John Hunt Morgan

John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War.

In April 1862, he raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, fought at Shiloh, and then launched a costly raid in Kentucky, which encouraged Braxton Bragg's invasion of that state. He also attacked the supply-lines of General William Rosecrans. In July 1863, he set out on a 1,000-mile raid into Indiana and Ohio, taking hundreds of prisoners. But after most of his men had been intercepted by Union gunboats, Morgan surrendered at Salineville, Ohio, the northernmost point ever reached by uniformed Confederates. The legendary "Morgan's Raid", which had been carried out against orders, gained no tactical advantage for the Confederacy, while the loss of his regiment proved a serious setback.

Morgan escaped from his Union prison but his credibility was low, and he was restricted to minor operations. He was killed at Greeneville, Tennessee, in September 1864. Morgan was the brother-in-law of Confederate general A. P. Hill.

John Hunt Morgan
Gen. John Morgan (cropped)
John Hunt Morgan
Engraving by George Edward Perine (1837–85)
Nickname(s)Thunderbolt
BornJune 1, 1825
Huntsville, Alabama
DiedSeptember 4, 1864 (aged 39)
Greeneville, Tennessee
Place of burial
Allegiance United States of America
 Confederate States of America
Service/branch United States Army
 Confederate States Army
Years of service1846–1847 (USA)
1857–1861 (Kentucky militia)
1861–1864 (CSA)
RankUnion army 1st lt rank insignia.jpg First Lieutenant (USA)
Union army cpt rank insignia.jpg Captain (Kentucky Militia)
Confederate States of America General.png Brigadier General (CSA)
Battles/warsMexican–American War

American Civil War

Signature
Signature of John Hunt Morgan

Early life and career

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a maternal grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A. P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.[1] He was said to be a direct descendant of Revolutionary War general and hero Daniel Morgan.,[2][3] whose own great grand-uncle was perhaps history's most successful privateer, Henry Morgan.[4]

John Wesley Hunt, Morgan's grandfather, was a leading landowner and businessman in Kentucky and was the first millionaire west of the Allegheny Mountains. "His business empire included interest in banking, horse breeding, agriculture and hemp manufacturing. Among his business associates were Henry Clay and John Jacob Astor."

Morgan's paternal grandparents were Luther and Anna (Cameron) Morgan. Luther Morgan had settled in Huntsville, but a downturn in the cotton economy forced him to mortgage his holdings. His father, Calvin Morgan, lost his Huntsville home in 1831 when he was unable to pay the property taxes following the failure of his pharmacy. The family then moved to Lexington, where he would manage one of his father-in-law's sprawling farms.

Morgan grew up on the farm outside of Lexington and attended Transylvania College for two years, but was suspended in 1844 for dueling with a fraternity brother. In 1846, Morgan became a Freemason, at Daviess Lodge #22, Lexington, Kentucky.[5] Morgan desired a military career, but the small size of the US military severely limited opportunities for officer's commissions.

In 1846 Morgan enlisted with his brother Calvin and uncle Alexander in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican–American War. He was elected second lieutenant and was promoted to first lieutenant before arriving in Mexico, where he saw combat in the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and in 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, the 18-year-old sister of one of his business partners. Morgan also hired out his slaves and occasionally sold them. After the death of John Wesley Hunt in 1849, his fortunes greatly improved as his mother, Henrietta, began financing his business ventures.

In 1853, his wife delivered a stillborn son. She contracted septic thrombophlebitis, popularly known as "milk leg", an infection of a blood clot in a vein, which eventually led to an amputation. They became increasingly emotionally distant from one another. Known as a gambler and womanizer, Morgan was also known for his generosity. He had at least one slave son, Sidney Morgan, by a slave woman, and was the biological grandfather of African American inventor Garrett Morgan (1877-1963).[6]

Morgan remained interested in the military. He raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded by the state legislature two years later. In 1857, with the rise of sectional tensions, Morgan raised an independent infantry company known as the "Lexington Rifles," and spent much of his free time drilling his men.

Civil War service

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede I have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President, at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." By the following spring, Tom Morgan (who also had opposed Kentucky's secession) had transferred home to the Kentucky Military Institute and there began to support the Confederacy. Just before the Fourth of July, by way of a steamer from Louisville, he quietly left for Camp Boone, just across the Tennessee border, to enlist in the Kentucky State Guard. John stayed at home in Lexington to tend to his troubled business and his ailing wife. Becky Morgan finally died on July 21, 1861.[7]

In September, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1862.[1]

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee."

In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Major General Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies.[8] He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government, and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth W. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J. E. B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.[9]

As a colonel, he was presented with a Palmetto Armory pistol by the widow of Brigadier General Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. That pistol is now owned by the Museum of the American Civil War.

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862, though the Promotion Orders were not signed by President Davis until December 14, 1862.[1] He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863, for his raids on the supply lines of Union Major General William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7.[10]

On December 14,1862, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Morgan's Raid

Morgans Men POW 1863
Group of "Morgan's Men" while prisoners of war in Western Penitentiary, Pennsylvania: (l to r) Captain William E. Curry, 8th Kentucky Cavalry; Lieutenant Andrew J. Church, 8th Kentucky Cavalry; Lieutenant Leeland Hathaway, 14th Kentucky Cavalry; Lieutenant Henry D. Brown, 10th Kentucky Cavalry; Lieutenant William Hays, 20th Kentucky Cavalry. All were captured with John Hunt Morgan in Ohio. 1863
General John H. Morgan 2
General John Hunt Morgan

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. At Corydon, Indiana, the raiders met 450 local Home Guard in a battle that resulted in eleven Confederates killed and five Home Guard killed.

In July, at Versailles, IN, while soldiers raided nearby militia and looted county and city treasuries, the jewels of the local masonic lodge were stolen. When Morgan, a Freemason, learned of the theft he recovered the jewels and returned them to the lodge the following day.[11]

After several more skirmishes, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers, Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. Intercepted by Union gunboats, over 300 of his men succeeded in crossing. Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio, Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender. It was the farthest north that any uniformed Confederate troops would penetrate during the war.[12]

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from General Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio; and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's loss of Morgan's light cavalry far outweighed the benefits.

Late career and death

After his return from Ohio, Morgan returned to active duty. However, the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky. However his men lacked discipline, and he was unwilling or unable to control them, leading to open pillaging along with high casualties. The raids of this season were in risky defiance of a strategic situation in the border states that had changed radically from the year before. Union military occupation of this region, long denied to major Confederate armies, had progressed to the point that even highly mobile raiders could no longer count on easily evading them. Northern public outrage at Morgan's raid across the Ohio River may well have contributed to this state of affairs.

His "Last Kentucky Raid" was carried out in June 1864, the high-water mark of which was the Second Battle of Cynthiana. After winning a minor victory on June 11 against an inferior infantry unit in the engagement known as the Battle of Keller's Bridge on the Licking River, near Cynthiana, Kentucky, Morgan decided to take a chance the following day on another contest against superior Union mounted forces that were known to be approaching. The result was a disaster for the Confederates, resulting in the destruction of Morgan's force as a cohesive unit, only a small fraction of whom escaped with their lives and liberty as fugitives, including the General and some of his officers.

After the flashy but unauthorized 1863 Ohio raid, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. Nevertheless, on August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Yet around this time some Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry, likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised by a Union attack and was shot in the back and killed by Union cavalrymen while attempting to escape during a raid on Greeneville, Tennessee.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

Legacy

Morgan High School in McConnelsville, Ohio, near the site where Morgan crossed the Muskingum River, named their mascot the Raiders in honor of Morgan's campaign into southeast Ohio.

South Ripley High School in Versailles Indiana, the location of a skirmish with Morgan's Raiders, named their mascot the Raiders in honor of his campaign across Indiana.

John Hunt Morgan Grave
Morgan's Grave, in Lexington Cemetery

Hart County High School, in Munfordville, Kentucky, the site of the Battle for the Bridge, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men. Also, a large mural in the town depicts Morgan.

Trimble County High School, in Bedford, Kentucky, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men.

The John Hunt Morgan Memorial statue in Lexington is a tribute to him.

The Hunt-Morgan House, once his home, is a contributing property in a historic district in Lexington.

The John Hunt Morgan Bridge on East Main Street/U.S. Route 11 in Abingdon, Virginia, is named after him.

The John Hunt Morgan Bridge on South Main Street/U.S. Route 27 in Cynthiana, Kentucky, is named after him.

The General Morgan Inn, located at the spot he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee, is named after him.

A Kentucky Army National Guard Field Artillery battalion, the 1/623rd with headquarters in Glasgow, are known as Morgan's Men.

A statue was erected in Pomeroy, Ohio, for the effect he had on the town and its people.[13]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Eicher, p. 397.
  2. ^ United States History: Morgan's Raiders
    His father claimed to be a descendant of the Revolutionary War hero, Daniel Morgan
  3. ^ GENi: Brig. General John Hunt Morgan (CSA). It is said that he was a lineal descendant of Daniel Morgan, of Revolutionary fame.
  4. ^ GENi: Gen. Daniel Morgan (Continental Army). Daniel Morgan is related to the famous Welsh privateer and pirate, Henry Morgan. Henry was Daniel's great-great-grandfather Edward Morgan's nephew.
  5. ^ Smith, Dwight L. Goodly Heritage (Grand Lodge of Indiana, 1968) pg.124
  6. ^ Evans, Harold. Who Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine. Little Brown, 2004.
  7. ^ Find-a-Grave: Rebecca Gratz Bruce, accessed July 2017.
  8. ^ North & South - The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society, Volume 11, Number 1, Page 70, "We will have to whip these fellows sure enough" - John Hunt Morgan, accessed April 16, 2010. Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Noe, p. 31.
  10. ^ Eicher, p. 397. "...for their varied heroic and invaluable services in Tennessee and Kentucky immediately preceding the battles before Murfreesboro, services which have conferred upon their authors fame as enduring as the records of the struggle which they have so brilliantly illustrated."
  11. ^ Morgan, John. "Masonic Facts and Trivia". Education. clearwater127.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  12. ^ Dupuy, p. 525.
  13. ^ The web site 'Carnegie Library, East Liverpool Ohio' retrieved February 15, 2012, states that a monument to the July 1863 events in West Point, Ohio, was erected in 1909 by Will L. Thompson of East Liverpool which states: "This stone marks the spot where the Confederate raider General John H. Morgan surrendered his command to Major General George W. Rue, July 26, 1863, and this is the farthest point north ever reached by any body of Confederate troops during the Civil War."

Sources

  • Brown, Dee A., The Bold Cavaliers: Morgan's Second Kentucky Cavalry Raiders. 1959. Republished as Morgan's Raiders, Smithmark, 1995. ISBN 0-8317-3286-5.
  • Dupuy, Trevor N., Johnson, Curt, and Bongard, David L., Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, Castle Books, 1992, 1st Ed., ISBN 0-7858-0437-4.
  • Evans, Harold. Who Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine. Little Brown, 2004. ISBN 0316277665
  • Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 3, Red River to Appomattox. New York: Random House, 1974. ISBN 978-0-394-74622-7.
  • Horwitz, Lester V., The Longest Raid of the Civil War, Farmcourt Publishing, 1999, ISBN 978-0-9670267-2-5.
  • Mackey, Robert E. The Uncivil War: Irregular Warfare in the Upper South, 1861–1865. Norman, OK, University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8061-3624-0.
  • Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville: This Grand Havoc of Battle. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8131-2209-0.
  • Ramage, James A. Rebel Raider: The Life of General John Hunt Morgan. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1986. ISBN 978-0-8131-0839-1.
  • Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.
  • Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.

Further reading

  • Duke, Basil W., Morgan's Cavalry New York, 1906.
  • Gorin-Smith, Betty Jane, 'Morgan Is Coming!': Confederate Raiders in the Heartland of Kentucky. Louisville, Kentucky: Harmony House Publishers, 2006, 452 pp., ISBN 978-1-56469-134-7.
  • Johnson, Robert Underwood, and Buel, Clarence C. (eds.), Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Century Co., 1884-1888.
  • Mowery, David L., Morgan's Great Raid: The Remarkable Expedition from Kentucky to Ohio. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60949-436-0.
  • Rue, George Washington, Maj. (1828-1911): Celebration of the Surrender of General John H. Morgan, Ohio Archæological and Historical Society Publications: Volume 20 [1911], pp. 368–377.
  • Penn, William A., Kentucky Rebel Town: Civil War Battles of Cynthiana and Harrison County, (Lexington: U. Press of Kentucky, 2016)

External links

Basil W. Duke

Basil Wilson Duke (May 28, 1838 – September 16, 1916) was a Confederate general officer during the American Civil War. His most noted service in the war was as second-in-command for his brother-in-law John Hunt Morgan; Duke would later write a popular account of Morgan's most famous raid: 1863's Morgan's Raid. He took over Morgan's command after Morgan was shot by Union soldiers in 1864. At the end of the war, Duke was among Confederate President Jefferson Davis's bodyguards after his flight from Richmond, Virginia, through the Carolinas.

Duke's lasting impact was as a historian and communicator of the Confederate experience. As a historian he helped to found the Filson Club Historical Society and started the preserving of the Shiloh battlefield. He wrote numerous books and magazine articles, most notably in the Southern Bivouac. When he died, he was one of the few high-ranking Confederate officers still alive. Historian James A. Ramage said of Duke, "No Southerner was more dedicated to the Confederacy than General Basil W. Duke."

Battle of Buffington Island

The Battle of Buffington Island, also known as the St. Georges Creek Skirmish, was an American Civil War engagement in Meigs County, Ohio, and Jackson County, West Virginia, on July 19, 1863, during Morgan's Raid. The largest battle in Ohio during the war, Buffington Island contributed to the capture of the famed Confederate cavalry raider, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan, who was seeking to escape Union army pursuers across the Ohio River at a ford opposite Buffington Island.

Delayed overnight, Morgan was almost surrounded by Union cavalry the next day, and the resulting battle ended in a Confederate rout, with over half of the 1,700-man Confederate force being captured. General Morgan and some 700 men escaped, but the daring raid finally ended on July 26 with his surrender after the Battle of Salineville. Morgan's Raid was of little military consequence, but it did spread terror among much of the population of southern and eastern Ohio, as well as neighboring Indiana.

Battle of Salineville

The Battle of Salineville occurred July 26, 1863, near Salineville, Ohio during Morgan's Raid in the American Civil War. Except for the St. Albans (Vermont) Raid, it was the northernmost military action involving the Confederate States Army. The Union victory shattered John Hunt Morgan's remaining Confederate cavalry and led to his capture later that day.

Beaver Creek State Park

Beaver Creek State Park is a 2,722-acre (1,102 ha) Ohio state park in Columbiana County, Ohio in the United States. The park is near East Liverpool on the banks of Little Beaver Creek. It is open for year-round recreation including, camping, boating, hunting, fishing and hiking. Historic remnants of the Sandy and Beaver Canal can be found throughout the park. Confederate General John Hunt Morgan was captured near what is now the park after conducting raids across the state during the American Civil War.

Captain Andrew Offutt Monument

The Captain Andrew Offutt Monument in Ryder Cemetery in eastern Lebanon, Kentucky, off US-68, is a monument on the National Register of Historic Places. It honors Captain Andrew Offutt (November 9, 1837 – October 7, 1921) who served as a Union officer in the 5th Kentucky Cavalry during the American Civil War, participating in General William Tecumseh Sherman's March. It is speculated that he must have seen his actions during the war as his greatest life's act, as he lived for 56 years after the war, yet his family chose to depict him in his Union Army uniform.The monument features a marble statue of Captain Andrew Offutt atop a granite base. Offutt is seen in Union officer uniform, wearing a kepi hat and tunic length coat, with a sword extending downward. On both sides of Offutt's grave are two other veterans of the War, one of whom was a Confederate who rode with John Hunt Morgan, Doctor W. W. Cleaver.On July 17, 1997, the Captain Andrew Offutt Monument was one of sixty different monuments related to the Civil War in Kentucky placed on the National Register of Historic Places, as part of the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky Multiple Property Submission. It is one of the few monuments dedicated for a Union soldier/unit. In fact, except for the Union Monument in Vanceburg, it is the only one to express strong sentiment for the Union cause, and this was only reflected by the monument mentioning Offutt's actions with General William T. Sherman.

Confederate Mass Grave Monument in Somerset

The Confederate Mass Grave Monument in Somerset in Pulaski County, Kentucky, near Nancy, Kentucky, honors the Confederate soldiers who are buried here who died at the Battle of Mill Springs. These soldiers were from Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, and number over one hundred in total.The monument was built in 1910 by Bennett H. Young, who during the war rode with Confederate general John Hunt Morgan. Young was drawn to the area due to hearing about the nearby Zollie Tree, which was decorated by a local woman each Memorial Day in honor of general Felix K. Zollicoffer, who died at the Battle of Mill Springs. The monument uses the name "Battle of Fishing Creek", as the battle was known by Southerners in 1910. The rectangular slab of limestone is 4 feet (1.2 m) by 3 feet (0.91 m), and rest on a 1 foot (0.30 m) high slab of concrete.The Zollie Tree, for which both the Confederate Mass Grave Monument and the nearby General Felix K. Zollicoffer Monument was constructed, was destroyed by lightning in 1995, although a sapling from it was later planted at the same spot. Both are now in what is called Zollicoffer Park, part of the larger Mill Springs Battlefield.On July 17, 1997, the Confederate Mass Grave Monument in Somerset was one of sixty-one different monuments related to the Civil War in Kentucky placed on the National Register of Historic Places, as part of the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky Multiple Property Submission. The aforementioned General Felix K. Zollicoffer Monument only a few feet away is another of the so-honored monuments. The other monument on the list in Pulaski County is the Battle of Dutton's Hill Monument north of Somerset, Kentucky.

General Felix K. Zollicoffer Monument

The General Felix K. Zollicoffer Monument in Pulaski County, Kentucky, near Nancy, Kentucky, commemorates the death of Confederate Gen. Felix K. Zollicoffer, who died here at the Battle of Mill Springs. A native of nearby Tennessee, like Robert E. Lee he fought for the Confederacy out of loyalty for his state rather than having interest in the Southern cause. Zollicoffer was killed due to not realizing he was approaching Union lines instead of the Confederate line.The monument was placed in 1910 by Bennett H. Young, who rode with Confederate general John Hunt Morgan. Each Memorial Day a young girl from Nancy named Dorotha Burton decorated a white oak tree in Zollicoffer's honor. This was the inspiration for placing the monument only a few feet away from the tree. In the 1990s the tree was destroyed by lightning, but a sapling from that tree was put in its place, and is also called the Zollicoffer tree.The monument is an 8 feet (2.4 m) tall obelisk made of roughly hewed limestone. The description mentions not only Zollicoffer, but the other Confederates who died during the Battle of Mill Springs.On July 17, 1997, the General Felix K. Zollicoffer Monument was one of sixty-one different monuments related to the Civil War in Kentucky placed on the National Register of Historic Places, as part of the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky Multiple Property Submission. Only a few feet away is another of the so-honored monuments: the Confederate Mass Grave Monument in Somerset. The other monument on the list in Pulaski County is the Battle of Dutton's Hill Monument north of Somerset, Kentucky.

George Ellsworth

George A. Ellsworth (1843–1899), commonly known as "Lightning" Ellsworth, was a Canadian telegrapher who served in the cavalry forces of Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. His use of the telegraph to spread disinformation to the Union forces was declared by The Times as the greatest innovation to come out of the war.

Hines' Raid

The Hines' Raid was a Confederate exploratory mission led by Thomas Hines, on orders from John Hunt Morgan, into the state of Indiana in June 1863 during the American Civil War. Hines' mission was to prepare the groundwork of Morgan's Raid across the Ohio River into Indiana and Ohio by seeing what support the local Knights of the Golden Circle and Copperheads would provide for the main operation.

Hunt–Morgan House

The Hunt–Morgan House, historically known as Hopemont, is a Federal style residence in Lexington, Kentucky built in 1814 by John Wesley Hunt, the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. The house is included in the Gratz Park Historic District. The Alexander T. Hunt Civil War Museum is located on the second floor of the Hunt–Morgan House.Other notable people who resided at Hopemont include John Wesley Hunt's grandson, General John Hunt Morgan, a general in the Confederate Army. Dr. Thomas Hunt Morgan, the first Kentuckian to win the Nobel Prize, was born in the house in 1866.

The House has many beautiful architectural features, including the Palladian window with fan and sidelights that grace its front façade. In 1955 the Blue Grass Trust for Historic Preservation was formed to save this home from impending demolition. The organization restored the home to its Federal appearance.The Hunt–Morgan House is located on the corner of Mill and Second Streets, at 201 N. Mill Street, in Lexington.

John H. Morgan Surrender Site

The John H. Morgan Surrender Site is the place where, during the American Civil War, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan, the leader of Confederate troops responsible for Morgan's Raid, surrendered to Union troops following the Battle of Salineville. The site is located at a crossroads between the villages of Gavers and West Point in Columbiana County, Ohio, about 60 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 23, 1973 for its military significance.Morgan reportedly surrendered under what was called the "Surrender Tree". The location was at the northernmost point in which a Confederate command pierced Northern territory during the Civil War, except for the St. Albans Raid in Vermont.

John Hunt Morgan Memorial

The John Hunt Morgan Memorial in Lexington, Kentucky, is a monument created as a tribute to Confederate General John Hunt Morgan, who was from Lexington and is buried in nearby Lexington Cemetery.

With the help of the state government of Kentucky, the United Daughters of the Confederacy erected the monument on October 18, 1911 on what was then the courthouse lawn. The bronze statue was cast in Brooklyn, New York, at a cost of $15,000. The state of Kentucky contributed $7,500 of the cost because the UDC was unable to raise all of the funds promised. The ceremony included a parade of 400 veterans. The pedestal is of granite. The monument was dedicated by Morgan's brother-in-law Basil W. Duke, master of ceremonies, and keynote speaker Dr. Guy Carleton Lee, a third cousin of Robert E. Lee. Also in attendance were John Castleman, and Morgan's brothers Charlton and Dick. At the ceremony, the Rev. Edward O. Guerrant, who had served with General Morgan, gave the prayer of dedication, saying:

Great God, our Heavenly Father, we worship Thee, because Thou art God alone, the Ruler of all kings and the Judge of all men. We adore Thee as the God of our fathers, the Founder of our country, and the Savior of Thy people in all generations. We recognize Thy hand in every event of our lives, and thank Thee for this day and all it means to us.

Thy hand led Thine ancient people through the sea and the wilderness to the promised land. Thy hand has led us through the storm of battle and the baptism of blood until this auspicious day.

We thank Thee for Thy guidance to the blessings of a reunited country and the preservation of our liberties, and the burial of our animosities.

We humbly pray for Thy blessing upon the hands that built this monument, the love that inspired it, the principles that sanctified it, and the reunited people who honor it this day. May it stand for generations to teach the love of country to our children, devotion to country to all people, the heroism of men who contended for right, as God gave them to see the right.

We pray Thy richest blessings on our reunited country, the asylum of all nations, the glory of the past and the hope of the future. May we prove ourselves worthy of such a country, such a Government and such a God, we humbly ask in the name of Thy blessed Son, our Savior.

Amen.

Of the monuments of the American Civil War in Kentucky, it is the only one with a soldier on horseback.

Morgan's horse, Black Bess, was a mare, but sculptor Pompeo Coppini thought a stallion was more appropriate. Coppini said, "No hero should bestride a mare!". Therefore, Coppini added the necessary testicles. Undergraduates from nearby University of Kentucky have been known to paint the testicles of the horse in the school colors of blue and white. An anonymous author wrote the "Ballad of Black Bess", which ended with:

The memorial was one of 60 different Civil War properties in Kentucky placed on the National Register of Historic Places on the same day, July 17, 1997. Three other properties listed that day are also located in Lexington: the John C. Breckinridge Memorial, which is on the other side of the same block as the Morgan Memorial, and the Confederate Soldier Monument in Lexington and the Ladies' Confederate Memorial, both in nearby Lexington Cemetery.In November 2015, a committee, the Urban County Arts Review Board's, voted to recommend removal of the Morgan and Breckinridge memorials. After receiving pressure from local grassroots organizing, Mayor Jim Gray re-announced plans to relocate the memorial to Veterans Park in south Lexington. The monuments were removed October 17, 2017. Both the Morgan and Breckinridge memorials will be relocated to the Lexington Cemetery in 2018.

Lexington, Kentucky, in the American Civil War

Lexington, Kentucky was a city of importance during the American Civil War, with notable residents participating on both sides of the conflict. These included John C. Breckinridge, Confederate generals John Hunt Morgan and Basil W. Duke, and the Todd family, who mostly served the Confederacy although one, Mary Todd Lincoln, was the first lady of the United States, wife of President Abraham Lincoln.

Martyrs Monument in Midway

The Martyrs Monument in Midway, located in Midway City Cemetery outside Midway, Kentucky, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 17, 1997, as part of the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky Multiple Property Submission. It honors four Confederate prisoners who were killed due to the standing order of Union General over Kentucky Stephen G. Burbridge, known as Order No. 59, which declared: "Whenever an unarmed Union citizen is murdered, four guerrillas will be selected from the prison and publicly shot to death at the most convenient place near the scene of the outrages." The Confederate prisoners, whose names were M. Jackson, J. Jackson, C. Rissinger, and N. Adams, were executed on November 5, 1864 northeast of Midway, the precise location of which is unknown. This was due to the actions of Sue Mundy, a former trooper under John Hunt Morgan who terrorized Union forces in Kentucky during the later years of the American Civil War. They were buried in shallow graves originally, then re-buried in a Presbyterian cemetery, and finally in 1890 moved to their current location, with the dedication of the Martyrs Monument.

Morgan's Raid

Morgan's Raid was a diversionary incursion by Confederate cavalry into the northern U.S. states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. The raid took place from June 11–July 26, 1863, and is named for the commander of the Confederates, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan. Although it caused temporary alarm in the North, the raid was ultimately classed as a failure.

The raid covered more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km), beginning in Tennessee and ending in northern Ohio. It coincided with the Vicksburg Campaign and the Gettysburg Campaign, and it was meant to draw U.S. troops away from these fronts by frightening the North into demanding their troops return home. Despite his initial successes, Morgan was thwarted in his attempts to recross the Ohio River and eventually was forced to surrender what remained of his command in northeastern Ohio near the Pennsylvania border. Morgan and other senior officers were kept in the Ohio state penitentiary, but they tunneled their way out and took a train to Cincinnati, where they crossed the Ohio River to safety.

Richmond, Ohio

Richmond is a village in Jefferson County, Ohio, United States. The population was 481 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area.

During Morgan's Raid of 1863, Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan

traveled through Richmond on his way to defeat at the Battle of Salineville.

Stream Cliff Farm

Stream Cliff Farm, also called the Stream Cliff Herb Farms, is a historic farm located in southern Jennings County, Indiana, USA, near the village of Commiskey. It was visited by John Hunt Morgan during his cavalry march through Indiana on July 11, 1863. As of 2007, it is the oldest herb farm in Indiana. It opens from April to December.

Thomas Hines

Thomas Henry Hines (October 8, 1838 – January 23, 1898) was a Confederate cavalryman who was known for his spying activities during the last two years of the American Civil War. A native of Butler County, Kentucky, he initially worked as a grammar instructor, mainly at the Masonic University of La Grange, Kentucky. During the first year of the war, he served as a field officer, initiating several raids. He was an important assistant to John Hunt Morgan, doing a preparatory raid (Hines' Raid) in advance of Morgan's Raid through the states of Indiana and Ohio, and after being captured with Morgan, organized their escape from the Ohio Penitentiary. He was later involved in espionage and tried to stir up insurrections against the Federal government in selected Northern locales.

On several occasions during the war, Hines was forced to make narrow, seemingly impossible, escapes. At one point, he concealed himself in a mattress that was being used at the time; on another occasion, he was confused for the actor and assassin John Wilkes Booth, a dangerous case of mistaken identity that forced him to flee Detroit in April 1865 by holding a ferry captain at gunpoint. Union agents viewed Hines as the man they most needed to apprehend, but apart from the time he served at the Ohio Penitentiary in late 1863, he was never captured.

After the war, once it was safe for him to return to his native Kentucky, he settled down with much of his family in Bowling Green. He started practicing law, which led him to serve on the Kentucky Court of Appeals, eventually becoming its Chief Justice. Later, he practiced law in Frankfort, Kentucky, until his death in 1898, keeping many of the secrets of Confederate espionage from public knowledge.

Wayne Township, Columbiana County, Ohio

Wayne Township is one of the eighteen townships of Columbiana County, Ohio, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 814.

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