John Dalton

John Dalton FRS (/ˈdɔːltən/; 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry, and for his research into colour blindness, sometimes referred to as Daltonism in his honour.

John Dalton
John Dalton by Charles Turner
Dalton by Charles Turner after James Lonsdale (1834, mezzotint)
Born6 September 1766
Died27 July 1844 (aged 77)
NationalityBritish
Known forAtomic theory, Law of Multiple Proportions, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, Daltonism
AwardsRoyal Medal (1826)
Scientific career
Notable studentsJames Prescott Joule
InfluencesJohn Gough
Author abbrev. (botany)Jn.Dalton
Signature
John Dalton Signature c1827

Early life

John Dalton was born into a Quaker family in Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, in Cumberland, England.[1] His father was a weaver.[2] He received his early education from his father and from Quaker John Fletcher, who ran a private school in the nearby village of Pardshaw Hall. Dalton's family was too poor to support him for long and he began to earn his living at the age of ten in the service of a wealthy local Quaker, Elihu Robinson.[3] It is said he began teaching at a local school at age 12 and became proficient in Latin at age 14.

Early career

When he was 15, Dalton joined his older brother Jonathan in running a Quaker school in Kendal, Westmorland, about 45 miles (72 km) from his home. Around the age of 23 Dalton may have considered studying law or medicine, but his relatives did not encourage him, perhaps because being a Dissenter, he was barred from attending English universities. He acquired much scientific knowledge from informal instruction by John Gough, a blind philosopher who was gifted in the sciences and arts. At the age of 27 he was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the "New College" in Manchester, a dissenting academy (the lineal predecessor, following a number of changes of location, of Harris Manchester College, Oxford). He remained there until the age of 34, when the college's worsening financial situation led him to resign his post and begin a new career as a private tutor in mathematics and natural philosophy.

Scientific contributions

Meteorology

Dalton's early life was influenced by a prominent Eaglesfield Quaker, Elihu Robinson,[4] a competent meteorologist and instrument maker, who interested him in problems of mathematics and meteorology. During his years in Kendal, Dalton contributed solutions to problems and answered questions on various subjects in The Ladies' Diary and the Gentleman's Diary. In 1787 at age 21 he began his meteorological diary in which, during the succeeding 57 years, he entered more than 200,000 observations.[5] He rediscovered George Hadley's theory of atmospheric circulation (now known as the Hadley cell) around this time.[6] In 1793 Dalton's first publication, Meteorological Observations and Essays, contained the seeds of several of his later discoveries but despite the originality of his treatment, little attention was paid to them by other scholars. A second work by Dalton, Elements of English Grammar, was published in 1801.

Measuring mountains

After leaving the Lake District, Dalton returned annually to spend his holidays studying meteorology, something which involved a lot of hill-walking. Until the advent of aeroplanes and weather balloons, the only way to make measurements of temperature and humidity at altitude was to climb a mountain. Dalton estimated the height using a barometer. The Ordnance Survey did not publish maps for the Lake District until the 1860s. Before then, Dalton was one of the few authorities on the heights of the region's mountains.[7] He was often accompanied by Jonathan Otley, who also made a study of the heights of the local peaks, using Dalton's figures as a comparison to check his work. Otley published his information in his map of 1818. Otley became both an assistant and a friend to Dalton.[8]

Colour blindness

In 1794, shortly after his arrival in Manchester, Dalton was elected a member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, the "Lit & Phil", and a few weeks later he communicated his first paper on "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours", in which he postulated that shortage in colour perception was caused by discoloration of the liquid medium of the eyeball. As both he and his brother were colour blind, he recognised that the condition must be hereditary.[9]

Although Dalton's theory lost credence in his lifetime, the thorough and methodical nature of his research into his visual problem was so broadly recognised that Daltonism became a common term for colour blindness.[a] Examination of his preserved eyeball in 1995 demonstrated that Dalton had a less common kind of colour blindness, deuteroanopia, in which medium wavelength sensitive cones are missing (rather than functioning with a mutated form of pigment, as in the most common type of colour blindness, deuteroanomaly).[9] Besides the blue and purple of the optical spectrum he was only able to recognise one colour, yellow, or, as he said in a paper,[11]

That part of the image which others call red, appears to me little more than a shade, or defect of light; after that the orange, yellow and green seem one colour, which descends pretty uniformly from an intense to a rare yellow, making what I should call different shades of yellow.

Gas laws

External video
Dalton John profile
Profiles in Chemistry:How John Dalton's meteorological studies led to the discovery of atoms on YouTube, Chemical Heritage Foundation

In 1800, Dalton became secretary of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and in the following year he presented an important series of lectures, entitled "Experimental Essays" on the constitution of mixed gases; the pressure of steam and other vapours at different temperatures in a vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the thermal expansion of gases. The four essays, presented between 2 and 30 October 1801, were published in the Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester in 1802.

The second essay opens with the remark,[12]

There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases further.

After describing experiments to ascertain the pressure of steam at various points between 0 and 100 °C (32 and 212 °F), Dalton concluded from observations of the vapour pressure of six different liquids, that the variation of vapour pressure for all liquids is equivalent, for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given pressure.

In the fourth essay he remarks,[13]

I see no sufficient reason why we may not conclude, that all elastic fluids under the same pressure expand equally by heat—and that for any given expansion of mercury, the corresponding expansion of air is proportionally something less, the higher the temperature. ... It seems, therefore, that general laws respecting the absolute quantity and the nature of heat, are more likely to be derived from elastic fluids than from other substances.

He enunciated Gay-Lussac's law, published in 1802 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (Gay-Lussac credited the discovery to unpublished work from the 1780s by Jacques Charles). In the two or three years following the lectures, Dalton published several papers on similar topics. "On the Absorption of Gases by Water and other Liquids" (read as a lecture on 21 October 1803, first published in 1805)[14] contained his law of partial pressures now known as Dalton's law.

Atomic theory

The most important of all Dalton's investigations are concerned with the atomic theory in chemistry. While his name is inseparably associated with this theory, the origin of Dalton's atomic theory is not fully understood.[15][16] The theory may have been suggested to him either by researches on ethylene (olefiant gas) and methane (carburetted hydrogen) or by analysis of nitrous oxide (protoxide of azote) and nitrogen dioxide (deutoxide of azote), both views resting on the authority of Thomas Thomson.[17]

From 1814 to 1819, Irish chemist William Higgins claimed that Dalton had plagiarised his ideas, but Higgins' theory did not address relative atomic mass.[18][19] However, recent evidence suggests that Dalton's development of thought may have been influenced by the ideas of another Irish chemist Bryan Higgins, who was William's uncle. Bryan believed that an atom was a heavy central particle surrounded by an atmosphere of caloric, the supposed substance of heat at the time. The size of the atom was determined by the diameter of the caloric atmosphere. Based on the evidence, Dalton was aware of Bryan's theory and adopted very similar ideas and language, but he never acknowledged Bryan's anticipation of his caloric model.[20][21] However, the essential novelty of Dalton's atomic theory is that he provided a method of calculating relative atomic weights for the chemical elements, something that neither Bryan nor William Higgins did; his priority for that crucial step is uncontested.[22]

A study of Dalton's laboratory notebooks, discovered in the rooms of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society,[23] concluded that so far from Dalton being led by his search for an explanation of the law of multiple proportions to the idea that chemical combination consists in the interaction of atoms of definite and characteristic weight, the idea of atoms arose in his mind as a purely physical concept, forced on him by study of the physical properties of the atmosphere and other gases. The first published indications of this idea are to be found at the end of his paper "On the Absorption of Gases by Water and other Liquids"[14] already mentioned. There he says:

Why does not water admit its bulk of every kind of gas alike? This question I have duly considered, and though I am not able to satisfy myself completely I am nearly persuaded that the circumstance depends on the weight and number of the ultimate particles of the several gases.

He then proposes relative weights for the atoms of a few elements, without going into further detail.

The main points of Dalton's atomic theory, as it eventually developed, are:

  1. Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.
  2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other properties.
  3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
  4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
  5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged.

In his first extended published discussion of the atomic theory (1808), Dalton proposed an additional (and controversial) "rule of greatest simplicity." This rule could not be independently confirmed, but some such assumption was necessary in order to propose formulas for a few simple molecules, upon which the calculation of atomic weights depended. This rule dictated that if the atoms of two different elements were known to form only a single compound, like hydrogen and oxygen forming water or hydrogen and nitrogen forming ammonia, the molecules of that compound shall be assumed to consist of one atom of each element. For elements that combined in multiple ratios, such as the then-known two oxides of carbon or the three oxides of nitrogen, their combinations were assumed to be the simplest ones possible. For example, if two such combinations are known, one must consist of an atom of each element, and the other must consist of one atom of one element and two atoms of the other.[24]

This was merely an assumption, derived from faith in the simplicity of nature. No evidence was then available to scientists to deduce how many atoms of each element combine to form molecules. But this or some other such rule was absolutely necessary to any incipient theory, since one needed an assumed molecular formula in order to calculate relative atomic weights. Dalton's "rule of greatest simplicity" caused him to assume that the formula for water was OH and ammonia was NH, quite different from our modern understanding (H2O, NH3). On the other hand, his simplicity rule led him to propose the correct modern formulas for the two oxides of carbon (CO and CO2). Despite the uncertainty at the heart of Dalton's atomic theory, the principles of the theory survived.

Atomic weights

A New System of Chemical Philosophy fp
Various atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808).

Dalton published his first table of relative atomic weights containing six elements (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus), relative to the weight of an atom of hydrogen conventionally taken as 1.[14] Since these were only relative weights, they do not have a unit of weight attached to them. Dalton provided no indication in this paper how he had arrived at these numbers, but in his laboratory notebook, dated 6 September 1803,[25] is a list in which he set out the relative weights of the atoms of a number of elements, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, etc. by chemists of the time.

The extension of this idea to substances in general necessarily led him to the law of multiple proportions, and the comparison with experiment brilliantly confirmed his deduction.[26] In the paper "On the Proportion of the Several Gases in the Atmosphere", read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words:

The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity.

But there is reason to suspect that this sentence may have been added some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published until 1805.[27]

Compounds were listed as binary, ternary, quaternary, etc. (molecules composed of two, three, four, etc. atoms) in the New System of Chemical Philosophy depending on the number of atoms a compound had in its simplest, empirical form.

Dalton hypothesised the structure of compounds can be represented in whole number ratios. So, one atom of element X combining with one atom of element Y is a binary compound. Furthermore, one atom of element X combining with two atoms of element Y or vice versa, is a ternary compound. Many of the first compounds listed in the New System of Chemical Philosophy correspond to modern views, although many others do not.

Dalton used his own symbols to visually represent the atomic structure of compounds. They were depicted in the New System of Chemical Philosophy, where he listed 20 elements and 17 simple molecules.

Other investigations

Dalton published papers on such diverse topics as rain and dew and the origin of springs (hydrosphere); on heat, the colour of the sky, steam and the reflection and refraction of light; and on the grammatical subjects of the auxiliary verbs and participles of the English language.

Experimental approach

As an investigator, Dalton was often content with rough and inaccurate instruments, even though better ones were obtainable. Sir Humphry Davy described him as "a very coarse experimenter", who almost always found the results he required, trusting to his head rather than his hands. On the other hand, historians who have replicated some of his crucial experiments have confirmed Dalton's skill and precision.

In the preface to the second part of Volume I of his New System, he says he had so often been misled by taking for granted the results of others that he determined to write "as little as possible but what I can attest by my own experience", but this independence he carried so far that it sometimes resembled lack of receptivity. Thus he distrusted, and probably never fully accepted, Gay-Lussac's conclusions as to the combining volumes of gases.

He held unconventional views on chlorine. Even after its elementary character had been settled by Davy, he persisted in using the atomic weights he himself had adopted, even when they had been superseded by the more accurate determinations of other chemists.

He always objected to the chemical notation devised by Jöns Jakob Berzelius, although most thought that it was much simpler and more convenient than his own cumbersome system of circular symbols.

Other publications

For Rees's Cyclopædia Dalton contributed articles on Chemistry and Meteorology, but the topics are not known.

He contributed 117 Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester from 1817 until his death in 1844 while president of that organisation. Of these the earlier are the most important. In one of them, read in 1814, he explains the principles of volumetric analysis, in which he was one of the earliest researchers. In 1840 a paper on phosphates and arsenates, often regarded as a weaker work, was refused by the Royal Society, and he was so incensed that he published it himself. He took the same course soon afterwards with four other papers, two of which ("On the quantity of acids, bases and salts in different varieties of salts" and "On a new and easy method of analysing sugar") contain his discovery, regarded by him as second in importance only to atomic theory, that certain anhydrates, when dissolved in water, cause no increase in its volume, his inference being that the salt enters into the pores of the water.

Public life

Even before he had propounded the atomic theory, Dalton had attained a considerable scientific reputation. In 1803, he was chosen to give a series of lectures on natural philosophy at the Royal Institution in London, and he delivered another series of lectures there in 1809–1810. Some witnesses reported that he was deficient in the qualities that make an attractive lecturer, being harsh and indistinct in voice, ineffective in the treatment of his subject, and singularly wanting in the language and power of illustration.

In 1810, Sir Humphry Davy asked him to offer himself as a candidate for the fellowship of the Royal Society, but Dalton declined, possibly for financial reasons. In 1822 he was proposed without his knowledge, and on election paid the usual fee. Six years previously he had been made a corresponding member of the French Académie des Sciences, and in 1830 he was elected as one of its eight foreign associates in place of Davy. In 1833, Earl Grey's government conferred on him a pension of £150, raised in 1836 to £300. Dalton was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834.[28]

A young James Prescott Joule, who later studied and published (1843) on the nature of heat and its relationship to mechanical work, was a pupil of Dalton in his last years.

Personal life

John Dalton by Thomas Phillips, 1835
Dalton in later life by Thomas Phillips, National Portrait Gallery, London (1835).

Dalton never married and had only a few close friends. As a Quaker, he lived a modest and unassuming personal life.[1]

For the 26 years prior to his death, Dalton lived in a room in the home of the Rev W. Johns, a published botanist, and his wife, in George Street, Manchester. Dalton and Johns died in the same year (1844).[29]

Dalton's daily round of laboratory work and tutoring in Manchester was broken only by annual excursions to the Lake District and occasional visits to London. In 1822 he paid a short visit to Paris, where he met many distinguished resident men of science. He attended several of the earlier meetings of the British Association at York, Oxford, Dublin and Bristol.

Disability and death

Dalton suffered a minor stroke in 1837, and a second in 1838 left him with a speech impairment, although he remained able to perform experiments. In May 1844 he had another stroke; on 26 July 1844 he recorded with trembling hand his last meteorological observation. On 27 July 1844, in Manchester, Dalton fell from his bed and was found lifeless by his attendant.

Dalton was accorded a civic funeral with full honours. His body lay in state in Manchester Town Hall for four days and more than 40,000 people filed past his coffin. The funeral procession included representatives of the city's major civic, commercial, and scientific bodies.[30][31] He was buried in Manchester in Ardwick cemetery. The cemetery is now a playing field, but pictures of the original grave may be found in published materials.[32][33]

Legacy

Dalton John Chantrey bust
Bust of Dalton by Chantrey, 1854
John Dalton statue Manchester City Hall 20051020
Statue of Dalton by Chantrey.
  • Much of Dalton's written work, collected by the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, was damaged during bombing on 24 December 1940. It prompted Isaac Asimov to say, "John Dalton's records, carefully preserved for a century, were destroyed during the World War II bombing of Manchester. It is not only the living who are killed in war". The damaged papers are in the John Rylands Library.
  • A bust of Dalton, by Chantrey, paid for by public subscription[34] was placed in the entrance hall of the Royal Manchester Institution. Chantrey's large statue of Dalton, erected while Dalton was alive was placed in Manchester Town Hall in 1877. He "is probably the only scientist who got a statue in his lifetime".[31]
  • The Manchester-based Swiss phrenologist and sculptor William Bally made a cast of the interior of Dalton's cranium and of a cyst therein, having arrived at the Manchester Royal Infirmary too late to make a caste of the head and face. A cast of the head was made, by a Mr Politi, whose arrival at the scene preceded that of Bally.[35]
  • John Dalton Street connects Deansgate and Albert Square in the centre of Manchester.
  • The John Dalton building at Manchester Metropolitan University is occupied by the Faculty of Science and Engineering. Outside it stands William Theed's statue of Dalton, erected in Piccadilly in 1855, and moved there in 1966 .
  • A blue plaque commemorates the site of his laboratory at 36 George Street in Manchester.[36][37]
  • The University of Manchester established two Dalton Chemical Scholarships, two Dalton Mathematical Scholarships, and a Dalton Prize for Natural History. A hall of residence is named Dalton Hall.
  • The Dalton Medal, has been awarded only twelve times by the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
  • A lunar crater was named after Dalton.
  • "Daltonism" became a common term for colour blindness and daltonien is the French word for "colour blind".
  • The inorganic section of the UK's Royal Society of Chemistry is named after Dalton (Dalton Division), and the society's academic journal for inorganic chemistry also bears his name (Dalton Transactions).
  • In honour of Dalton's work, many chemists and biochemists use the (unofficial) designation dalton (abbreviated Da) to denote one atomic mass unit (1/12 the weight of a neutral atom of carbon-12).
  • Quaker schools have named buildings after Dalton: for example, a school house in the primary sector of Ackworth School, is called Dalton.
  • Dalton Township in southern Ontario was named after him. In 2001 the name was lost when the township was absorbed into the City of Kawartha Lakes but in 2002 the Dalton name was affixed to a new park, Dalton Digby Wildlands Provincial Park.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Dalton believed that his vitreous humour possessed an abnormal blue tint, causing his anomalous colour perception, and he gave instructions for his eyes to be examined on his death, to test this hypothesis. His wishes were duly carried out, but no blue colouration was found, and Dalton's hypothesis was refuted. The shrivelled remains of one eye have survived to this day, and now belong to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society."[10]

References

  1. ^ a b "John Dalton". Science History Institute. June 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  2. ^ https://www.biography.com/people/john-dalton-9265201
  3. ^ "Pardshaw – Quaker Meeting House". Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  4. ^ Davis, Peter. "Robinson, Elihu". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53552. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ Smith, R. Angus (1856). Memoir of John Dalton and History of the Atomic Theory. London: H. Bailliere. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-4021-6437-8. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  6. ^ George Hadley Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed 30 April 2009.
  7. ^ "Thomas West's Guide to the Lakes, 1778/1821". Archived from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  8. ^ Thomas Fletcher Smith Jonathan Otley, Man of Lakeland, publ. Bookcase, 2007ISBN 978-1-904147-23-7
  9. ^ a b "Life and work of John Dalton – Colour Blindness". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  10. ^ Regan, B. (1998). "John Dalton's Colour Vision Legacy". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 82 (2): 203d. doi:10.1136/bjo.82.2.203d.
  11. ^ Dalton, John (1798). "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 5: 28–45.
  12. ^ Dalton, John (1802). "Essay II. On the Force of Steam or Vapour from Water and Various other Liquids, both is a Vacuum and in Air". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 2nd. 5: 550–551.
  13. ^ Dalton, John (1802). "Essay IV. On the Expansion of Elastic Fluids by Heat". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 2nd. 5: 600.
  14. ^ a b c Dalton, John (1805). "On the Absorption of Gases by Water and other Liquids". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 2nd. 6: 271–287.
  15. ^ Thackray, Arnold W. (1966). "The Origin of Dalton's Chemical Atomic Theory: Daltonian Doubts Resolved". Isis. 57: 35–55. doi:10.1086/350077.
  16. ^ Rocke, Alan J. (2005). "In Search of El Dorado: John Dalton and the Origins of the Atomic Theory". Social Research. 72 (1): 125–158. JSTOR 40972005.
  17. ^ Thomson, Thomas (1810). The Elements of Chemistry. J. & A.Y. Humphreys. p. 480.
  18. ^ Wheeler, T. S and Partington, J. R. (1960). The life and work of William Higgins, chemist, 1763-1825 including reprints of "A comparative view of the phlogistic and antiphlogistic theories" and "Observations on the atomic theory and electrical phenomena" by William Higgins. Pergamon Press.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Grossman, M. I. (2010). "William Higgins at the Dublin Society, 1810-20: The loss of a professorship and a claim to the atomic theory". Notes and Records of the Royal Society. 64 (4): 417–434. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2010.0020.
  20. ^ Grossman, M. I. (2014). "John Dalton and the London atomists: William and Bryan Higgins, William Austin, and new Daltonian doubts about the origin of the atomic theory". Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science. 68 (4): 339–356. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2014.0025.
  21. ^ Grossman, Mark I. (2017). "John Dalton and the origin of the atomic theory: Reassessing the influence of Bryan Higgins". The British Journal for the History of Science. 50 (4): 657–676. doi:10.1017/S0007087417000851. PMID 29065936.
  22. ^ Rocke, Alan J. (2005). "In Search of El Dorado: John Dalton and the Origins of the Atomic Theory". Social Research. 72 (1): 125–158. JSTOR 40972005.
  23. ^ Roscoe & Harden 1896.
  24. ^ Levere, Trevor (2001). Transforming Matter: A History of Chemistry from Alchemy to the Buckyball. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 84–86. ISBN 978-0-8018-6610-4.
  25. ^ Roscoe & Harden 1896, p. 83.
  26. ^ Roscoe & Harden 1896, pp. 50–51.
  27. ^ Dalton, John (1805). "On the Proportion of the Several Gases in the Atmosphere". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 2nd. 6: 244–258.
  28. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter D" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  29. ^ Smith, Robert Angus (1856). "Memoir of John Dalton and History of the Atomic Theory up to his time". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester (hardcover)|format= requires |url= (help). Second. 13: 298.
  30. ^ "Dalton, John". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons. 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  31. ^ a b King, Kristine (10 October 2003). "Science celebrates 'father of nanotech'". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
  32. ^ Patterson, Elizabeth C. (1970). John Dalton and the Atomic Theory. Garden City, New York: Doubleday.
  33. ^ Elliott, T. Lenton (1953). "John Dalton's Grave". Journal of Chemical Education. 30 (11): 569. Bibcode:1953JChEd..30..569E. doi:10.1021/ed030p569. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  34. ^ Millington, John Price (1906). John Dalton. London: J. M. Dent & Company. pp. 201–208. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  35. ^ "The Late Dr Dalton". The Manchester Guardian. 3 August 1844. p. 5.
  36. ^ "John Dalton blue plaque". openplaques.org. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  37. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - Blue plaque for John Dalton, 36 George St. Manchester". Alamy. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  38. ^ IPNI.  Jn.Dalton.

Sources

External links

1982 All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship Final

The 1982 All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship final was a hurling match played at Croke Park on 16 May 1982 to determine the winners of the 1981–82 All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship, the 12th season of the All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship, a tournament organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association for the champion clubs of the four provinces of Ireland. The final was contested by James Stephens of Kilkenny and Mount Sion of Waterford, with James Stephens winning by 3-13 to 3-8.In the first and only championship meeting between the two sides, the All-Ireland final produced a glut of goals. Billy Walton of James Stephens pointed after just two minutes when he converted a free after John Joe Cullen was fouled. Mick Crotty and Jim Greene exchanged a series of tit-for-tat points. Billy Walton then had two points but Mount Sion supporters were cheering when Anthony Cooney shot to the net before Jim Greene, who was in brilliant form, put on a point to leave the Waterford side in front by 1-5 to 0-6. Mount Sion piled on the pressure when John Dalton scored a goal before Cooney and Greene pointed to give them a 2-7 to 0-6 lead.

What might be regarded as the turning point came when a good centre by Billy Walton, which appeared to be going wide, was tipped into the net by John McCormack. He quickly sent over a point to leave just the minimum between the teams. Mount Sion struck again when John Dalton had his second goal which left the Waterford side 3-7 to 1-9 in front. James Stephens hit back in style when Fan Larkin moved out to midfield to take a pass from Paddy Neary from a cut-in. His long delivery dropped in the Mount Sion goalmouth and McCormack tapped it home. Jim Greene put Mount Sion a point ahead but Ned Kelly tied the match for the fourth time. Greene subsequently tried to force his way through the James Stephens defence, however, the referee awarded a free out for an off-the-ball incident. Mick Crotty dispossessed Denis Shefflin and kicked the ball forward for John McCormack to finish to the net for his hat-trick. Billy Walton had two more points before the end to secure a five-point victory.

Dalton's law

In chemistry and physics, Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. This empirical law was observed by John Dalton in 1801 and published in 1802. and is related to the ideal gas laws.

Dalton (program)

Dalton (named after John Dalton) is an ab initio quantum chemistry computer program. It is capable of calculating various molecular properties using the Hartree–Fock, MP2, MCSCF and coupled cluster theories. Version 2.0 of DALTON added support for density functional theory calculations. There are many authors, including Trygve Helgaker, Poul Jørgensen and Kenneth Ruud.

Dalton Township, Ontario

The Township of Dalton was a municipality located in the northwest corner of the former Victoria County, now a geographic township in the city of Kawartha Lakes, in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was named after Dr. John Dalton (1766–1844), an English scientist who contributed to the foundations of atomic theory.

Dalton had an extensive history in logging and colonization along the Old Monck Road (Kawartha Lakes 45). Several Ghost villages dot the former township, many of them old logging/farming communities from the late 19th century. These include Ragged Rapids and Dartmoor. Some have survived since the logging days and remain inhabited, including Sadowa, Sebright, and Uphill. Back then, one of the most picturesque figures of the municipal history of the township was Joseph Thompson who was reeve for a quarter of a century. Thompson was a great hunter and many legends had been handed down concerning his prowess in the wilderness.

Ian Gibbons (musician)

Ian Gibbons (born 18 July 1952) is an English keyboardist, most notable for playing with The Kinks.

Gibbons began playing the accordion at the age 9, playing in the school band, and solo at music festivals, competitions and charity events. At the age of 14, he started a school rock band, playing guitar and singing. He changed to organ after leaving school and played in local and resident bands until 1972, when joined Moonstone, which released three singles. Gibbons also worked with Love Affair, The Nashville Teens and various cover bands whilst recording another album for English Assassin, which was shelved.Punk and New Wave came along and Gibbons worked with rock based and New Wave bands until an audition for The Kinks in 1979. He was asked to join, and stayed with them until 1989, whilst also working with Dr. Feelgood, The Kursaal Flyers, Blues 'n Trouble, Ken Hensley, Mike Vernon, Samson, Randy California and others, mainly recording. He rejoined the Kinks again in 1993, staying with them until their break-up in 1996.

Gibbons has worked with Roger Chapman, Sweet, Suzi Quatro, Ian Hunter from 1989 onwards and returned to The Kinks in 1993. He has continued to record and perform with Chapman and Hunter, along with Chris Farlowe, Maggie Bell, Andy Scott, The Chicago Blues Brothers and recently on Ray Davies choir and other projects. In 2008 he joined The Kast Off Kinks, a line-up which includes or has included former Kinks members Mick Avory, Jim Rodford, John Dalton and John Gosling, and former Tim Rose sideman, Dave Clarke.

John Dalton (American football)

John Patrick Dalton (April 1, 1889 – March 10, 1919) was an American college football player for the Navy Midshipmen football team of the United States Naval Academy. He was recognized as a consensus first-team All-American in 1911, and elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1970.

John Dalton (disambiguation)

John Dalton (1766–1844) was a scientist who pioneered modern atomic theory.

John Dalton may also refer to:

John Dalton (American football) (1889–1919), American football player for Navy

John Dalton (architect) (1927-2007), Australian architect

John Dalton (author), American author

John Dalton (bishop) (c. 1821–1869), Roman Catholic bishop

John Dalton (divine) (1814–1874), Catholic divine

John Dalton (musician) (born 1943), former member of The Kinks

John Dalton (soldier) (died 1981), British Army Major-General and father of Richard Dalton

John Call Dalton (1825–1889), American physiologist

John Howard Dalton (born 1941), US Secretary of the Navy

John M. Dalton (1900–1972), Governor of Missouri

John N. Dalton (1931–1986), Governor of Virginia from 1978–1982

John Neale Dalton (1839–1931), Royal chaplain and tutor

John Dalton (MP) (1610–1679), English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1659 and 1679

John Dalton (hurler) (born 1985), Irish hurler

John Dalton (poet) (1709–1763), English cleric and poet

John Dalton (hurler)

John Dalton (born 22 July 1985) is an Irish hurler who played as a corner-back for the Kilkenny senior team.Dalton joined the team during the 2006 championship. However, it took two years before he became a regular member of the starting fifteen. Since then he has won five All-Ireland winner's medals as a non playing substitute and four Leinster winner's medals on the field of play. He announced his retirement following the conclusion of the 2011 championship.At club level Dalton plays for Carrickshock, however, he has yet to win a county club championship winners' medal.

John Dalton (musician)

John Dalton (born 21 May 1943, Enfield, Middlesex) is a British bass guitar player, best known as a member of The Kinks from 1966 & 1969 to 1976, replacing original member Pete Quaife.

John Howard Dalton

John Howard Dalton (born December 13, 1941) is a U.S. administrator and banker. Dalton was Secretary of the Navy from July 22, 1993 to November 16, 1998.

John Madin

John Hardcastle Dalton Madin (23 March 1924 – 8 January 2012) was an English architect. His company, known as John H D Madin & Partners from 1962 and the John Madin Design Group from 1968, were active in Birmingham for over 30 years.

John N. Dalton

John Nichols Dalton (July 11, 1931 – July 30, 1986) was an American politician who served as the 63rd governor of Virginia, from 1978 to 1982. Dalton won the office with 55.9% of the vote, defeating Democrat Henry E. Howell, Jr and Independent Alan R. Ogden. Dalton had previously served as Lieutenant Governor of Virginia.

Johnathan Dalton

Johnathan Dalton (born 9 June 1996) is an Australian cricketer. He made his first-class debut for South Australia in the 2016–17 Sheffield Shield season on 16 March 2017.

Law of multiple proportions

In chemistry, the law of multiple proportions is one of the basic laws of stoichiometry used to establish the atomic theory, alongside the law of conservation of mass (matter) and the law of definite proportions. It is sometimes called Dalton's Law after its discoverer, the British chemist John Dalton, who published it in the first part of the first volume of his "New System of Chemical Philosophy" (1808). Here is the statement of the law:

If two elements form more than one compound between them, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small whole numbers.For example, Dalton knew that the element carbon forms two oxides by combining with oxygen in different proportions. A fixed mass of carbon, say 100 grams, may react with 133 grams of oxygen to produce one oxide, or with 266 grams of oxygen to produce the other. The ratio of the masses of oxygen that can react with 100 grams of carbon is 266:133 = 2:1, a ratio of small whole numbers. Dalton interpreted this result in his atomic theory by proposing (correctly in this case) that the two oxides have one and two oxygen atoms respectively for each carbon atom. In modern notation the first is CO (carbon monoxide) and the second is CO2 (carbon dioxide).

John Dalton first expressed this observation in 1804. A few years previously, the French chemist Joseph Proust had proposed the law of definite proportions, which expressed that the elements combined to form compounds in certain well-defined proportions, rather than mixing in just any proportion; and Antoine Lavoisier proved the law of conservation of mass, which helped out Dalton. Careful study of the actual numerical values of these proportions led Dalton to propose his law of multiple proportions. This was an important step toward the atomic theory that he would propose later that year, and it laid the basis for chemical formulas for compounds.

Another example of the law can be seen by comparing ethane (C2H6) with propane (C3H8). The weight of hydrogen which combines with 1 g carbon is 0.252 g in ethane and 0.224 g in propane. The ratio of those weights is 1.125, which can be expressed as the ratio of two small numbers 9:8.

List of the Kinks band members

The Kinks were a British rock band, initially consisted of Ray Davies (lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Dave Davies (lead guitar, vocals), Pete Quaife (bass guitar, backup vocals), and Mick Avory (drums and percussion). The Davies brothers remained members throughout the group's 32-year run. Avory left in 1984, the result of a dispute with Dave Davies, and was replaced on drums by Bob Henrit. John Dalton played bass for part of 1966 after Quaife was injured in a car accident, and joined as a full-time member when Quaife left to set up his own band in 1969. Dalton remained until the late 1970s, when he was replaced by Jim Rodford. Though not a member of the band, keyboardist Nicky Hopkins accompanied The Kinks during studio sessions from 1965 to 1968. Several keyboardists were later members of the band, most notably John Gosling (1970–1978) and Ian Gibbons (1979–1989, 1993–1996). Tensions between the Davies brothers and ultimate critical demise, brought the break-up of the band. In a June 2018 interview, Ray Davies stated that he, along with brother Dave, and drummer Avory, had reformed The Kinks for a new studio album and to potentially perform live.

Sleepwalker (The Kinks album)

Sleepwalker is the fifteenth studio album by the English rock group, The Kinks, released in 1977. It marked a return to straight-ahead, self-contained rock songs after several years of concept albums. It is the first album in what critics usually call the "arena rock" phase of the group, in which more commercial and mainstream production techniques would be employed. The album also marks the last appearance of bassist John Dalton, who left the band during the recording sessions. Dalton plays bass on all songs on the album save for "Mr. Big Man". The lineup of The Kinks would be trimmed down significantly in 1977 following the album's release, as the brass section and backup singers were removed and the band returned to a standard rock band outfit.

It was their first album for the Arista label.

The Kast Off Kinks

The Kast Off Kinks are a band composed of former members of the band The Kinks. They mostly tour Europe and attend reunions for fans and for charity, such as the Leukemia Research Fund. They have put out one EP, The Archway EP, in conjunction with The Kinks' fan club.

The Kinks

The Kinks are an English rock band formed in Muswell Hill, North London, in 1964 by brothers Ray and Dave Davies. They are regarded as one of the most influential rock bands of the 1960s. The band emerged during the height of British rhythm and blues and Merseybeat, and were briefly part of the British Invasion of the United States until their touring ban in 1965 (as a result of constant fighting between the brothers). Their third single, the Ray Davies-penned "You Really Got Me", became an international hit, topping the charts in the United Kingdom and reaching the Top 10 in the United States. Their music was influenced by a wide range of genres, including rhythm and blues, British music hall, folk and country. They gained a reputation for reflecting English culture and lifestyle, fuelled by Ray Davies' observational writing style, and are considered one of the most influential groups of the period.Early works included albums such as Face to Face (1966), Something Else (1967), The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society (1968), Arthur (1969), Lola Versus Powerman (1970), Muswell Hillbillies (1971), along with their accompanying singles. After a fallow period in the mid-1970s, the band experienced a revival during the late 1970s and early 1980s with their albums Sleepwalker (1977), Misfits (1978), Low Budget (1979), Give the People What They Want (1981) and State of Confusion (1983). In addition, groups such as Van Halen, the Jam, the Knack, the Pretenders and the Fall covered their songs, helping to boost the Kinks' record sales. In the 1990s, Britpop acts such as Blur and Oasis cited the band as a major influence.Ray Davies (lead vocals, rhythm guitar) and Dave Davies (lead guitar, vocals) remained members throughout the band's 32-year run. Longest-serving member Mick Avory (drums and percussion) was replaced by Bob Henrit, formerly of Argent, in 1984. Original bass guitarist Pete Quaife was replaced by John Dalton in 1969, and Dalton was in turn replaced by Jim Rodford in 1978. Session keyboardist Nicky Hopkins accompanied the band in the studio for many of their recordings in the mid-to-late 1960s. In 1969 the band became an official five-piece when keyboardist John Gosling joined them, being replaced by Ian Gibbons in 1979, who remained in the band until they broke up in 1996; a result of the commercial failures of their last few albums and creative tension between the Davies brothers. In 2018, Ray Davies and Dave Davies said they are working with Mick Avory on a new Kinks album.The Kinks have had five Top 10 singles on the US Billboard chart. Nine of their albums charted in the Top 40. In the UK, The Kinks have had seventeen Top 20 singles and five Top 10 albums. Four of their albums have been certified gold by the RIAA and the band have sold over 50 million records worldwide. Among numerous honours, they received the Ivor Novello Award for "Outstanding Service to British Music". In 1990, the original four members of The Kinks were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, as well as the UK Music Hall of Fame in November 2005.

In a June 2018 interview, Ray Davies stated that he, along with brother Dave, and drummer Avory, had reformed The Kinks for a new studio album and to potentially perform live.

Yakey Yakes

The Yakey Yakes was a 19th-century street gang, prominent in New York's underworld during the late 1890s and early 1900s. Based in the neighborhood of Catherine and Madison Streets, the gang were formed by Yakey Yake Brady in the 1890s and later participated in the gang war between Monk Eastman and Paul Kelly.

Rivals of the Cherry Hill Gang, eight members were arrested in connection with the murder of rival Jimmy Brennan on the night of January 11, 1905. One of the gang members, Thomas "Nine-Eyed" Donegan, later admitted to have taken part in Brennan's murder, shooting him three times. However, members Robert Ginan and John Dalton ("Kid" or "Brady") were held in custody while the others were released under subpoenas. Two others thought to be involved included Edward Lynch, who was found earlier that night with a gunshot wound in the leg, and John Sullivan, arrested in Jersey City for carrying a loaded revolver also suffering from a gunshot wound which had shattered his jaw.

Oak Hill police initially charged William Budd and James Galligan, who an eyewitness identified, ambushing Brennan at Catherine and Madison Street and killing him.

Atomic models
Single atoms
Atoms in solids
Atoms in fluids
Scientists
SI base units
SI derived units
Non SI units

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