John Logie Baird FRSE (/ˈloʊɡi bɛərd/; 13 August 1888 – 14 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television, demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.
In 1928 the Baird Television Development Company achieved the first transatlantic television transmission. Baird's early technological successes and his role in the practical introduction of broadcast television for home entertainment have earned him a prominent place in television's history.
Baird was ranked number 44 in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote in 2002. In 2006, Baird was named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history, having been listed in the National Library of Scotland's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'. In 2015 he was inducted into the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame.
John Logie Baird
Baird in 1917
|Born||13 August 1888|
|Died||14 June 1946 (aged 57)|
Bexhill, Sussex, England
|Resting place||Baird family grave in Helensburgh Cemetery|
|Residence||Scotland / England|
|Education||Larchfield Academy, Helensburgh|
|Alma mater||Royal Technical College (now University of Strathclyde), Glasgow|
|Organization||Consulting Technical Adviser, Cable & Wireless Ltd (1941–)|
director, John Logie Baird Ltd
director, Capital and Provincial Cinemas Ltd
|Known for||One of the inventors of television, including the first colour television.|
|Spouse(s)||Margaret Albu (m. 1931)|
|Children||Diana Baird and Malcolm Baird|
|Parent(s)||Rev John Baird, Minister, West Kirk, Helensburgh|
Jessie Morrison Inglis
Baird was born on 13 August 1888 in Helensburgh, Dunbartonshire, and was the youngest of four children of the Reverend John Baird, the Church of Scotland's minister for the local St Bride's Church and Jessie Morrison Inglis, the orphaned niece of a wealthy family of shipbuilders from Glasgow.
He was educated at Larchfield Academy (now part of Lomond School) in Helensburgh; the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College; and the University of Glasgow. While at college Baird undertook a series of engineering apprentice jobs as part of his course. The conditions in industrial Glasgow at the time helped form his socialist convictions but also contributed to his ill health. He became an agnostic, though this did not strain his relationship with his father. His degree course was interrupted by the First World War and he never returned to graduate.
At the beginning of 1915 he volunteered for service in the British Army but was classified as unfit for active duty. Unable to go to the Front, he took a job with the Clyde Valley Electrical Power Company, which was engaged in munitions work.
The development of television was the result of work by many inventors. Among them, Baird was a prominent pioneer and made major advances in the field. Many historians credit Baird with being the first to produce a live, moving, greyscale television image from reflected light. Baird achieved this, where other inventors had failed, by obtaining a better photoelectric cell and improving the signal conditioning from the photocell and the video amplifier.
Between 1902 and 1907, Arthur Korn invented and built the first successful signal-conditioning circuits for image transmission. The circuits overcame the image-destroying lag effect that is part of selenium photocells. Korn's compensation circuit allowed him to send still fax pictures by telephone or wireless between countries and even over oceans, while his circuit operated without benefit of electronic amplification. Korn's success at transmitting halftone still images suggested that such compensation circuits might work in television. Baird was the direct beneficiary of Korn's research and success.
In his first attempts to develop a working television system, Baird experimented with the Nipkow disk. Paul Gottlieb Nipkow had invented this scanning disc system in 1884. Television historian Albert Abramson calls Nipkow's patent "the master television patent". Nipkow's work is important because Baird and many others chose to develop it into a broadcast medium.
In early 1923, and in poor health, Baird moved to 21 Linton Crescent, Hastings, on the south coast of England. He later rented a workshop in the Queen's Arcade in the town. Baird built what was to become the world's first working television set using items including an old hatbox and a pair of scissors, some darning needles, a few bicycle light lenses, a used tea chest, and sealing wax and glue that he purchased. In February 1924, he demonstrated to the Radio Times that a semi-mechanical analogue television system was possible by transmitting moving silhouette images. In July of the same year, he received a 1000-volt electric shock, but survived with only a burnt hand, and as a result his landlord, Mr Tree, asked him to vacate the premises. Baird gave the first public demonstration of moving silhouette images by television at Selfridges department store in London in a three-week series of demonstrations beginning on 25 March 1925.
In his laboratory on 2 October 1925, Baird successfully transmitted the first television picture with a greyscale image: the head of a ventriloquist's dummy nicknamed "Stooky Bill" in a 30-line vertically scanned image, at five pictures per second. Baird went downstairs and fetched an office worker, 20-year-old William Edward Taynton, to see what a human face would look like, and Taynton became the first person to be televised in a full tonal range. Looking for publicity, Baird visited the Daily Express newspaper to promote his invention. The news editor was terrified and he was quoted by one of his staff as saying: "For God's sake, go down to reception and get rid of a lunatic who's down there. He says he's got a machine for seeing by wireless! Watch him — he may have a razor on him."
On 26 January 1926, Baird repeated the transmission for members of the Royal Institution and a reporter from The Times in his laboratory at 22 Frith Street in the Soho district of London, where Bar Italia is now located. By this time, he had improved the scan rate to 12.5 pictures per second. It was the first demonstration of a television system that could broadcast live moving images with tone graduation.
He demonstrated the world's first colour transmission on 3 July 1928, using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with a filter of a different primary colour; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination. The demonstration was of a young girl wearing different coloured hats. Noele Gordon went on to become a successful TV actress, famous for the soap opera Crossroads. That same year he also demonstrated stereoscopic television.
In 1927, Baird transmitted a long-distance television signal over 438 miles (705 km) of telephone line between London and Glasgow; Baird transmitted the world's first long-distance television pictures to the Central Hotel at Glasgow Central Station. This transmission was Baird's response to a 225-mile, long-distance telecast between stations of AT&T Bell Labs. The Bell stations were in New York and Washington, DC. The earlier telecast took place in April 1927, a month before Baird's demonstration.
Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company Ltd, which in 1928 made the first transatlantic television transmission, from London to Hartsdale, New York, and the first television programme for the BBC. In November 1929, Baird and Bernard Natan established France's first television company, Télévision-Baird-Natan. Broadcast on the BBC on 14 July 1930, The Man with the Flower in His Mouth was the first drama shown on UK television. Baird televised the BBC's first live outside broadcast with transmission of The Derby in 1931. He demonstrated a theatre television system, with a screen two feet by five feet (60 cm by 150 cm), in 1930 at the London Coliseum, Berlin, Paris, and Stockholm. By 1939 he had improved his theatre projection to televise a boxing match on a screen 15 ft (4.6 m) by 12 ft (3.7 m).
From 1929 to 1932, the BBC transmitters were used to broadcast television programmes using the 30-line Baird system, and from 1932 to 1935, the BBC also produced the programmes in their own studio at 16 Portland Place. In addition, from 1933 Baird and the Baird Company were producing and broadcasting television programmes independently to the BBC, from Baird's studios and transmitter at the Crystal Palace in south London.
On 2 November 1936, from Alexandra Palace located on the high ground of the north London ridge, the BBC began alternating Baird 240-line transmissions with EMI's electronic scanning system, which had recently been improved to 405 lines after a merger with Marconi. The Baird system at the time involved an intermediate film process, where footage was shot on cinefilm, which was rapidly developed and scanned. The trial was due to last 6 months but the BBC ceased broadcasts with the Baird system in February 1937, due in part to a disastrous fire in the Baird facilities at Crystal Palace. It was becoming apparent to the BBC that the Baird system would ultimately fail due in large part to the lack of mobility of the Baird system's cameras, with their developer tanks, hoses, and cables.
Baird's television systems were replaced by the electronic television system developed by the newly formed company EMI-Marconi under Isaac Shoenberg, which had access to patents developed by Vladimir Zworykin and RCA. Similarly, Philo T. Farnsworth's electronic "Image Dissector" camera was available to Baird's company via a patent-sharing agreement. However, the Image Dissector camera was found to be lacking in light sensitivity, requiring excessive levels of illumination. Baird used the Farnsworth tubes instead to scan cinefilm, in which capacity they proved serviceable though prone to drop-outs and other problems. Farnsworth himself came to London to Baird's Crystal Palace laboratories in 1936, but was unable to fully solve the problem; the fire that burned Crystal Palace to the ground later that year further hampered the Baird company's ability to compete.
Baird made many contributions to the field of electronic television after mechanical systems had taken a back seat. In 1939, he showed a system known today as hybrid colour using a cathode ray tube in front of which revolved a disc fitted with colour filters, a method taken up by CBS and RCA in the United States.
As early as 1940, Baird had started work on a fully electronic system he called the "Telechrome". Early Telechrome devices used two electron guns aimed at either side of a phosphor plate. The phosphor was patterned so the electrons from the guns only fell on one side of the patterning or the other. Using cyan and magenta phosphors, a reasonable limited-colour image could be obtained. He also demonstrated the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3D image (called "stereoscopic" at the time). In 1941, he patented and demonstrated this system of three-dimensional television at a definition of 500 lines. On 16 August 1944, he gave the world's first demonstration of a practical fully electronic colour television display. His 600-line colour system used triple interlacing, using six scans to build each picture. Similar concepts were common through the 1940s and 50s, differing primarily in the way they re-combined the colours generated by the three guns. One of them, the Geer tube, was similar to Baird's concept, but used small pyramids with the phosphors deposited on their outside faces, instead of Baird's 3D patterning on a flat surface.
In 1943, the Hankey Committee was appointed to oversee the resumption of television broadcasts after the war. Baird persuaded them to make plans to adopt his proposed 1000-line Telechrome electronic colour system as the new post-war broadcast standard. The picture resolution on this system would have been comparable to today's HDTV (High Definition Television). The Hankey Committee's plan lost all momentum partly due to the challenges of postwar reconstruction. The monochrome 405-line standard remained in place until 1985 in some areas, and the 625-line system was introduced in 1964 and (PAL) colour in 1967. A demonstration of large screen three-dimensional television by the BBC was reported in March 2008, over 60 years after Baird's demonstration.
Some of Baird's early inventions were not fully successful. In his twenties he tried to create diamonds by heating graphite and shorted out Glasgow's electricity supply. Later Baird invented a glass razor, which was rust-resistant, but shattered. Inspired by pneumatic tyres he attempted to make pneumatic shoes, but his prototype contained semi-inflated balloons, which burst (years later this same idea was successfully adopted for Dr. Martens boots). He also invented a thermal undersock (the Baird undersock), which was moderately successful. Baird suffered from cold feet, and after a number of trials, he found that an extra layer of cotton inside the sock provided warmth.
Baird's numerous other developments demonstrated his particular talent at invention. He was a visionary and began to dabble with electricity. In 1928, he developed an early video recording device, which he dubbed Phonovision. The system consisted of a large Nipkow disk attached by a mechanical linkage to a conventional 78-rpm record-cutting lathe. The result was a disc that could record and play back a 30-line video signal. Technical difficulties with the system prevented its further development, but some of the original phonodiscs have been preserved, and have since been restored by Donald McLean, a Scottish electrical engineer.
Baird's other developments were in fibre-optics, radio direction finding, infrared night viewing and radar. There is discussion about his exact contribution to the development of radar, for his wartime defence projects have never been officially acknowledged by the UK government. According to Malcolm Baird, his son, what is known is that in 1926 Baird filed a patent for a device that formed images from reflected radio waves, a device remarkably similar to radar, and that he was in correspondence with the British government at the time. The radar contribution is in dispute. According to some experts, Baird's "noctovision" is not radar. Unlike radar (except Doppler radar), Noctovision is incapable of determining the distance to the scanned subject. Noctovision also cannot determine the coordinates of the subject in three-dimensional space.
From December 1944, Logie Baird lived at 1 Station Road, Bexhill-on-Sea, East Sussex, immediately north of the station and subsequently died there on 14 June 1946 after suffering a stroke in February. The house was demolished in 2007 and the site is now apartments named Baird Court. Logie Baird is buried with his mother, father and wife in Helensburgh Cemetery, Argyll, Scotland.
Australian television's Logie Awards were named in honour of John Logie Baird's contribution to the invention of the television. Baird became the only deceased subject of This Is Your Life when he was honoured by Eamonn Andrews at the BBC Television Theatre in 1957.
In 2014, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) inducted Logie Baird into The Honor Roll, which "posthumously recognizes individuals who were not awarded Honorary Membership during their lifetimes but whose contributions would have been sufficient to warrant such an honor".
This is a list of British television- related events for 1926.1927 in television
The year 1927 in television involved some significant events.
Below is a list of television-related events during 1927.1928 in television
The year 1928 in television involved some significant events.
Below is a list of television-related events during 1928.1929 in British television
This is a list of British television-related events in 1929.Analog high-definition television system
Analog high-definition television was an analog video broadcast television system developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12-lines. On 2 November 1936 the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular analog high-definition television service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London. It therefore claims to be the birthplace of television broadcasting as we know it today. John Logie Baird, Philo T. Farnsworth, and Vladimir Zworykin had each developed competing TV systems, but resolution was not the issue that separated their substantially different technologies, it was patent interference lawsuits and deployment issues given the tumultuous financial climate of the late 1920s and 1930s.
Most patents were expiring by the end of World War II leaving no worldwide standard for television. The standards introduced in the early 1950s stayed for over half a century.
(NOTE: Although UK's 405-line system was advertised as "high definition", due to it being higher than low-lined televisions, the picture quality isn't even close to standard definition and there were already higher resolutions available at the time)Churchill and the Generals
Churchill and the Generals is a 1979 BBC television drama concerning the relationship between Winston Churchill and generals of the Allied forces, set in the Cabinet Office and War Rooms between 1940 and 1945. It was written by Ian Curteis (with Peter Young as military advisor).
It was first broadcast on BBC 2 on 23 September 1979, and repeated on BBC 1 on 22 August 1981. It screened on 5 March 1981 in the United States.
The Times television critic Michael Ratcliffe wrote: 'Churchill, though trivial, was intermittently moving and fun (alternative title: Punch in the Second World War?)'Timothy West won the John Logie Baird performance award (1980). He reprised the role of Churchill in The Last Bastion (1984) and Hiroshima (1995).Cintel
Cintel was a British digital cinema company founded in 1927 by John Logie Baird and based in Ware, Hertfordshire. The early company was called Cinema Television Ltd. Cinema Television was sold to J Arthur Rank Organization renamed Rank Cintel in 1958. It specialized in the design and manufacture of professional post-production equipment, for transcribing film into video or data formats. It was formerly part of the Rank Organisation. Along with a line of telecines, Rank Cintel made 3 tube RGB color video projectors in the 1960s.
Their main products were based on either cathode ray tube (CRT) or charge coupled device (CCD) technology and include, like the diTTo, diTTo Evolution & dataMill film scanners, Millennium II, Millennium HD & C-Reality & DSX telecines, imageMill 1 & 2 image processing system. The CRT tubes were made by Rank and Brimar. In September 2002 Cintel purchased ITK - Innovation TK Ltd. ITK held a number of patents for features used in Cintel products and also made the competitive unit the Millennium telecine. ITK founded in 1994, also made upgrade products include the TWiGi system, the SCAN’dAL, and the Y-Front.
Many movies and TV shows for TV were transferred from film to TV on Cintel Telecines. Cintel saw reduced sales with the introduction of Spirit DataCine in 1996. The business was in administration until its announced liquidation. On July 24, 2012 Blackmagic Design acquired the assets of Cintel.Crystal Palace transmitting station
The Crystal Palace transmitting station, officially known as Arqiva Crystal Palace, is a broadcasting and telecommunications site in the Crystal Palace area of the London Borough of Bromley, England (grid reference TQ339712). It is located on the site of the former television station and transmitter, operated by John Logie Baird, from 1933.The station is the fifth-tallest structure in London, and is best known as the main television transmitter for the London area. As such, it is the most important transmitter in the UK in terms of population covered. The transmitter is owned and operated by Arqiva.Edgar Larner
Edgar Thomas Larner (1869 in Norwich, Norfolk, England – 1930 in Hackney, London, England), his occupation was that of engineer/scientist for the GPO (General Post Office) Engineering-Telephones. In those days the GPO was a part of the Civil Service, so he was a civil servant. He was a television and radio experimenter and pioneer. He also taught at the Hackney Institute, London. He was a friend of both John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth. He died in 1930 at the age of 61 in Hackney, London, England.Helensburgh
Helensburgh (; Scottish Gaelic: Baile Eilidh, lit. 'town (or burgh) of Helen') is a town within the Helensburgh and Lomond Area of Argyll and Bute Council, Scotland. It also has its own Community Council. Until local government reorganisation in 1996 Helensburgh was in Dumbarton District and hence also in Strathclyde Region; prior to 1975 it was a small burgh with its own town council within Dunbartonshire. In the Middle Ages it was within the Earldom of Lennox, an area sometimes referred to as the Lennox. It lies on the north shore of the Firth of Clyde and the mouth of the Gareloch is close to the western boundary of the town.Jack Godwin
John Stuart Godwin (1904–?), known as Jack Goodwin and later as Jack Stuart, was a British rowing coxswain and magician.
Godwin was born in 1904 in Bromley, Kent. He rowed for Great Britain in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris. He was affiliated with the Thames Rowing Club in Putney. He was coxswain for the men's eight. The Thames club won the Grand Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta in 1923, but only four members of that victorious crew, Ian Fairbairn, Godwin himself, Arthur Long, and Charles Rew, were present at the Paris Olympics. His team came in fourth in the Olympic competition. Godwin was again part of the Thames club team when they won the Grand Challenge Cup in 1927.Godwin became a professional magician in the 1930s under the stage name "Jack Stuart". He and his sister Phyllis created a stage show that included their "Live Marionettes". During their performance they used puppets that hung below their own chins and were controlled by sticks. The illusion made for the appearance of tiny people with puppet bodies but real heads and faces (played by Jack and Phyllis). Jack appeared on early British television broadcasts in the era of John Logie Baird as a conjurer. He adapted his magic tricks to accommodate the new medium of television.During World War II he served building the India and Burma railway in India. He then emigrated to Southern Rhodesia. He was a cousin to both New Zealand aviator James Gowing Godwin and author Robert Godwin. His uncle was Lt Sidney Godwin of Marshall's Horse.Lambhill
Lambhill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde.
Lambhill is a mainly residential area comprising both council and private housing. Residents are of a mixed age group. Lambhill has been in existence since the middle 18th Century, the original settlement probably coming from the north bank of the Forth and Clyde Canal (known as the Shangi, after a sailing captain who mentioned that the settlement reminded him of Shanghai). Many working men were employed in the nearby mine in Cadder. In nearby Lambhill Cemetery there is a memorial to the Cadder Pit disaster of 3 August 1913, which claimed 22 lives. The funeral service for the disaster was held in St Agnes Church on Balmore Road. Benny Lynch the great Glasgow boxer also is buried in Lambhill Cemetery which is bordered by Western Necropolis.
Hillend Road would appear to be one of the earliest streets to be built and the houses are of mixed vintage and build. The tenements are probably the oldest. At one time the Lord Provost of Glasgow David Hodge stayed in this street, as did John Logie Baird who took lodgings there. At the top of Hillend Road there is a golf course which is bordered by Ruchill on the opposite side. There are also numerous abandoned railway tunnels which would appear to link to the abandoned Botanic Gardens railway station. The Halloween Pen is a small tunnel which runs underneath the Forth and Clyde Canal and links Lambhill to Cadder. Bordering the south side of Hillend Rd are the garden allotments. Near to the allotments, on Balmore Road, is the ticket office of a station for an abandoned railway line.Logie
Logie may refer to:
Logie Awards, the Australian television industry awards
"The Laird O Logie", children's ballad
Logie - One of three Houses, in Wallace High School, Stirlingor a place in Scotland:
Logie, Dundee, a residential area in the City of Dundee, Scotland
Logie, Fife, a village and parish of east Fife, Scotland
Logie, Moray, a small village in Moray, Scotland
Logie Coldstone, an Aberdeenshire village north of the River Dee in Scotlandor as a surname:
George Logie-Smith (1914–2007), an Australian conductor, music examiner, and music educator
Gus Logie (born 1960), a Trinidad and Tobago cricketer and former wicketkeeper for the West Indies cricket team
John H. Logie, Mayor of Grand Rapids, Michigan from 1992 to 2003
Jimmy Logie (1919–1984), Scottish footballer
Scott Logie (born 1977), Canadian voice actor who dubs in anime productions
Willie Logie (1932–2016), Scottish footballer
Willy Logie, a retired Belgian professional darts player
W. S. Loggieor as a given name:
James Logie Robertson (1846–1922), a literary scholar, editor and author, who also used the pen name Hugh Haliburton
John Logie Baird, the inventor of television
Logie Bruce Lockhart (born 1921), a British writer and journalist, formerly a Scottish rugby union player and headmaster of Gresham's School
Thomas Logie MacDonald (1901–1973), Scottish astronomer and politician and eponym of lunar crater McDonaldPhonovision
Phonovision is a proof of concept format and experiment for recording a mechanical television signal on gramophone records. The format was developed in the late 1920s in London by Scottish television pioneer John Logie Baird. The objective was not simply to record video, but to record it synchronously, as Baird intended playback from an inexpensive playback device, which he called a "Phonovisor".Roe Green Park
Roe Green Park is a park in the London Borough of Brent, northwest London, England. Its name may come from the Roe Deer that used to roam the area until the Medieval period at Roe Green House, on the site now occupied by Roe Green Village. The Barn Hill Conservation Group maintain the Roe Green walled garden that is within the park. Roe Green Village was built between 1918 and 1920, using Prussian/German prisoners of war as cheap labour after World War I. The park was incorporated and thus taken under council control between 1935 and 1938.Stooky Bill
Stooky Bill was the name given to the head of a ventriloquist dummy that Scottish television pioneer John Logie Baird used in his 1924 experiments to transmit a televised image between rooms in his laboratory at 22 Frith Street, London.
Baird invented some of the first experimental television systems. In 1924 he developed a mechanical television system to transmit moving images by means of electrical signals, which he demonstrated on 25 March 1925 at a London department store, Selfridges. It consisted of a spinning disk set with a spiral pattern of 30 lenses. As each lens rotated past the illuminated subject, it focused the light from a spot on the subject on a selenium photoelectric cell. This converted the brightness of the image at each spot into a proportional electric signal, which could be sent to a receiver by radio waves. As each lens swept past the subject, it scanned a successive line of the image. At the receiver, a light shining through the holes in a similar rotating disk recreated an image of the subject.
Due to the low sensitivity of the photoelectric cells, Baird's first system was not able to televise human faces, because they had inadequate contrast. So Baird used a ventriloquist's dummy, whose brightly painted face had greater contrast, and made it move and talk before the scanner. Stooky Bill and another Baird dummy, "James" have been jokingly called "the first television actors".
"Stooky" or "stookie" is Scots for stucco or plaster of Paris, or for a plaster cast used to immobilise bone fractures. The term is also used someone who is slow-witted or awkward in his movements. The incandescent lights illuminating the subject to be televised generated so much heat that Baird couldn't use a human for the testing, so Stooky Bill was used. Eventually the hair became singed and the painted face became cracked by the heat.Telechrome
Telechrome was the first all-electronic single-tube color television system. It was invented by well-known Scottish television engineer, John Logie Baird, who had previously made the first public television broadcast, as well as the first color broadcast using a pre-Telechrome system.
Telechrome used two electron guns aimed at either side of a thin, semi-transparent mica sheet. One of the sides was covered in cyan phosphor and the other red-orange, producing a limited color gamut, but well suited to displaying skin tones. With minor modifications, the system could also be used to produce 3D images. Telechrome was selected as the basis for a UK-wide television standard by a committee in 1944, but the difficult task of converting the two-color system to three-color RGB was still underway when Baird died in 1946.
The introduction of the shadow mask design by RCA produced a workable solution for color television, albeit one with considerably less image brightness. Interest in alternative systems like the Telechrome or Geer tube faded by the late 1950s. The only alternatives to see widespread use were General Electric's slot-mask, and Sony's Trinitron, both were modifications of the RCA concept. All CRT-based methods have since been almost completely replaced by LCD television, starting in the 1990s.The Big Idea (museum)
The Big Idea was a millennium-funded, interactive museum in Irvine in North Ayrshire, Scotland.
The museum, built on the site of Alfred Nobel's dynamite factory, was devoted to invention and inventors. Scottish inventors featured include John Napier, William Murdock, Alexander Fleming and John Logie Baird.
When the museum opened in 2000, there were 120,000 visitors, but in 2001, there were only 50,000. In 2003, the exhibition centre closed because of very low visitor numbers. The museum building is still there, with a turf-covered roof and built to resemble a giant sand dune, but its future is still undecided.
There is a time capsule buried under the museum. The footbridge, called the 'Bridge of Scottish Inventions', can open to allow ships to pass through and, as of mid-2018, remains in the open position.Video camera
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
The earliest video cameras were those of John Logie Baird, based on the mechanical Nipkow disk and used in experimental broadcasts through the 1918s–1930s. All-electronic designs based on the video camera tube, such as Vladimir Zworykin's Iconoscope and Philo Farnsworth's image dissector, supplanted the Baird system by the 1930s. These remained in wide use until the 1980s, when cameras based on solid-state image sensors such as CCDs (and later CMOS active pixel sensors) eliminated common problems with tube technologies such as image burn-in and made digital video workflow practical. The transition to digital TV gave a boost to digital video cameras and by the 2010s, most video cameras were digital.
With the advent of digital video capture, the distinction between professional video cameras and movie cameras has disappeared as the intermittent mechanism has become the same. Nowadays, mid-range cameras exclusively used for television and other work (except movies) are termed professional video cameras.
Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. The first, characteristic of much early broadcasting, is live television, where the camera feeds real time images directly to a screen for immediate observation. A few cameras still serve live television production, but most live connections are for security, military/tactical, and industrial operations where surreptitious or remote viewing is required. In the second mode the images are recorded to a storage device for archiving or further processing; for many years, videotape was the primary format used for this purpose, but was gradually supplanted by optical disc, hard disk, and then flash memory. Recorded video is used in television production, and more often surveillance and monitoring tasks in which unattended recording of a situation is required for later analysis.
Modern video cameras have numerous designs and uses.
Professional video cameras, such as those used in television production, may be television studio-based or mobile in the case of an electronic field production (EFP). Such cameras generally offer extremely fine-grained manual control for the camera operator, often to the exclusion of automated operation. They usually use three sensors to separately record red, green and blue.
Camcorders combine a camera and a VCR or other recording device in one unit; these are mobile, and were widely used for television production, home movies, electronic news gathering (ENG) (including citizen journalism), and similar applications. Since the transition to digital video cameras, most cameras have in-built recording media and as such are also camcorders. Action cameras often have 360° recording capabilities.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) generally uses pan tilt zoom cameras (PTZ), for security, surveillance, and/or monitoring purposes. Such cameras are designed to be small, easily hidden, and able to operate unattended; those used in industrial or scientific settings are often meant for use in environments that are normally inaccessible or uncomfortable for humans, and are therefore hardened for such hostile environments (e.g. radiation, high heat, or toxic chemical exposure).
Webcams are video cameras which stream a live video feed to a computer.
Many smartphones have built-in video cameras.
Special camera systems are used for scientific research, e.g. on board a satellite or a space probe, in artificial intelligence and robotics research, and in medical use. Such cameras are often tuned for non-visible radiation for infrared (for night vision and heat sensing) or X-ray (for medical and video astronomy use).