John Hulke

John Whitaker Hulke FRCS FRS FGS (6 November 1830 – 19 February 1895) was a British surgeon, geologist and fossil collector. He was the son of a physician in Deal, who became a Huxleyite despite being deeply religious.[1]

Hulke became Huxley's colleague at the Royal College of Surgeons. He was a long-time collector from the Wealden cliffs of the Isle of Wight, and his work on vertebrate palaeontology included studies of Iguanodon and Hypsilophodon from the Wealden (Lower Cretaceous). He became President of the Geological Society (1882–84); and was awarded Wollaston Medal in 1888. He was President of the Pathological Society of London in 1883, and President of the Royal College of Surgeons from 1893 until his death.

John Whitaker Hulke
John Whitaker Hulke


Hulke was born in Deal, Kent the son of a general practitioner. He was educated partly at a boarding-school in England, partly at the Moravian College at Neuwied (1843–1845), where he gained an intimate knowledge of German and an interest in geology through visits to the Eifel district. Of Dutch Reformed descent, and Calvinist leanings, he held strict views: "his Protestantism was of the intolerant kind".[2] He got on well with Huxley, whose agnosticism was also rather strait-laced. After returning from Germany he entered King's College School, and three years later commenced work at the hospital. He qualified MRCS in 1852.


In the Crimean War he volunteered, and was appointed (1855) assistant-surgeon at Smyrna and subsequently during the Siege of Sevastopol. On returning home he became medical tutor at his old hospital, was elected FRCS in 1857, and afterwards assistant-surgeon to the Royal Ophthalmic Hospital, Moorfields (1857), and surgeon (1868–1890).

In 1861, Hulke first described oculodermal melanosis (Nevus of Ota).[3] In 1870 he became surgeon at the Middlesex Hospital, and here much of his more important surgical work was accomplished. His skill as an operator was widely known: he was an excellent general surgeon, but made his special mark as an ophthalmologist. As a geologist he attained a European reputation: he was elected FRS in 1867 for his researches on the anatomy and physiology of the retina in man and the lower animals, particularly the reptiles.

He subsequently devoted all his spare time to geology and especially to the fossil reptilia, describing many remains of dinosaurs from the Isle of Wight.[4] He had access to one of the best private collections of the day: that of Rev. W. Fox on the Isle of Wight. Hulke located a complete Iguanodon braincase in 1869, and offered it to Huxley to describe. Huxley was too busy, but helped Hulke prepare and describe it. Hulke published a string of papers in the Geological Society of London's Quarterly Review.[5][6][7] In 1887 the Wollaston Medal was awarded to him by the Geological Society.

He was president of both the Geological and Pathological Societies in 1883, and president of the Clinical Society from 1893 to 1895 and of the Royal College of Surgeons from 1893 until his death. He was a man with a wide range of knowledge not only of science but of literature and art. In all, he published over fifty papers, 28 on dinosaurs. After his death his collection was donated to the Natural History Museum. He delivered the 1891 Bradshaw Lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons on spinal fractures and dislocations.

He was due to read the Hunterian Oration at the Royal College of Surgeons just before his death in February 1895. In the event it was delivered on his behalf by past president Thomas Bryant.


  1. ^ Desmond, Adrian (1982). Archetypes and ancestors. Muller, London. pp. 134–135
  2. ^ Anon (1895). "John Whittaker Hulke". The Lancet. 146 (3758): 510–511. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)06687-4.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ "John Whitaker Hulke" in Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
  5. ^ Hulke J.W. (1871). "Note on a large reptilian skull from Brooke, Isle of Wight, probably Dinosaurian, referable to the genus Iguanodon". Quart J. Geol Soc. 27: 199–206. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1871.027.01-02.27.
  6. ^ Hulke, J. W. (1878). "Note on two Skulls from the Wealden and Purbeck Formations indicating a new Subgroup of Crocodilia". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 34: 377–382. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1878.034.01-04.25.
  7. ^ Hulke J.W. (1882). "An attempt at a complete osteology of Hypsilophodon foxii: a British Wealden dinosaur". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 173: 1035–1062. doi:10.1098/rstl.1882.0025. JSTOR 109396.


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1889–90 flu pandemic

The 1889–1890 flu pandemic (October 1889 – December 1890, with recurrences March – June 1891, November 1891 – June 1892, winter 1893–1894 and early 1895) was a deadly influenza pandemic that killed about 1 million people worldwide. The outbreak was dubbed "Asiatic flu" or "Russian flu" (not to be confused with the 1977–1978 epidemic caused by Influenza A/USSR/90/77 H1N1, which was also called Russian flu). For some time the virus strain responsible was conjectured (but not proven) to be Influenza A virus subtype H2N2. More recently, the strain was asserted to be Influenza A virus subtype H3N8.

2017 New Year Honours

The 2017 New Year Honours are appointments by some of the 16 Commonwealth realms to various orders and honours to recognise and reward good works by citizens of those countries. The New Year Honours were awarded as part of the New Year celebrations at the start of January and were announced on 30 December 2016.The honours list reflected the United Kingdom's success at the 2016 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, with sports stars dominating the list.The recipients of honours are displayed as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by the country (in order of precedence) whose ministers advised The Queen on the appointments, then by honour with grades (i.e. Knight/Dame Grand Cross, Knight/Dame Commander, etc.), and then by divisions (i.e. Civil, Diplomatic, and Military, as appropriate).


Ankylopollexia is an extinct clade of ornithischian dinosaurs that lived from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. It is a derived clade of iguanodontian ornithopods and contains the subgroup Styracosterna.

The name stems from the Greek word, “ankylos”, mistakenly taken to mean stiff, fused (in fact the adjective means bent or curved; used of fingers, it can mean hooked), and the Latin word, “pollex”, meaning thumb. Originally described in 1986 by Sereno, this most likely synapomorphic feature of a conical thumb spine defines the clade.First appearing around 156 million years ago, in the Jurassic, Ankylopollexia became an extremely successful and widespread clade during the Cretaceous, and were found around the world. The group died out at the end of the Maastrichtian. Even though they grew to be quite large, comparable to some carnivorous dinosaurs, they were universally herbivorous. Most ankylopollexians were bipedal.


Cetiosauriscus ( SEE-tee-oh-SOR-iss-kəs) is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived between 166 and 164 million years ago during the Callovian (Middle Jurassic Period) in what is now England. A herbivore, Cetiosauriscus had—for sauropod standards—a moderately long tail, and longer forelimbs, making them as long as its hindlimbs. It has been estimated as about 15 m (49 ft) long and between 4 and 10 t (3.9 and 9.8 long tons; 4.4 and 11.0 short tons) in weight.

The only known fossil that was later named Cetiosauriscus includes most of the rear half of a skeleton as well as a hindlimb (NHMUK R3078). Found in Cambridgeshire in the 1890s, it was described by Arthur Smith Woodward in 1905 as a new specimen of the species Cetiosaurus leedsi. This was changed in 1927, when Friedrich von Huene found NHMUK R3078 and the C. leedsi type specimen to be too different from Cetiosaurus, warranting its own genus, which he named Cetiosauriscus, meaning "Cetiosaurus-like". Cetiosauriscus leedsi was referred to the sauropod family Diplodocidae because of similarities in the tail and foot, and had the dubious or intermediate species "Cetiosauriscus" greppini, "C." longus, and "C." glymptonensis assigned to it. In 1980, Alan Charig named a new species of Cetiosauriscus for NHMUK R3078 because of the lack of comparable material to the type of C. leedsi; this species was named Cetiosauriscus stewarti. Because of the poor state of preservation of the Cetiosauriscus leedsi fossil, Charig sent a petition to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to instead make C. stewarti the type species. Cetiosauriscus stewarti became the oldest confirmed diplodocid until a phylogenetic analysis published in 2003 instead found the species to belong to Mamenchisauridae, and followed by studies in 2005 and 2015 that found it outside Neosauropoda, while not a mamenchisaurid proper.

Cetiosauriscus was found in the marine deposits of the Oxford Clay Formation alongside many different invertebrate groups, marine ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and crocodylians, a single pterosaur, and various dinosaurs: the ankylosaur Sarcolestes, the stegosaurs Lexovisaurus and Loricatosaurus, the ornithopod Callovosaurus, as well as some unnamed taxa. The theropods Eustreptospondylus, Metriacanthosaurus and Megalosaurus are known from the formation, although probably not from the same level as Cetiosauriscus.

Deal, Kent

Deal is a town in Kent, England, which lies on the border of the North Sea and the English Channel, eight miles north-east of Dover and eight miles south of Ramsgate. It is a former fishing, mining and garrison town. Close to Deal is Walmer, a possible location for Julius Caesar's first arrival in Britain.

Deal became a 'limb port' of the Cinque Ports in 1278 and grew into the busiest port in England; today it is a seaside resort, its quaint streets and houses are a reminder of its history along with many ancient buildings and monuments. In 1968, Middle Street was the first Conservation Area in Kent. The coast of France is approximately twenty-five miles from the town and is visible on clear days. The Tudor Deal Castle, commissioned by King Henry VIII, has a rose floor plan.


Duriatitan is a genus of titanosauriform sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Late Jurassic in what is now England. The holotype specimen of Duriatitan, BMNH 44635, is a partial left upper arm bone which was found by R.I. Smith near Sandsfoot in the lower Kimmeridge Clay from Dorset. The type species, D. humerocristatus, was described in 1874 by John Hulke as a species of Cetiosaurus. The specific name refers to the deltopectoral crest, crista, on the upper arm bone, humerus. The specimen was assigned to its own genus by Paul M. Barrett, Roger B.J. Benson and Paul Upchurch in 2010. The generic name is derived from the Latin name for Dorset, Duria, and Greek Titan.


Eucamerotus (meaning "well-chambered" in reference to the hollows of the vertebrae) was a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Barremian-age Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation (Wealden) of the Isle of Wight, England.


Iguanodon ( i-GWAH-nə-don; meaning "iguana-tooth") is a genus of ornithopod dinosaur that existed roughly halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous. While many species have been classified in the genus Iguanodon, dating from the late Jurassic Period to the early Cretaceous Period of Asia, Europe, and North America, research in the first decade of the 21st century suggests that there is only one well-substantiated species: I. bernissartensis, which lived from the late Barremian to the earliest Aptian ages (Early Cretaceous) in Belgium, Spain, England and possibly elsewhere in Europe, between about 126 and 113 million years ago. Iguanodon were large, bulky herbivores. Distinctive features include large thumb spikes, which were possibly used for defense against predators, combined with long prehensile fifth fingers able to forage for food.

The genus was named in 1825 by English geologist Gideon Mantell but discovered by William Harding Bensted, based on fossil specimens found in England, some of which were subsequently assigned to Mantellodon. Iguanodon was the second type of dinosaur formally named based on fossil specimens, after Megalosaurus. Together with Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, it was one of the three genera originally used to define Dinosauria. The genus Iguanodon belongs to the larger group Iguanodontia, along with the duck-billed hadrosaurs. The taxonomy of this genus continues to be a topic of study as new species are named or long-standing ones reassigned to other genera.

Scientific understanding of Iguanodon has evolved over time as new information has been obtained from fossils. The numerous specimens of this genus, including nearly complete skeletons from two well-known bone beds, have allowed researchers to make informed hypotheses regarding many aspects of the living animal, including feeding, movement, and social behaviour. As one of the first scientifically well-known dinosaurs, Iguanodon has occupied a small but notable place in the public's perception of dinosaurs, its artistic representation changing significantly in response to new interpretations of its remains.


"Ischyrosaurus" (meaning "strong lizard", for its large humerus; name in quotation marks because it is preoccupied) was a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Kimmeridgian-age Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset, England. It was once synonymized with the Early Cretaceous-age Pelorosaurus.


Iuticosaurus (meaning "Jute lizard") is the name given to a genus of dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight. Iuticosaurus was a sauropod, specifically a titanosaur.

In 1887 Richard Lydekker described two sauropod tail vertebrae found by William D. Fox near Brook Bay on Wight, BMNH R146a and BMNH 151, and referred them to the genus Ornithopsis, despite indicating their similarity to Titanosaurus, because the tail of Ornithopsis was unknown. On reading the paper to the Geological Society of London, Lydekker was criticised by Harry Govier Seeley and John Hulke for his choice and in 1888 he referred to the fossils as Titanosaurus sp. a, Titanosaurus sp. b being a third vertebra, BMNH 32390.In 1929 Friedrich von Huene named both taxa as full species. The first became Titanosaurus Valdensis, the specific name referring to the Wealden, the second Titanosaurus Lydekkeri, its specific name honouring Lydekker. By present convention both specific names would be spelled as T. valdensis and T. lydekkeri respectively.

In 1993 Jean le Loeuff redescribed the material and named a separate genus: Iuticosaurus, the generic name referring to the Jutes who settled the island in the fifth century and established a Jute dynasty in the sixth century. Le Loeuff made Iuticosaurus valdensis the type species, and chose BMNH 151 as the lectotype. Another vertebra, BMNH R 1886, was referred by him to this species. The second species, though formally named by him as Iuticosaurus lydekkeri, he considered a nomen dubium.I. valdensis was found in the Wessex Formation and I. lydekkeri in the younger Upper Greensand.

Iuticosaurus was probably similar to Titanosaurus. It measured 15 to 20 metres (49–65 feet) long.

Most researchers have concluded that I. valdensis cannot be distinguished from other titanosaurs and is therefore a nomen dubium also.

List of people from Kent

This is a list of notable residents of the county of Kent in England who have a Wikipedia page. Persons are grouped by occupation and listed in order of birth. Kent is defined by its current boundaries.


Ornithodesmus (meaning "bird link") is a genus of small, dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Isle of Wight in England, dating to about 125 million years ago. The name was originally assigned to a bird-like sacrum (a series of vertebrae fused to the hip bones), initially believed to come from a bird and subsequently identified as a pterosaur. More complete pterosaur remains were later assigned to Ornithodesmus, until recently a detailed analysis determined that the original specimen in fact came from a small theropod, specifically a dromaeosaur. All pterosaurian material previously assigned to this genus has been renamed Istiodactylus.

Oxford Military College

Oxford Military College was an all-male private boarding school and military academy in Cowley, Oxford, England, from 1876 to 1896. The military college opened on 7 September 1876. Prince George, Duke of Cambridge was the patron of the Oxford Military College.

The military college was declared bankrupt in 1896. The college's 88 acres (36 ha) site later housed Morris Motors (1912–25) and the Nuffield Press (1925-1992). The main college building (manor house) was demolished in 1957. The buildings were used by the Nuffield Press until the mid 1990s after which they were converted into residential flats.

Pathological Society of London

The Pathological Society of London was founded in 1846 for the "cultivation and promotion of Pathology by the exhibition and description of specimens, drawings, microscopic preparations, casts or models of morbid parts."Its first meeting was held in February 1847 at which C. J. B. Williams was elected as the society's first president and 106 members enrolled. Early members included Richard Bright, Golding Bird, William Gull, William Jenner, Henry Bence Jones and Richard Quain.The society published 58 volumes of the Transactions of the Pathological Society of London.

In 1907 it was merged with the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London and other societies to become the Royal Society of Medicine.


Plesiosuchus is an extinct genus of geosaurine metriorhynchid crocodyliform known from the Late Jurassic (late Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian stage) of Dorset, England and possibly also Spain. It contains a single species, Plesiosuchus manselii.

William Fox (palaeontologist)

William D. Fox (9 August 1813 – 1881) was an English clergyman and palaeontologist who worked on the Isle of Wight and made some significant discoveries of dinosaur fossils.

The Reverend William D. Fox was born in Cumberland. He moved to the Isle of Wight in 1862 to take up the post of curate at the Parish church of St Mary the Virgin in Brixton (now known as Brighstone). He resigned his post in 1867 but continued to live in the area to carry on his collecting. In 1875, he became curate of nearby Kingston, near Shorwell.Although lacking formal scientific training Fox was remarkably astute and discussed his findings with eminent palaeontologists of the day including John Hulke (1830-1895) and Sir Richard Owen. Fox had easy access to Brighstone Bay from his home, Myrtle Cottage in Brighstone, and so spent many an hour collecting fossils, much to the detriment of his pastoral work; in fact, it was said of him at the time, by the wife of the vicar, that it was "always bones first and the parish next". He is also quoted as having written in a letter to Owen "I cannot leave this place while I have any money left to live on, I take such deep [sic] in hunting for old dragons".In 1882 Fox's collection of more than 500 specimens was acquired by the Natural History Museum after his death.Fox is credited with the finding of several species, most described by his friend Owen, and named by him after their finder. These include Polacanthus foxii, Hypsilophodon foxii, Eucamerotus foxi, Iguanodon foxii, Calamosaurus foxii (formerly Calamospondylus) and Aristosuchus.

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