on to fight at Cloyd's Mountain and Piedmont, and later was involved in Early's Shenandoah Valley operations. It fought its last battle at Waynesboro.
This unit reported 14 killed and 46 wounded at Fort Donelson, and there were 18 killed, 58 wounded, and 35 missing at Cloyd's Mountain. Many were lost at Third Winchester, and in mid-April, 1865, it disbanded.
The field officers were Colonels John McCausland and Thomas Smith (a son of Confederate general and war-time Governor of Virginia William "Extra Billy" Smith), and Lieutenant Colonels William E. Fife, Benjamin R. Linkous, and L. Wilber Reid.Battle of Charleston (1862)
The Battle of Charleston was an engagement on September 13, 1862, near Charleston, Virginia (now West Virginia) during the American Civil War. It should not be confused with the Battle of Charleston (1861), which occurred a year earlier in Missouri.
During the summer of 1862, General William W. Loring’s Department of Southwestern Virginia (Confederate States of America) made some plans to move into the Kanawha Valley of western Virginia and take the city of Charleston. On September 6, 1862, General Loring, with 5,000 men, left Narrows, Virginia on a march toward Charleston. The Confederate troops first encountered Union forces near Fayetteville on September 10, driving them back toward Charleston. The pursuit continued all day on September 11, with the Federals splitting their forces near Gauley's Bridge on both sides of the Kanawha River, the CSA doing the same while in hot pursuit. By late afternoon on September 13, the Battle for Charleston had begun and was over by 7:30 p.m. when Loring's troops broke off the engagement at the Elk River. The Union forces withdrew across the Kanawha River overnight, leaving Charleston to be occupied by the Confederate forces.
The occupation of Charleston by the Confederates lasted a scant six weeks, until October 28, 1862, when Loring's troops began withdrawing under the threat of 12,000 Union soldiers, including West Virginia cavalry and infantry, approaching from the northeast counties. The city was consequently recaptured by the Union.
Excerpt from John D. Chapla's history of the 50th Virginia Infantry:
Reaching Colonel John McCausland at Dickerson's farm, Loring ordered McCausland to take charge of Echols' Brigade -- Echols being sick -- as well as the 22nd and 36th Virginia regiments, two artillery batteries, and Major Salyer's cavalry detachment. With this force, McCausland was to cross the Kanawha and push on to Charleston. McCausland crossed the Kanawha at Montgomery's Ferry and, with Salyer's cavalry leading, began his pursuit. By the end of the day McCausland had stopped federal efforts to burn the salt furnaces and went into camp four miles from the ferry. On September 12, McCausland again pressed forward, with the federals attempting to block the roads by felling trees. Although McCausland's lead elements and sharpshooters tried to interrupt this delaying action, it appears to have been somewhat successful. McCausland at some points fell up to three hours behind the fleeing federals. He camped that night 15 miles from Charleston."
McCausland resumed his pursuit on September 13, moving through Camp Piatt (now Belle) and Maiden to the outskirts of Charleston. Making contact with Union skirmishers near the Elk River, McCausland deployed his brigade about 3 p.m., with the 23rd Virginia Battalion in front as skirmishers and the 22nd, 50th, and 63rd Virginia (left to right) deployed on line behind the skirmishers. The 36th Virginia was in reserve. McCausland pushed forward with his left moving through the town until he reached the Elk River and discovered that the federals had retreated across the river, destroying the only bridge over it. As McCausland probed during the next several hours for crossing points, he skirmished heavily with the Union forces drawn up across from him. "The firing was terrific, and the old 50th was gallantly through the yards and fields of Charleston under a galling fire of grape shot and musket balls," an anonymous officer in the regiment reported."
Although McCausland was ultimately able to get his cavalry across the Elk at a ford two miles east of Charleston, he found that ford impassable for his infantry and artillery. In the end, darkness halted the fight for the brigade about 7:30 p.m. McCausland moved his troops to eat and rest as the Union garrison began a retreat out of the town."Battle of Cloyd's Mountain
The Battle of Cloyd's Mountain was a Union victory in western Virginia on May 9, 1864 that allowed the Union forces to destroy the last line connecting Tennessee to Virginia.Battle of Folck's Mill
The Battle of Folck's Mill, also known as the Battle of Cumberland, was a small cavalry engagement, fought August 1, 1864, in northern Maryland, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 during the American Civil War.
After burning Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on July 30, cavalry under Confederate generals John McCausland and Bradley T. Johnson set out for western Maryland towards Cumberland, to disrupt traffic on the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) Railroad and to demand a ransom from the town or torch it as well. At 3 p.m. on August 1, the Confederates arrived at Folck's Mill, east of Cumberland. There, Union Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley, with three regiments of untested "100-days" troops and six pieces of artillery, met the Confederate advance. As the Confederates arrived at the outskirts of town, Kelley's artillery fired on the cavalry. Lacking familiarity with the local terrain and the strength of the opposing force, McCausland decided against an assault and brought up his own artillery. The gunners from both armies dueled until about 8 p.m., at which point McCausland withdrew, heading southeast to Old Town on the Potomac River.
The following day the Confederates prepared to cross the Potomac and head into West Virginia but found the bridges over the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal had been burned by Col. Israel Stough and his regiment of 100-days troops. Stough deployed his force on the spit of land between the canal and river to contest the Confederate advance toward the river. After initially repulsing a charge by the Confederate cavalry, Stough was forced to retreat across the Potomac when the 21st Virginia successfully constructed a bridge and crossed the canal on his left flank. On the south bank of the river the Federals took cover in a blockhouse on the B&O Railroad and in an armored ordnance train operated by the Potomac Home Brigade that was stopped on the line. McCausland briefly considered an all out charge on the blockhouse, but then thought it wise to first demand its surrender. The Federals in the blockhouse agreed to the terms of surrender, and the Confederates crossed the river and headed to Springfield, West Virginia, where they rested until the 4th.
Although the action around Cumberland was tactically inconclusive, Kelley's stand likely saved the town from being burned and greater damage being inflicted on the railroads. The stubborn resistance of Stough at the Potomac represented the first time McCausland's force had been contested since burning Chambersburg.Battle of Moorefield
The Battle of Moorefield was a cavalry battle in the American Civil War, which took place on August 7, 1864. The fighting occurred along the South Branch of the Potomac River, north of Moorefield, West Virginia, in Hardy County. The National Park Service groups this battle with Early's Washington Raid and operations against the B&O Railroad, and it was the last major battle in the region before General Philip Sheridan took command of Union troops in the Shenandoah Valley. This Union triumph was the third of three major victories (Battle of Droop Mountain, Battle of Rutherford's Farm, and the Battle of Moorefield) for Brigadier General William W. Averell, who performed best when operating on his own.On July 30, Confederate cavalry commanded by Brigadier General John McCausland moved north of the Potomac River and burned most of the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. He then moved west to threaten more towns and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. McCausland was pursued by a smaller cavalry commanded by Averell. McCausland's troops, with fresh horses, were able to escape the Union cavalry and threaten more towns. After re-crossing the Potomac River, McCausland moved south and camped between the West Virginia towns of Moorefield and Romney—closer to Moorefield. He positioned a brigade led by General Bradley Johnson on the north side of the South Branch of the Potomac River, while McCausland's own brigade camped on the south side. Those campsites were better suited for grazing their tired horses than they were for providing for the security of the troops—McCausland assumed that Averell's pursuing force was still 60 miles (97 km) away in Hancock, Maryland. He was correct that Averell had been forced to rest his horses near Hancock, but Averell was reinforced and ordered to continue the pursuit a few days later.
On the night of August 6, Averell's cavalry cautiously moved toward the Confederate camps. Using an advance guard disguised as Confederate soldiers, Averell's cavalry quietly captured all of the Confederate pickets that separated the Union force from the sleeping Confederates. On the early morning of August 7, Averell's first brigade attacked the Confederate brigade camped on the north side of the river. Many of these rebels were sleeping and did not have their horses saddled. In some cases, entire Confederate regiments simply tried to run away, leaving behind weapons and loot taken from Chambersburg. Although the Confederates attempted to offer resistance on the south side of the river that separated the two Confederate camps, many of those men were also caught unprepared. Averell added his second brigade to the fight, and it charged across the river. The disorganized Confederate force was no match for Averell's cavalry, which was armed with sabers, 6-shot revolvers (hand guns) and 7-shot repeating rifles. Over 400 men were either killed or captured, while the Union force lost less than 50. Averell's victory inflicted permanent damage on the Confederate cavalry, and it was never again the dominant force it once was in the Shenandoah Valley.Gauley Artillery
The Gauley Artillery, also known as Adams`s Battery, was a unit of the Confederate States Army that operated in western Virginia and Tennessee during the early years of the American Civil War.
It was organized by Cpt. Stephen Adams, who was the commonwealth attorney for the counties of Raleigh and Fayette.
The men were recruited from the 184th Regiment of Virginia Militia and the company strength was 125 men. It was mustered into Confederate service on June 22, 1861. They were sent to White Sulphur Springs and assigned to artillery service. They were supplied with 4 artillery pieces, three 6-pounder smooth bore and one 10-pounder, which had been locally made. It was 2 months before enough horses were found to compose the teams for the unit. During this time an outbreak of measles was infecting the area.
The battery was assigned to the command of Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, and placed on Cotton Hill, overlooking Gauley Bridge. In January 1862 they were assigned to the command of Col. John McCausland and transferred west to Fort Donelson in Tennessee. At the surrender of the fort to Union forces on Feb. 16, 1862, the battery was imprisoned at Camp Douglas, and later exchanged.
Cpt. Adams, who had not been at Fort Donelson at that time, had recruited more men for the battery, which was reorganized on August 24, 1862, but on Sept. 1 they were incorporated into the 30th Virginia Sharpshooters Battalion as Co. A., effectively ending the independent battery.Gen. John McCausland House
Gen. John McCausland House, also known as "Grape Hill," is a historic home located near Pliny, Mason County, West Virginia. The main house was built in 1885, and is a two-story sandstone residence. It features a full length, one story, five bay porch with fluted Doric order columns and metal covered hip roof. The house was built by Confederate General John McCausland (1836–1927). The boundary increase expanded the listing to include 23 additional contributing buildings and 4 contributing structures and designated it a national historic district. They include a variety of farm-related outbuildings and a log house (c. 1834, 1930).It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980 and the boundary expanded in 2000.Beginning in 2015 a complete restoration project began to bring the historic site to its original condition.George Montgomery (MP)
George Leslie Montgomery (c. 1727 – March 1787) was an Irish politician.
Montgomery sat as Member of Parliament (MP) for Strabane from 1765 to 1768. He purchased the seat from John McCausland of Strabane for £2,000 after the death of the incumbent Robert Lowry when a new writ was issued for the borough on 22 October 1765. Subsequently he represented Cavan County in the Irish House of Commons from 1768 until his death in 1787. The Cavan poll result on 2 August 1768 was Maxwell 727, Montgomery 648, Pratt 570, Newburgh 402; The poll finally closed on 11 November 1768 and the final poll was Maxwell 927, Montgomery 739, Pratt 668, Newburgh 451. When the new Parliament met in 1769, Mervyn Pratt, the defeated candidate, petitioned against the election of Montgomery on grounds of bribery, corruption and undue influence. This petition was not finally determined owing to the premature prorogation of Parliament in December 1769, so Montgomery survived and continued to represent the county until his death. He had previously stood as a candidate for Cavan in the 1761 general election but was defeated.
The youngest son of George Leslie D.D., (Rector of Clones & Kilmore) and Margaret Montgomery (sister of Colonel Alexander Montgomery (1686–1729) of Convoy House, County Donegal and Ballyconnell House, County Cavan). Alexander Montgomery (1686–1729) died in 1729 and left the Ballyconnell estate of about 4,000 statute acres to his nephew George Leslie who then assumed the name George Leslie Montgomery. He was in the inner circle of the Irish Parliament but his low-church Northern background clung to him and whilst he became a general of volunteers and supported Flood, he opposed any relaxation of the laws against Catholics. He was High Sheriff of Cavan in 1752 and in the same year he married Hannah Clements, the daughter of fellow Cavan MP Nathaniel Clements but his only son George was declared a lunatic. "The Irish Parliament 1775" states- "He obtained a Barrack Master's place @ £150 per annum, for his Friend. He is Son-in-Law to Mr. Clements. On some few Questions during Lord Townshend's Administration He voted with Government. In Lord Harcourt's Administration He has been constantly against, and hates all Government.".
Sketches of the Members of the Irish Parliament in 1782 stated- "George Montgomery Esq., member for County Cavan has a pretty good estate, but not a foot of land in the county he represents-is brother in law of Mr Clements-but acts independently and uniformly opposed Government till the Duke of Portland arrived-a dull and tiring speaker.". He lived in a leased house at 12 North Frederick Street, Dublin when attending parliament.Gibson-Todd House
The Gibson-Todd House was the site of the hanging of John Brown, the abolitionist who led a raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia before the opening of the American Civil War. The property is located in Charles Town, West Virginia, and includes a large Victorian style house built in 1891.
The house was built by John Thomas Gibson, who led the first armed response to Harpers Ferry during Brown's raid as commander of the Virginia Militia in Jefferson County. Gibson went on to serve as an officer for the Confederacy. After the war he was mayor of Charles Town.
Among those present at Brown's hanging were Stonewall Jackson, John McCausland, J.E.B. Stuart and John Wilkes Booth. When the old Jefferson County jail was demolished, Gibson saved stones from the building and built a monument to the event on the property. The house post-dates Brown's hanging.
The house was designed by Thomas A. Mullett, son of Alfred B. Mullett. Mullett also designed the New Opera House and the new Charles Town jail.Hanging Rock, Virginia
Hanging Rock is an unincorporated community in Roanoke County, Virginia, United States located directly north of Salem. The community is named for a prominent rock outcrop. The intersection of Virginia State Route 311 and Virginia State Route 419 is in Hanging Rock. In the Battle of Hanging Rock in the Civil War, a retreat to West Virginia by Union General David Hunter was briefly disrupted by the forces of Confederate Generals Jubal A. Early and John McCausland. Hunter and his men were seeking refuge after failing to capture Lynchburg, 60 miles to the east. About 100 union soldiers were killed partly because their way was blocked by trees that had been felled across the road.Jacob Hoke
Jacob Hoke (March 17, 1825 – December 26, 1893) was a 19th-century American merchant and businessman in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, whose personal observations and diary entries formed the basis for one of the earliest classic accounts of the Gettysburg Campaign during the American Civil War. He was also a prolific writer of widely circulated religious materials for the United Brethren Church.
Hoke was born in McConnellsburg, Pennsylvania, to Henry and Sarah (Eyster) Hoke. He was educated in the local schools and, from the age of twelve until May 1841, clerked in a country store. He moved to Chambersburg, where he engaged in a series of business ventures that led to enough capital to open his own dry goods store on Chambersburg's town square. During the early part of the Civil War, he assisted in caring for the wounded from the Battle of Antietam in the autumn of 1862.Hoke lived on the second floor above his shop. As the Confederate Army began invading the town in late June 1863, he had an excellent vantage point to observe and watch the movements of the Southern soldiers. For the next two weeks, Confederates occupied the town, and much of the Army of Northern Virginia passed within view of Hoke. In the summer of 1864, he again was in a position to witness the Civil War in his home town when much of Chambersburg was burned by Confederate cavalry under John McCausland operating under the orders of Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early.
In 1884, Hoke integrated his memories, notes, observations, and outside sources into a pamphlet he entitled "Reminiscences of the War." Three years later, he produced a larger, more detailed work, The Great Invasion of 1863, or, General Lee in Pennsylvania. Published in Dayton, Ohio, the book has become a standard reference work for a first-hand account of the two Confederate incursions into south-central Pennsylvania.
For many years, Hoke was the president of the Franklin County Bible Society, and he served on several church-related boards and committees, including chairing the Board of Missions for the national United Brethren Church. He married twice, but had no children.John McCausland (politician)
John McCausland (1735 – November 1804) was an Irish Member of Parliament.McCausland
McCausland (Mac Ausaláin in Gaelic), meaning "Son of Absolom" is a surname of Irish and Scottish origin. The family claim descent from the Cenel Eoghain race in County Londonderry and Tyrone, a branch of the Ui Neil.
Alternatively, the surname may be an Anglicization from a Gaelic name, as was the case with many Irish surnames, changing to sound more English over the centuries. The surname "Mac Ausaláin" may have an underlying Gaelic personal name, possibly Caisealán, meaning ‘little one of the castle’.
Notable people with the surname include:
Charles McCausland (1898-1965), Irish cricketer
Richard Bolton McCausland (1810-1900) Attorney-General of Singapore, and his son of the same name (1864-1933), a notable surgeon.
Chris McCausland (1977-), British stand-up comedian
Edward McCausland (1865-1936), Australian rugby player and cricketer
Ernesto McCausland (1961-2012), Colombian journalist and filmmaker
Gary McCausland (1968-), Northern Irish television presenter and property developer
John McCausland (1836–1927), Confederate general in the American Civil War
John McCausland (politician) (1735–1804), Irish Member of Parliament for Donegal County
Maurice McCausland (1872-1938), Irish landowner and political figure
Nelson McCausland, minister in the Northern Ireland Assembly
Roberto McCausland Dieppa, Colombian pianist, composer, and conductorMoorefield, West Virginia
Moorefield is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, USA. Moorefield is the county seat of Hardy County. It was originally chartered in 1777 and named for Conrad Moore, who owned the land upon which the town was laid out. The population was 2,544 at the 2010 census. Moorefield is located at the confluence of the South Branch Potomac River and the South Fork South Branch Potomac River.National Register of Historic Places listings in Mason County, West Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Mason County, West Virginia.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Mason County, West Virginia, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.There are 12 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.Robert Clements, 1st Earl of Leitrim
Robert Clements, 1st Earl of Leitrim (25 November 1732 – 27 July 1804) was an Irish nobleman and politician.
Son of Cavan Borough MP Nathaniel Clements, Deputy Vice Treasurer and Teller of the Irish Exchequer, Clements served as High Sheriff of Leitrim in 1759, having been the previous year appointed as Controller of the Great and Small Customs for the Port of Dublin.
In 1765, he was elected to the Irish House of Commons for Donegal County, exchanging this seat for that of Carrick in 1768. In the former year he also married Lady Elizabeth Skeffington, eldest daughter of Clotworthy Skeffington, 1st Earl of Massereene. He was subsequently Commissioner of the Revenue between 1772 and 1773, and three years later returned MP for Donegal County again.
Having been appointed governor of Counties Leitrim and Donegal in 1777 and 1781 respectively, Clements was ennobled as Baron Leitrim in 1783. He was subsequently advanced to a viscountcy in 1794, and the following year was created Earl of Leitrim. In 1801, he became one of the first Irish representative peers, and was admitted to the Irish Privy Council the following year.
Lord Leitrim died aged 71 in London, and was buried in Dublin.Smithland Farm
Smithland Farm, also known as the General John McCausland Memorial Farm, is a historic home and farm located near Henderson, Mason County, West Virginia. The main house is two-story frame structure constructed in 1869. The house a side-gabled, two-story, weatherboarded frame structure with a two-story frame wing. The property includes a contributing corncrib (c. 1950), silo (c. 1930), pole barn (c. 1930s), barn (early 1900s), main barn (early 1900s), block school (c. 1915-1920), and Poffenbarger Cemetery (late 1900s). It was for many years part of a larger farm owned by Confederate General John McCausland. The West Virginia Department of Agriculture acquired the farm in 1981.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.Strabane (Parliament of Ireland constituency)
Strabane was a constituency represented in the Irish House of Commons until 1800.