John Hampden

John Hampden (ca. 1594 – 1643) was an English politician who was one of the leading parliamentarians involved in challenging the authority of Charles I of England in the run-up towards the English Civil War. He became a national figure when he stood trial in 1637 for his refusal to be taxed for ship money, and was one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.

Hampden died of wounds received on Chalgrove Field during the war and was lionized as a great patriot. The wars established the constitutional precedent that the monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, a concept legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688 and the subsequent Bill of Rights 1689. A statue of Hampden was selected by the Victorians as a symbol to take its place at the entrance to the Central Lobby in the Palace of Westminster as the noblest type of the parliamentary opposition, sword at his side, ready to defend the rights of Parliament. As one of the Five Members of the House of Commons, Hampden is commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the British monarch each year when the doors of the Commons Chamber are slammed in the face of the monarch's messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the monarch.

John Hampden portrait
A painting of John Hampden by the circle of Godfrey Kneller

Origins

He was the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire (b. 1570), the son of Griffith Hampden and Anne Cave and descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before the Norman conquest, and of Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell, and aunt of Oliver Cromwell. He was probably born in London in 1594.[1]

Early life

By his father's death, when he was still aged about 26, he became the owner of a large estate and a ward of the crown. His childhood was passed in the care of his mother.[2] He was educated at Lord Williams's School in Thame, as a boarder as is evident from a passage of Anthony Wood's Memoris in which he alludes to the master of the school as having, 'been always acquainted with and obliged to the families of the Ingoldsbys and Hampdens in Buckinghamshire, and other puritanical and factious families, in the said county, who while young had been mostly bred in the said school of Thame, and had sojourned either with the vicar or the master.' [2]

On 30 March 1610 he matriculated as a commoner of Magdalen College, Oxford. Clarendon in his History of the Rebellion, said he was known to be 'wise...and great parts.' He also paints a brief picture of what Hampden was like as a youth, 'He indulged to himself all the licence in sports and exercises ad company, which was used by men of the most jolly conversation'.[2] In 1613 he was admitted as a student of the Inner Temple.

Career

English Parliament

Hampden first sat in Parliament for the borough of Grampound, Cornwall in 1621. Later, he represented Wendover in the first three parliaments of Charles I. In April 1640 he was elected MP for Buckinghamshire in the Short Parliament and was re-elected MP for Buckinghamshire for the Long Parliament in November 1640.[3] He sat until his death in 1643.

In the early days of his parliamentary career, he was content to be overshadowed by John Eliot, as in its later days he was content to be overshadowed by John Pym and to be commanded by Essex.

John Hampden - Project Gutenberg eBook 11921
John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book

Yet for many(including Lord Macaulay) it is Hampden, and not Eliot or Pym, who is seen as the central figure at the start of the English Revolution. It is Hampden whose statue rather than that of Eliot or Pym that was selected by the Victorians as a symbol to take its place at the entrance to the Central Lobby in the Palace of Westminster as the noblest type of the parliamentary opposition, sword at his side, ready to defend Parliament's rights and privileges by any means necessary. His statue stands opposite Earl of Clarendon in his Lord Chancellor's robes, a symbol of the respect for the law and royalism.[4]

Views on ship money

Something of Hampden's fame no doubt is owing to the position which he took up as the opponent of ship money.[5] But it is hardly possible that even resistance to ship money would have so distinguished him but for the mingled massiveness and modesty of his character, his dislike of all pretences in himself or others, his brave contempt of danger, and his charitable readiness to shield others as far as possible from the evil consequences of their actions. Nor was he wanting in that skill which enabled him to influence men towards the ends at which he aimed, and which was spoken of as subtlety by those who disliked his ends.

Committee work

During these first parliaments Hampden did not, so far as we know, speak in public debate, but he was increasingly employed in committee work, for which he seems to have had a special aptitude. In 1626 he took an active part in the preparation of the charges against Buckingham. In January 1627 he was bound over to answer at the council board for his refusal to pay the forced loan. Later in the year he was committed to the gatehouse, and then sent into confinement in Hampshire, from which he was liberated just before the meeting of the third parliament of the reign, in which he once more rendered useful but unobtrusive assistance to his leaders.

When the breach came in 1629 Hampden was found corresponding with the imprisoned Eliot, discussing with him the prospects of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Hampden was one of the persons to whom the Earl of Warwick granted land in Connecticut in what was then referred to as the Saybrook Colony and today as Old Saybrook, Connecticut. While some claim there is no foundation but anecdote that Hampden attempted emigration to the colonies with Cromwell, others assert that Cromwell and other future architects of the English Civil War, including Hampden, may have been close to moving to America in the 1630s. The author Kevin Phillips points out that, "Even in the 1770s, residents of Old Saybrook still talked about which prominent Parliamentarian was to have had which town lot."[6]

It was not until 1637, however, that his resistance to the payment of ship money gained him wide fame. Seven out of the twelve judges sided against him, but the connection between the rights of property and the parliamentary system became firmly established in the popular mind. The tax had been justified, says Clarendon, who expresses his admiration at Hampden's "rare temper and modesty" at this crisis, "upon such grounds and reasons as every standerby was able to swear was not law" (Hist. i. 150, vii. 82).

Short Parliament

In the Short Parliament that started on 13 April 1640, Hampden stood forth amongst the leaders. He guided the House in the debate on 4 May in its opposition to the grant of twelve subsidies in return for the surrender of ship money. Parliament was dissolved the next day, and on 6 May an unsuccessful search was made among the papers of Hampden and of other chiefs of the party to discover incriminating correspondence with the Scots. During the eventful months which followed, when Strafford was striving in vain to force England, in spite of its visible reluctance, to support the king in his Scottish war, rumour has much to tell of Hampden's activity in rousing opposition. It is likely enough that the rumour is in the main true, but we are not possessed of any satisfactory evidence on the subject.

Long Parliament

In the Long Parliament, though Hampden was by no means a frequent speaker, it is possible to trace his course with sufficient distinctness. His power consisted in his personal influence, and as a debater rather than as an orator. "He was not a man of many words," says Clarendon, "and rarely began the discourse or made the first entrance upon any business that was assumed, but a very weighty speaker, and after he had heard a full debate and observed how the House was likely to be inclined, took up the argument and shortly and clearly and craftily so stated it that he commonly conducted it to the conclusion he desired; and if he found he could not do that, he never was without the dexterity to divert the debate to another time, and to prevent the determining anything in the negative which might prove inconvenient in the future" (Hist. iii. 31). Unwearied in attendance upon committees, he was in all things ready to second Pym, whom he plainly regarded as his leader.

Hampden was one of the eight managers of Strafford's prosecution. Like Pym, he was in favour of the more legal and regular procedure by impeachment rather than by attainder, which at the later stage was supported by the majority of the Commons; and through his influence a compromise was effected by which, while an attainder was subsequently adopted, Strafford's counsel were heard as in the case of an impeachment, and thus a serious breach between the two Houses, which threatened to cause the breakdown of the whole proceedings, was averted.

Debate on episcopacy

John Hampden Statue
Statue of John Hampden in Market Square, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire

There was another point on which there was no agreement. A large minority wished to retain episcopacy, and to keep the Book of Common Prayer unaltered, whilst the majority were at least willing to consider the question of abolishing the one and modifying the other. On this subject the parties which ultimately divided the House and the country itself were fully formed as early as 8 February 1641. It is enough to say that Hampden fully shared in the counsels of the opponents of episcopacy. It is not that he was a theoretical Presbyterian, but the bishops had been in his days so fully engaged in the imposition of ceremonies regarded by the Puritans as verging on Papacy that it was difficult, if not impossible, to dissociate them from the cause in which they were embarked. Closely connected with Hampden's distrust of the bishops was his distrust of monarchy as it then existed. The dispute about the church therefore soon attained the form of an attack upon monarchy, and, when the majority of the House of Lords arrayed itself on the side of episcopacy and the Prayer Book, of an attack upon the House of Lords as well.

No serious importance therefore can be attached to the offers of advancement made from time to time to Hampden and his friends. Charles would gladly have given them office if they had been ready to desert their principles. Every day Hampden's conviction grew stronger that Charles would never surrender a position which he had taken up. In August 1641 Hampden was one of the four commissioners who attended Charles in Scotland, and the king's conduct there, connected with such events as the "Incident", must have proved to a man far less sagacious than Hampden that the time for compromise had gone by. He was therefore a warm supporter of the Grand Remonstrance, and was marked out as one of the five impeached members, known thenceforth in history as the Five Members (the others being John Pym, Arthur Haselrig, Denzil Holles and William Strode) whose attempted arrest brought at last the opposing parties into open collision. In the angry scene which arose on the proposal to print the Grand Remonstrance, it was Hampden's personal intervention which prevented an actual conflict, and it was after the impeachment had been attempted that Hampden laid down the two conditions under which resistance to the king became the duty of a good subject. Those conditions were:

  • an attack upon religion and
  • an attack upon the fundamental laws.

There can be no doubt that Hampden fully believed that both those conditions were fulfilled at the opening of 1642.

English Civil War

When the English Civil War began, Hampden was appointed a member of the committee for safety, levied a regiment of Buckinghamshire men for the parliamentary cause, and in his capacity of deputy-lieutenant carried out the parliamentary Militia Ordinance in the county. In the earlier operations of the war he bore himself gallantly and well. He took no actual part in the Battle of Edgehill (23 October 1642). His troops in the rear, however, arrested Prince Rupert of the Rhine's charge at Kineton, and he urged Essex to renew the attack here, and also after the disaster at Brentford. In the spring of 1643, Hampden's regiment took part in the siege of Reading, which surrendered on 27 April. Although Essex intended to advance on the King's headquarters at Oxford, he remained at Reading because of widespread sickness in the army, a shortage of cavalry and to await a paymaster with funds to pay his troops. In early June 1643 he moved his army to Thame making his headquarters there on 10th June.

But it is not on his skill as a regimental officer that Hampden's fame rests. In war as in peace his distinction lay in his power of disentangling the essential part from the non-essential. In the previous constitutional struggle he had seen that the one thing necessary was to establish the supremacy of the House of Commons. In the military struggle which followed he saw, as Cromwell saw afterwards, that the one thing necessary was to beat the enemy. He protested at once against Essex's hesitations and compromises. In the formation of the confederacy of the six associated counties, which was to supply a basis for Cromwell's operations, he took an active part. His influence was felt alike in parliament and in the field. But he was not in supreme command, and he had none of that impatience which often leads able men to fail in the execution of orders of which they disapprove.

Death

Hampden's monument, Chalgrove
Hampden's Monument, Chalgrove. A monument to John Hampden, who was mortally wounded 550 yards north of here in 1643 whilst fighting in the English Civil War on Chalgrove Field.

On the night of 17 June 1643, Prince Rupert sortied on a raid out of Oxford to capture the Parliamentarian army's paymaster, but while that failed, did succeed the next morning in overwhelming two of Essex's small garrison outposts at Postcombe and Chinnor. Hampden rode as a volunteer with 1,100 cavalry and dragoons commanded by Sir Philip Stapleton in pursuit of Rupert, with the intention of delaying him long enough for a larger force from Essex's main army to cut off his retreat. Rupert halted his own cavalry at Chalgrove to ambush the pursuit and allow 800 less mobile troops to escape via the ford of the River Thame at Chiselhampton. During the ensuing Battle of Chalgrove Field, Hampden was mortally wounded (some sources claim in the shoulder by two carbine balls, others by fragments from his own pistol exploding[7]) which shattered the bone and forced him to leave the field. He reached Thame, and his headquarters at the Greyhound Inn.[2] He survived six days, and died on 24 June.[8]

In the latest biography of Hampden written by Prof. John Adair,[9] he concludes that it is most likely that Hampden died from an exploding pistol. Frederick George Lee in his book The History, description and antiquities of the Prebendal Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Thame in the county and diocese of Oxford (and available to view at the UK's National Archives or in the Royal Collection) lays out a version of this story.[10]

This account of his death was given by Sir Robert Pye his son-in-law..."That in the action of Chalgrove Field, his pistol burst and shattered his hand in a terrible manner. He, however, rode off and got to his quarters but finding the wound mortal he sent for Sir Robert Pye then a colonel in the Parliamentary army – and who had married his eldest daughter – and told him that he looked on him in some degree accessory to his death as the pistols were present from him. Sir Robert assured him that he bought them in Paris from an eminent maker and proved them himself. It appeared on examining the other pistol that it was loaded to the muzzle with several supernumerary charges, owning to the carelessness of a servant. He was ordered to see that the pistols were loaded every morning which he did but without drawing the former charge." An exhumation of Hampden's body in 1828 showed that there was no damage to the shoulder but his 'right hand was shattered by the bursting of his pistol, and death probably ensued from lockjaw arising out of extensive injury to the nervous system' [11]

It is also worth noting the following: – in the book John Hampden by Frank Hansford-Miller published in 1976, it noted that his death was the result 'from the exploding of his own pistol in his own hand.'[12] There has also been a scholarly analysis by the archivists at Hampden's school, Thame Grammar, who also conclude that he died accidentally from his own hand.[13]

Hampden's death so early in the war was a severe blow to the Parliamentarians. During the preceding winter, Hampden had associated himself with John Pym's "Middle Group" in Parliament, which opposed any peace moves to the King except on favorable terms. At the same time he had worked to moderate the militancy of the parliamentary "War Party". Although Hampden was privately critical of Essex for not aggressively attacking after avoiding defeat at Edgehill and the standoff at Turnham Green, he remained publicly loyal and helped Essex resist the criticisms of the War Party. His death took with it a key link between the factions. Hearing of his death, the Member of Parliament Anthony Nichol pronounced: "Never Kingdom received a greater loss in one subject, never a man a truer and faithful friend."[14]

An obelisk was erected in 1843 on the site of the skirmish by Lord Nugent.[15]

Personal life

Hampden married:

  1. Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Symeon of Pyrton, Oxfordshire, in 1619. The wedding took place at St Mary's Church, Pyrton.[16] Elizabeth predeceased him in 1634.[17] And secondly
  2. in 1640, Lettice (or Letitia), daughter of Sir Francis Knollys "the Young", widow of Sir Thomas Vachell of Coley Park, Reading. Her father was son of the elder Sir Francis Knollys and his wife, Catherine Carey.

By his first wife he had nine children (three sons and six daughters) one of whom, Richard (1631–1695) was chancellor of the exchequer in William III's reign; from two of his daughters are descended the families of Trevor Hampden and Hobart-Hampden, the descent in the male line becoming apparently extinct in 1754 in the person of John Hampden. They lived at Hartwell House, Buckinghamshire, now a National Trust property.

Legacy

Hugh llewelyn 5 (6461797943)
London Underground Metropolitan-Vickers locomotive No. 5 John Hampden, used from 1922 until 1961, in the London Transport Museum
Temple of British Worthies John Hampden
A bust of John Hampden at Stowe House

Hampden is immortalised in St Stephen's Hall in the Palace of Westminster, where he and other notable Parliamentarians look on at visitors to the UK Parliament.[18] In Britain diverse establishments are named after him, ranging from Hampden Park, the home ground of Queen's Park F.C. and the Scotland national football team, to an older persons' mental health unit at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. Several schools use his name: a primary school in Wendover and another in Thame, a grammar school in High Wycombe and a school in Hertfordshire. There is also a statue of him in Aylesbury town centre (illustrated above) pointing to his home in Great Hampden. Aylesbury Vale District Council use an image of the statue as their logo.

Outside of Britain, the towns of Hampden, Maryland; Hamden, Connecticut; Hampden, Maine; Hampden, Massachusetts; and Hampden, Newfoundland and Labrador; as well as the county of Hampden, Massachusetts are named in his honour. Hampden–Sydney College in Virginia is also named in honour of John Hampden and of Algernon Sydney, another English patriot; and Mount Hampden in Zimbabwe.

Thomas Gray's poem "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" refers to the heroism of Hampden in the stanza: "Some village-Hampden, that with dauntless breast / The little tyrant of his fields withstood;/ Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, / Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood."[19]

Seal of Hampden County, Massachusetts
Hampden's likeness on the seal of Hampden County, Massachusetts, one of two in his namesake, the other being Australia's County of Hampden, Victoria

As one of the Five Members of the House of Commons, Hampden is commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the British monarch each year: the sovereign sits on the throne in the House of Lords and sends their messenger Black Rod to summons the Members of the House of Commons to attend them. At his approach the doors to the Commons Chamber are slammed in his face, symbolising the refusal by the Commons to be entered by force by the monarch or one of the monarch's servants, and also its right to debate without the presence of the Queen's Representative.[20] This is done in relation to the events of 1642, when King Charles I stormed into the House of Commons in an unsuccessful attempt to arrest the Five Members.[21][22] Since that time, no British monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting [meeting].[20] Black Rod then bangs with the end of his ceremonial staff three times on the closed doors which are then opened to him.[20]

The Handley Page Hampden bomber was named in honour of John Hampden.

The London Underground also had an electric locomotive built by Metropolitan-Vickers named after him. Used on the Metropolitan line, No. 5 lasted along with other locomotives, until 1961. Painted a maroon colour, she is now one of only two of the original twenty locomotives to survive, and is kept on display in the London Transport Museum. The other one is No. 12 Sarah Siddons.[23]

The Hampden Clubs of the 1810s, which campaigned for parliamentary reform, were named after Hampden.[24]

References

  • John Adair, John Hampden, the Patriot, 1594–1643, ISBN 0-354-04014-6
Attribution

Further reading

Footnotes

  1. ^ A Short History of Thame School. John Howard Brown. Published 1927, Hazell, Watson and Viney
  2. ^ a b c d A Short History of Thame School
  3. ^ Willis, Browne (1750). Notitia Parliamentaria, Part II: A Series or Lists of the Representatives in the several Parliaments held from the Reformation 1541, to the Restoration 1660 ... London. pp. onepage&q&f&#61, false 229–239.
  4. ^ "A letter from the Speaker of the House of Commons dated 20 October 1992, to Roy Bailey Esq, of the John Hampden Society".
  5. ^ Gross, David (ed.) We Won't Pay!: A Tax Resistance Reader ISBN 1-4348-9825-3 pp. 9–16
  6. ^ Alfred A. Young, "English Plebeian Culture an 18th Century American Radicalism" in Margret Jacob and James Jacob, eds., "The Origin of Anglo-American Radicalism" 9New Jersey, Humanitarian Press International, 19910 Page 195,
  7. ^ Britannica 1911 (article "HAMPDEN, JOHN") "two carbine balls". John Hampden, c.1595–1643 on the British Civil Wars & Commonwealth website "possibly from his own pistol exploding".
  8. ^ John Nichols "The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 181". p. 512. E. Cave, 1847
  9. ^ Adair, John Eric, A life of John Hampden, the patriot (1594–1643), London: Macdonald and Jane's, 1976
  10. ^ "Lee, Frederick George – The History, description and antiquities of the Prebendal Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Thame in the county and diocese of Oxford ... / by Frederick George Lee". www.royalcollection.org.uk.
  11. ^ Frederick George Lee, The History, description and antiquities of the Prebendal Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Thame in the county and diocese of Oxford. Published 1883
  12. ^ Lifelines40, John Hampden. An Illustrated Life of John Hampden 1594–1643. Frank Hansford-Miller. Shire Publications. ISBN 085623322 Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN..
  13. ^ Old Tamensians
  14. ^ "Selected Readings in English History". p. 265. Ginn, 1913
  15. ^ A Short History of Thame School. John Howard Brown. Pge 96. Hazell, Watson & Vivery. 1927
  16. ^ http://www.st-marys-pyrton.info/a-brief-history/
  17. ^ "Parishes: Great Hampden – British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk.
  18. ^ "St Stephen's Hall". UK Parliament.
  19. ^ "The Works of Thomas Gray, Containing His Poems and Correspondence: With Memoirs of His Life and Writings, Volume 1". p.120. Harding, Triphook, and Lepard, 1825
  20. ^ a b c "Democracy Live: Black Rod". BBC. Retrieved 6 August 2008
  21. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Black Rod" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  22. ^ John Joseph Bagley, A. S. Lewis (1977). "Lancashire at War: Cavaliers and Roundheads, 1642–51 : a Series of Talks Broadcast from BBC Radio Blackburn". p. 15. Dalesman,
  23. ^ Green, Oliver. "The London Underground: An Illustrated History". p. 44. Ian Allan, 1988.
  24. ^ "British History Timeline". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Sir Francis Barnham
Thomas St Aubyn
Member of Parliament for Grampound
1621–1622
With: Sir Robert Carey
Succeeded by
John Mohun
Sir Richard Edgecombe
Preceded by
Franchise resumed
Member of Parliament for Wendover
1624–1629
With: Alexander Unton 1624
Richard Hampden 1625
Sampson Darrell 1626
Ralph Hawtree 1628–1629
Succeeded by
Parliament suspended until 1640
Preceded by
Parliament suspended since 1629
Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire
1640–1643
With: Arthur Goodwin
Succeeded by
George Fleetwood
Edmund West
Battle of Chalgrove Field

The Battle of Chalgrove 18 June 1643 of the English Civil War was a meeting engagement, or in 17th century English Civil War terminology a fight, that occurred when a Royalist body of horse (cavalry) commanded by Prince Rupert met a similar sized Parliamentarian mounted force under the command of Major John Gunter. Colonel John Hampden put himself in Captain Richard Crosse's troop and fought as a trooper. Rupert commanded three regiments of his Lifeguard (with a combined strength of about 1,000), while the Parliamentarians fielded three of the Earl of Essex’s troops of horse, over 150 dragoons and 700 – 800 of Essex’s most senior officers (in all about 1,100 mounted men).

It took place around 09:00 hours on the morning of 18 June 1643 in Chalgrove Field, northeast of Chalgrove in Oxfordshire. It was a Royalist (Cavaliers) victory of such magnitude the Parliamentarian army (Roundheads) was forced to leave Oxfordshire. Among the many senior officers killed at Chalgrove Colonel John Hampden, Essex's second in command, member of the Committee of Safetie and Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire was the most notable. Hampden's name became synonymous with Chalgrove because 100 years after death his name and reputation for truth and honesty was used as a political exemplar. The supposed exhumation of John Hampden by Lord Nugent in July 1828 ensured that his name endured.

Edward Savage (footballer)

Edward William J. Savage (born 15 November 1989) is an English footballer and former actor. Savage, nicknamed Eddie, was born in 1989 in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. He played Steven Beale in the BBC soap opera EastEnders, taking over the role from Stuart Stevens. Savage left EastEnders when his character was written out in 2002. He played football for Wycombe Wanderers youth team alongside his older brother Andrew, and attended John Hampden Grammar School. He also enjoys judo. He picked up the Alan Henry Gillot Award for the Best First Year Apprentice, presented by Ian Culverhouse. His senior career was cut short after 2 seasons after 8 unsuccessful operations on a dislocated kneecap.

English National Party

English National Party has been the name of various political parties of England, which have commonly called for a separate parliament for England.

Great and Little Hampden

Great and Little Hampden is a civil parish in Buckinghamshire, England, about three miles south-east of Princes Risborough. It incorporates the villages of Great Hampden and Little Hampden, and the hamlets of Green Hailey and Hampden Row. Great Hampden is the ancestral home of the Hobart-Hampden family, the most famous of whom was the English Civil War hero John Hampden.

Great and Little Kimble cum Marsh

Great and Little Kimble cum Marsh, formerly Great and Little Kimble is a civil parish in Wycombe district, Buckinghamshire. It is located 5 mi (8.0 km) to the south of Aylesbury. In addition to the villages of Great Kimble and Little Kimble it contains the hamlets of Kimblewick and Marsh, and an area within Great Kimble is called Smokey Row.

It comprises the ancient ecclesiastical parishes of Great Kimble and Little Kimble and also the medieval Manors which had the same names. The two separate parishes were amalgamated in 1885, but kept their separate churches, St Nicholas for Great Kimble and All Saints for Little Kimble. They fell within the Hundred of Stone, which was originally one of the Three Hundreds of Aylesbury, later amalgamated into Aylesbury Hundred. The parishes lie between Monks Risborough and Ellesborough and, like other parishes on the north side of the Chilterns, were strip parishes, long and narrow, including a section of the scarp and extending into the vale below. In length the combined parish extends for about 4 1⁄4 miles (6.8 km) from near the Bishopstone Road beyond Marsh to the far end of Pulpit Wood near the road from Great Missenden to Chequers but it is only a mile wide at the widest point. The village of Great Kimble lies about 5.5 miles (8.9 kilometres) south of Aylesbury and about 2.5 miles (4.0 kilometres) from Princes Risborough on the A4010 road.

There is a prehistoric hillfort at the summit of Pulpit Hill in Great Kimble. During the Roman occupation of Britain there was a Roman villa at Little Kimble and a tumulus near Great Kimble church is probably a burial mound from the same period. In Norman times a motte and bailey castle was erected at Little Kimble and later developed into a moated site for a medieval dwellinghouse. The present churches of St Nicholas (Great Kimble) and All Saints (Little Kimble) date from the 13th century. It was here that John Hampden refused to pay his ship-money in 1635, one of the incidents which led to the English Civil War.

Heston Blumenthal

Heston Marc Blumenthal, OBE (; born 27 May 1966) is a British celebrity chef. He is the proprietor of The Fat Duck in Bray, Berkshire, one of five restaurants in Great Britain to have three Michelin stars; it was voted No. 1 in The World's 50 Best Restaurants in 2005.

Blumenthal owns the restaurant Dinner in London, which has two Michelin stars, and two pubs in Bray, The Crown at Bray and The Hinds Head, which has one Michelin star. He invented recipes for triple-cooked chips and soft-centred Scotch eggs.

He advocates scientific understanding in cooking, for which he has been awarded honorary degrees from Reading, Bristol and London universities and made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is a pioneer of multi-sensory cooking, food pairing and flavour encapsulation. He has described his ideas in books, newspaper columns and a TV series.

John Hampden-Trevor, 3rd Viscount Hampden

John Hampden-Trevor, 3rd Viscount Hampden PC (24 February 1748 – 9 September 1824), was a British diplomat.

He was the younger son of Robert Hampden, 1st Viscount Hampden and was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford. He followed in his father's career by becoming a diplomat. He was Minister to Munich (1780 – 1783) and to Turin (1783 – 1798).

On 8 May 1773 he married Harriet Burton (1751–1829), daughter of the Rev. Daniel Burton. Trevor was appointed to the Privy Council in 1797. He succeeded to the Viscountcy of Hampden on 20 August 1824, just three weeks before his death. He had no heirs, and the title became extinct at that time.

John Hampden (1653–1696)

John Hampden (21 March 1653 – 12 December 1696), the second son of Richard Hampden, and grandson of Ship money tax protester John Hampden, returned to England after residing for about two years in France, and joined himself to William Russell and Algernon Sidney and the party opposed to the arbitrary government of Charles II. With Russell and Sidney he was arrested in 1683 for alleged complicity in the Rye House Plot, but more fortunate than his colleagues his life was spared, although as he was unable to pay the fine of £40,000 which was imposed upon him he remained in prison. Then in 1685, after the failure of Monmouth's rising, Hampden was again brought to trial, and on a charge of high treason was condemned to death. But the sentence was not carried out, and having paid £6000 he was set at liberty. In the Convention Parliament of 1689 he represented Wendover, but in the subsequent parliaments he failed to secure a seat. It was Hampden who in 1689 coined the phrase "Glorious Revolution". He died by his own hand on 12 December 1696. Hampden wrote numerous pamphlets, and Bishop Burnet described him as "one of the learnedest gentlemen I ever knew".

He married Sarah Foley (died 1687), and had two children:

Richard Hampden (aft. 1674 – 27 July 1728), an MP and Privy Counsellor

Letitia Hampden, who married John Birch MP as his second wifeAfter her death, he married Anne Cornwallis and had two children:

John Hampden (c. 1696 – 4 February 1754), an MP

Ann Hampden (died September 1723), married Thomas Kempthorne

John Hampden (1696–1754)

John Hampden (c. 1696 – 4 February 1754), an English politician, was the second son of John Hampden.

He was a founding governor of London's Foundling Hospital, a charity dedicated to the salvation of the capital's abandoned children.

He married Isabella Ellys, but left no children. He was the last male-line descendant of John Hampden, and left his estates on his death to his cousin Hon. Robert Trevor, who assumed the Hampden surname.

John Hampden Grammar School

John Hampden Grammar School (known colloquially as "JHGS") is a selective state boys' grammar school in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, England. It is named after the local Member of Parliament and English Civil War commander John Hampden.

On 1 June 2011 Michael Gove, the Secretary of State for Education, approved the school's application to become an Academy.

Marsh, Buckinghamshire

Not to be confused with Wycombe Marsh, Buckinghamshire

Marsh is a hamlet in the parish of Great and Little Kimble in Buckinghamshire, England. The hamlet name comes from the name of the Earls of Pembroke in the 12th and 13th centuries and was previously called Marshals.Formerly a parish in its own right, it was annexed into the parish of Great Kimble in the late medieval period when its manor was purchased by Lord Griffith Hampden (ancestor of John Hampden) who was also the lord of Great Kimble manor. In the English Civil War it was reputed that King Charles I of England spent some time in hiding in the pub in the hamlet.Today the hamlet is just a small collection of houses, a pub and a couple of farms. The name Marsh is also given to the nearby Marsh Level Crossing on the railway line that runs from Princes Risborough to Aylesbury. Marsh is close to the Chiltern hills an area of outstanding beauty, surrounded in wildlife and farms it is a perfect habitat for animals.

Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives

Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives were used on London's Metropolitan Railway with conventional carriage stock. On the outer suburban routes an electric locomotive was used at the Baker Street end that was exchanged for a steam locomotive en route.

The first ten had a central cab and were known as camel-backs, and these entered service in 1906. A year later another ten units with a box design and a driving position both ends arrived. These were replaced by more powerful units in the early 1920s.

The locomotives were withdrawn from passenger service in 1962 after electrification reached Amersham and the A Stock electric multiple units entered service. One locomotive, No. 5 John Hampden, is preserved as a static display at London Transport Museum, and another, No. 12 Sarah Siddons, has been used for heritage events.

Peter Keen (cyclist)

Peter Keen CBE (born 1964) is a former cyclist, coach, and now performance director.

Keen was born in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. In 1980 he won the schoolboy 10-mile time-trial championships. That led selection by the British Cycling Federation for the national track squad, despite having no track experience. Keen was educated at John Hampden Grammar School, before completing a sports studies degree at University College Chichester, where he began studying human performance from an academic perspective. He went on to complete a Master of Philosophy degree in Exercise Physiology at Loughborough University, and devised a research programme on the physical limitations to pursuit racing. He wrote to British Cycling asking if they wanted to get involved in the trials. They agreed to send some junior riders.

Simultaneously, Keen was working as a senior lecturer in exercise physiology at University College Chichester and the University of Brighton.

He was UK national track cycling coach from 1989-1992 and was Chris Boardman’s coach when he became Olympic champion in the individual pursuit at the 1992 Summer Olympics, Britain’s first Olympic gold medal in cycling for 72 years. Keen continued to work with Boardman as he started his professional career on to the continent where Boardman would win the prologue at the Tour de France three times and broke the world hour record three times. Other riders he coached include Yvonne McGregor, who he guided to Olympic and World Championship medals as well as the world hour record, Caroline Alexander, who won a European Mountain Bike title, and Marie Purvis, who he coached to the British hour record.From 1997 to 2004 Keen was the elite performance director of British Cycling. In 1999 he was awarded the Mussabini Medal. He was performance director for UK Sport prior to the 2012 London Olympics. At UK Sport as Performance Director Keen was responsible for developing and implementing ‘Mission 2012’ a strategic performance management system and reporting process for Olympic and Paralympic sports in the run-up to the 2012 Olympic Games in London. ‘Mission 2012’ was adopted in preparation for Sochi 2014 and the Rio Olympics in 2016. In June 2012, Keen became a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).Keen worked as an interim performance director at the Lawn Tennis Association, having been appointed in October 2015 and remaining in post for the duration of his 12-month contract.From 2013 has been director of sport advancement at Loughborough University.

Peterborough West

Peterborough West was a federal electoral district represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1953. It was located in the province of Ontario. It was created by the British North America Act of 1867 which divided the County of Peterborough was into two ridings. The West Riding consisted of the Townships of South Monaghan (in the County of Northumberland), North Monaghan, Smith, and Ennismore, and the Town of Peterborough.

In 1903, the townships of Cavendish, Galway, Harvey, and the village of Ashburnham were added to the riding. In 1914, the village of Ashburnham was excluded.

In 1924, Peterborough West was defined to consist of the part of the county of Peterborough included in the townships of Galway, Cavendish, Harvey, Ennismore, Smith, Douro, Otanabee and North Monaghan, and that part of the county of Northumberland included in the township of South Monaghan, together with the city of Peterborough. In 1947, South Monaghan was excluded from the riding.

The electoral district was abolished in 1952 when it was merged into Peterborough riding.

Richard Hampden

Richard Hampden (baptized 13 October 1631 – 15 December 1695) was an English Whig politician and son of Ship money tax protester John Hampden. He was sworn a Privy Counsellor in 1689 and was Chancellor of the Exchequer from 18 March 1690 until 10 May 1694.

Short Parliament

The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640. It was so called because of its short life of only three weeks.

After 11 years of attempting Personal Rule between 1629 and 1640, Charles recalled Parliament in 1640 on the advice of Lord Wentworth, recently created Earl of Strafford, primarily to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland in the Bishops' Wars. However, like its predecessors, the new parliament had more interest in redressing perceived grievances occasioned by the royal administration than in voting the King funds to pursue his war against the Scottish Covenanters.

John Pym, MP for Tavistock, quickly emerged as a major figure in debate; his long speech on 17 April expressed the refusal of the House of Commons to vote subsidies unless royal abuses were addressed. John Hampden, in contrast, was persuasive in private: he sat on nine committees. A flood of petitions concerning royal abuses were coming up to Parliament from the country. Charles's attempted offer to cease the levying of ship money did not impress the House.

Annoyed with the resumption of debate on Crown privilege and the violation of Parliamentary privilege by the arrest of the nine members in 1629, and unnerved about an upcoming scheduled debate on the deteriorating situation in Scotland, Charles dissolved Parliament on 5 May 1640, after only three weeks' sitting. It would be followed later in the year by the Long Parliament.

Viscount Caldecote

Viscount Caldecote, of Bristol in the County of Gloucester, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1939 for the lawyer and politician Sir Thomas Inskip so that he could sit in the House of Lords and serve as Lord Chancellor. As of 2010 the title is held by his grandson, the third Viscount, who succeeded his father in 1999.

Lord Caldecote's elder half-brother the Right Reverend James Inskip was a clergyman while his younger brother Sir John Hampden Inskip (1879–1960) was Lord Mayor of Bristol in 1931.

Wendover

Wendover is a market town and civil parish at the foot of the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire, England. It is situated at the point where the main road across the Chilterns between London and Aylesbury intersects with the once important road along the foot of the Chilterns. The town is some 35 miles (56 km) north west of London and 5 miles (8 km) south east of Aylesbury, and is very popular with commuters working in London.The parish has an area of 5,832 acres (2,360 ha) and had, at the time of the 2011 census, a population of 7,399. Outside the town of Wendover, the parish is mainly arable and also contains many hamlets that nestle in amongst the woodlands on the surrounding hills. Although Wendover has a weekly market, and has had a market charter since medieval times, many of its inhabitants identify it as a village, and the parish council does not describe itself as a town council.The town name is of Brythonic origin and means "white water", referring to the stream that rises in the adjacent hills and flows through the middle of the town, bringing chalk deposits on its way.

Wendover (UK Parliament constituency)

Wendover was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was based on the borough of Wendover, was represented by two Members of Parliament, and was considered a classic example of a pocket borough.

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