John Brown & Company

John Brown and Company of Clydebank was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding firm. It built many notable and world-famous ships including RMS Lusitania, HMS Hood, HMS Repulse, RMS Queen Mary, RMS Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Elizabeth 2.

At its height, from 1900 to the 1950s, it was one of the most highly regarded, and internationally famous, shipbuilding companies in the world.[1] However thereafter, along with other UK shipbuilders, John Brown's found it increasingly difficult to compete with the emerging shipyards in Eastern Europe and the far East. In 1968 John Brown's merged with other Clydeside shipyards to form the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders consortium, but that collapsed in 1971.

The company then withdrew from shipbuilding but its engineering arm remained successful in the manufacture of industrial gas turbines. In 1986 it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Trafalgar House, which in 1996 was taken over by Kvaerner. The latter closed the Clydebank engineering works in 2000.

Marathon Manufacturing Company bought the Clydebank shipyard from UCS and used it to build oil rig platforms for the North Sea oil industry. Union Industrielle d'Entreprise (UIE) (part of the French Bouygues group) bought the yard in 1980 and closed it in 2001.

John Brown & Company (Clydebank) Limited
Public
IndustryShipbuilding
FateShipyard amalgamated into Upper Clyde Shipbuilders (UCS), 1968
SuccessorShipyard sold by UCS to Marathon Manufacturing Company, 1972
John Brown Engineering bought by Trafalgar House, 1986
Founded1851
Defunct1986
HeadquartersClydebank, Scotland
Key people
George Thomson (founder)
James Thomson (founder)
Charles McLaren, 1st Baron Aberconway (Chairman)
Henry McLaren, 2nd Baron Aberconway (Chairman)
Charles McLaren, 3rd Baron Aberconway (Chairman)
ProductsNaval ships
Merchant ships
Submarines
marine engines
ParentJohn Brown & Company (1899–1968)
SubsidiariesCoventry Ordnance Works

History

Origins

J&G Thomson

CSSRobertELee
CSS Robert E. Lee, launched in 1860
Bothnia
SS Bothnia, launched in 1874

Two brothers — James and George Thomson, who had worked for the engineer Robert Napier — founded the engineering and shipbuilding company J&G Thomson. The brothers founded the Clyde Bank Foundry in Anderston in 1847. They opened the Clyde Bank Iron Shipyard at Cessnock, Govan, in 1851 and launched their first ship, SS Jackal, in 1852. They quickly established a reputation in building prestigious passenger ships, building SS Jura for Cunard in 1854 and the record breaking SS Russia in 1867.[2][3][4] Several of the ships they built were bought by the Confederacy for blockade running in the American Civil War, including the CSS Robert E. Lee and the Fingal which was converted into the ironclad Atlanta.[5]

The brothers separated their business association in 1850 and, after an acrimonious split, George took over the shipbuilding end of the association. James Thomas started a new business. George Thomson died in 1866, followed in 1870 by his brother James.[6] They were succeeded by the sons of the younger brother George, called James Rodger Thomson and George Paul Thomson. Faced with the compulsory purchase of their shipyard by the Clyde Navigation Trust (which wanted the land to construct the new Princes' Dock), they established a new Clyde Bank Iron Shipyard further downriver at the Barns o' Clyde, near the village of Dalmuir, in 1871. This site at the confluence of the tributary River Cart with the River Clyde, at Newshot Island, allowed very large ships to be launched. The brothers soon moved their iron foundry and engineering works to the same site. The connection to the area was so complete that James Rodger Thomson became the first Provost of Clydebank. Despite intermittent financial difficulties the company developed a reputation based on engineering quality and innovation. The rapid growth of the shipyard and its ancillary works, and the building of housing for the workers, resulted in the formation of a new town which took its name from that of the shipyard which gave birth to it — Clydebank.[2] In 1899 the steelmaker John Brown and Company of Sheffield bought J&G Thomson's Clydebank yard for £923,255 3s 3d.[2]

John Brown & Company

John Brown advertisement Brasseys 1915
Advertisement for John Brown & Company in Brassey's Naval Annual 1915, featuring the Indefatigable-class battlecruiser HMAS Australia.

John Brown was born in Sheffield in 1816, the son of a slater. At the age of 14, unwilling to follow his father's plans for him to become a draper, he obtained a position as an apprentice with Earle Horton & Co. The company subsequently entered the steel business and at the age of 21, John Brown with the backing of his father and uncle obtained a bank loan for £500 to enable him to become the company's sales agent. He was so successful, he made enough money to set up his own business, the Atlas Steel Works.[7]

In 1848 Brown developed and patented the conical spring buffer for railway carriages, which was very successful. With a growing reputation and fortune he moved to a larger site in 1856. He began to make his own iron from iron ore, rather than buying it, and in 1858 adopted the Bessemer process for producing steel. These moves all proved successful and lucrative, and in 1861 he started supplying steel rails to the rapidly expanding railway industry.[7]

His next move was to examine the iron cladding used on French warships. He decided that he could do better, and built a steel rolling mill that, in 1863, was the first to roll 12-inch (300 mm) armour plate for warships. By 1867 his iron cladding was being used on the majority of Royal Navy warships. By then, his workforce had grown to over 4,000 and his company's annual turnover was almost £1 million.[7]

Despite this success, however, Brown was finding it increasingly difficult working with the two partners and shareholders he took into the company in 1859. William Bragge was an engineer, and John Devonshire Ellis came from a family of successful brass founders in Birmingham. As well contributing a patented design for creating compound iron plate faced with steel, Ellis brought with him his expertise and ability in running a large company. Together, the three partners created John Brown & Company, a limited company. Brown resigned from the company in 1871. In subsequent years he started several new business ventures, all of which failed. Brown died impoverished in 1896, aged 80.[7]

The company Brown had set up with his partners, however, John Brown & Company, continued steadily under the management of Ellis and his two sons (Charles Ellis and William Henry Ellis). In 1899 it bought the Clydebank shipyard from J & G Thomson, and embarked on a new phase in its history, as a shipbuilder.[7]

John Brown & Company, shipbuilders

LusitaniaSrews
RMS Lusitania, before her launch on 7 June 1906.
Aquitania before her launch
RMS Aquitania, shortly before her launch in April 1913.

In the early 1900s the company innovated marine engineering technology through the development of the Brown-Curtis turbine, which had been originally developed and patented by the U.S. company International Curtis Marine Turbine Co. These engines' performance impressed the Admiralty, which consequently ordered many of the major Royal Navy warships from John Brown. The first notable order was for the battlecruiser HMS Inflexible, followed by the battlecruisers HMAS Australia, HMS Tiger and the battleship HMS Barham.

Clydebank also became Cunard Line's preferred shipbuilder, building its flagship liners RMS Lusitania and RMS Aquitania. Prior to construction commencing on the Lusitania in 1904 the shipyard was reorganized to accommodate her so that she could be launched diagonally across the widest available part of the river Clyde where it met a tributary, the ordinary width of the river being only 610 feet (190 m) compared to the 786-foot (240 m) long ship. The new slipway took up the space of two existing ones and was built on reinforcing piles driven deeply into the ground to ensure it could take the temporary concentrated weight of the whole ship as it slid into the water. In addition the company spent £8,000 to dredge the Clyde, £6,500 on a new gas plant, £6,500 on a new electrical plant, £18,000 to extend the dock and £19,000 for a new crane capable of lifting 150 tons, as well as £20,000 on additional machinery and equipment.[8]

in 1905 Brown's established the Coventry Ordnance Works joint venture with Yarrow Shipbuilders and others. In 1909 the company bought a stake in Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval.

World War I

By the early 1900s the Clydebank works had expanded to cover 80 acres (32 ha) spread along Dumbarton Road, consisting of the East and West yards, which were separated by a fitting out basin, where once launched the hulls are fitted out with the aid of two cranes each capable of lifting 150 tons. The east yard contained five building slipways, each of which could accommodate the building of the largest battleship, with one slip long enough to build a ship of over 900 ft (270 m). The west yard was used to build smaller ships such as destroyers.

Associated with the shipyard was the engine works where the company built turbines and boilers both for its own ships and for other companies.

Apart for a brief period in 1917 the works manager throughout the entire First World War was Thomas Bell. He was knighted in 1918 for his efforts.[9]

Despite being an essential industry the works had difficulty obtaining suitable workers to build all the ships on its order books. In an attempt to reduce the labour shortage it employed women in a number of jobs under a scheme called "dilution" whereby it was agreed with the unions that once the war ended the women would give up their jobs. Throughout the war the company employed on average 10,000 workers at Clydebank works, of which 7,000 were in the shipyard and 3,000 in the engine works.[10] In January 1918, 87 of these were women.

To increase productively, throughout the 1914–18 the company continually invested in new facilities and tools. In 1915 it introduced pneumatic riveting which need only one riveter whereas previously two had been required.

During the war the company was almost exclusively occupied in building warships. With the exception of the battlecruisers Repulse and Hood, this warship building was concentrated on destroyers. By the end of the war it had built more destroyers than any other British shipyard and set records for their building with HMS Simoom taking seven months from keel laying to departure, HMS Scythe six months and HMS Scotsman five and a half months.[11] The company estimated that during the entire war period it produced a total of 205,430 tons of shipping and 1,720,000 hp (1,280,000 kW) of machinery.[11]

Between the wars

Queen Elizabeth Construction
RMS Queen Elizabeth on the slipway at Clydebank, circa 1938.

The end of the First World War and subsequent shortage of naval orders hit British shipbuilding very hard and John Brown only just survived. Three great ships saved the yard: RMS Empress of Britain, and the giant Cunard White Star Liners RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Elizabeth. A fictionalised account of the hardships of the industry is portrayed in the 1939 feature film Shipyard Sally.

World War II and after

The Launching of the Aircraft Carrier HMS Indefatigable at Glasgow, Scotland, 8 December 1942 A13185
HMS Indefatigable is launched, December 1942.

Although Glasgow's history as a major shipbuilding city made it a prime target for the German Luftwaffe, and despite the Clydebank Blitz, the yard made a valuable contribution in the Second World War, building and repairing many battleships including the notable and highly successful HMS Duke of York. The first few years after the war saw a sudden reduction in warship orders, but it was balanced by a prolonged boom in merchant shipbuilding to replace tonnage lost during the war. The most notable vessels built in this period were the RMS Caronia and the royal yacht HMY Britannia.

By the end of the 1950s, however, shipbuilding in other European nations, and in Korea and Japan, was newly recapitalised and had become highly productive by using new methods such as modular design. Many British yards had continued to use outmoded working practices and largely obsolete equipment, making themselves uncompetitive. At Clydebank the company tendered for a series of break-even contracts, most notably the liner MS Kungsholm, in the hope of surviving the competition and maintaining production in anticipation of a new high-profile contract from Cunard for a new liner. However, due to rising costs and inflationary pressures, the company suffered major and unsustainable losses, in contrast with the positive portrayal of the industry in the Academy Award-winning film Seawards the Great Ships. By the mid 1960s John Brown & Co's management warned that the shipyard was uneconomic and risked closure. Its last Royal Navy order was for the Fearless-class landing platform dock HMS Intrepid, which was launched in 1964 and underwent trials and commissioning in 1967. The final passenger liner order eventually came from Cunard for SS Queen Elizabeth 2.

In 1968 the yard merged into Upper Clyde Shipbuilders,[12] but this consortium collapsed in 1971.[13] The last ship to be built at the yard, the Clyde-class bulk grain carrier MV Alisa, was completed in 1972.[14]

In 1972 UCS's liquidator sold the Clydebank shipyard to Marathon Manufacturing Company. Union Industrielle d'Entreprise (UIE) (part of the French Bouygues group) bought the yard in 1980, using it to build Jack-up and Semi-submersible rigs for North Sea oil fields. UIE closed the yard in 2001.[15]

River Clyde From The Air
Site of the former John Brown Shipyard in 2007, with the old Titan Crane and fitting-out basin. The new Clydebank College campus is in the foreground, straddling the slipways of the old East Yard.

The commercially successful John Brown Engineering division of the company, which made pipelines and industrial gas turbines and included other subsidiaries such as Markham & Co., continued to trade independently until 1986, when the industrial conglomerate Trafalgar House took it over.[16]

In 1996 Kvaerner bought Trafalgar House.[17] It later was split, with Kvaerner retaining some assets, including the Clydebank-based John Brown Engineering — which became Kvaerner Energy, and Yukos buying John Brown Hydrocarbons and Davy Process Technology, both based in London.[18] In 2000 Kvaerner Energy closed its gas turbine works in Clydebank with the loss of 200 jobs, finally ending the link between John Brown and Clydebank. The site was demolished in 2002. John Brown Hydrocarbons was sold to CB&I in 2003 and renamed CB&I John Brown, and later CB&I UK Limited.[19] A new gas turbine servicing and maintenance company formed by former management of John Brown Engineering, headed by Duncan Wilson and other engineers from the Clydebank site, named John Brown Engineering Gas Turbines Ltd, was re-established in East Kilbride in 2001.[20]

Regeneration of the Clydebank site

Clydebank Titan Crane - geograph.org.uk - 1069892
The refurbished Titan Crane at Clydebank, next to the fitting-out basin of the former John Brown & Co. shipyard.

A comprehensive regeneration plan for the site is being implemented by West Dunbartonshire Council and Scottish Enterprise. This includes making the Clydebank waterfront more accessible to the public. Restoration of the historic Titan Crane — built by Sir William Arrol & Co. for the shipyard — was completed in 2007.[21] A new campus for Clydebank College was opened in August 2008. Regeneration plans also include improved infrastructure, modern offices, a light industrial estate and new housing, retail and leisure facilities. It was hoped that as part of the plan Queen Elizabeth 2 would be returned to the city and river where she was built, but on 18 June 2007 Cunard Line announced that she would be sold to Dubai as a floating hotel.[22]

Ships built by John Brown & Company

See: List of ships built by John Brown & Company

See also

References

  1. ^ "John Brown and Company, Clydebank, Scotland UK". Ships and Harbours. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  2. ^ a b c Hood, John (1988). The History of Clydebank. The Parthenon Publishing Group Ltd. pp. 3–5. ISBN 1-85070-147-4.
  3. ^ "doon-the-watter".html "Sailing Down the Clyde: "Doon the Watter"". Glasgow History. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  4. ^ "The Yards". acumfae Govan. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  5. ^ Joseph McKenna (18 January 2010). British Ships in the Confederate Navy. McFarland. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7864-5827-1.
  6. ^ "J. and G. Thomson". Grace's Guide; British Industrial History. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e "JOHN BROWN PLC – Company History". International Directory of Company Histories. Volume 1. St James Press. 1988.
  8. ^ Fox, page 403
  9. ^ Johnston, p. 116
  10. ^ Johnston, p. 97
  11. ^ a b Johnston, p. 111
  12. ^ "Government's shipbuilding crisis". BBC News. 1 January 2002.
  13. ^ "Parliamentary debates". Hansard. 4 June 1971.
  14. ^ Cameron, Stuart. "mv ALISA, built by Upper Clyde Shipbuilders Ltd Clydebank, Yard No 120". Clydebuilt Database. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  15. ^ "John Brown Shipyard". Clyde Waterfront Heritage. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014.
  16. ^ "Trafalgar to buy John Brown". New York Times. 8 May 1986.
  17. ^ "Kvaerner buys Trafalgar for £904m deal". The Independent. 5 March 1996.
  18. ^ "The external investments of Yukos". APS Review. 6 September 2004.
  19. ^ "CB&I acquires John Brown Hydrocarbons". Businesswire. 2 June 2003.
  20. ^ "John Brown Engineering Gas Turbines Ltd". Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  21. ^ "History". Titan Clydebank. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  22. ^ "QE2 Today". Chris' Cunard Page. 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015.

Bibliography

  • Fox, Stephen (2003). The Ocean Railway (hardback). London: Harper Collins. pp. 493 pages. ISBN 0-00-257185-4.
  • Johnston, Ian; Buxton, Ian (2013). The Battleship Builders - Construction and Arming British Capital Ships (hardback). Annapolis: Naval Institute. pp. 320 pages. ISBN 978-1-59114-027-6.
  • Johnston, Ian (2009). Jordan, John (ed.). A Shipyard at war: John Brown & Co. Ltd, Clydebank, 1914–18. Warship 2009. London: Conway. pp. 96–116. ISBN 978-1-84486-089-0.
  • Johnston, Ronald (2000). Clydeside capital, 1870–1920: a social history of employers.
  • McKinstry, Sam (1998). "Transforming John Brown's Shipyard: The Drilling Rig and Offshore Fabrication Business of Marathon". Scottish Economic and Social History. 18 (1): 33–60. doi:10.3366/sesh.1998.18.1.33.
  • Peebles, Hugh B (1987). Warshipbuilding on the Clyde: Naval Orders & the Prosperity of Clyde Shipbuilding Industry, 1889–1939.
  • Shields, John (1949). Clyde built: a history of ship-building on the River Clyde.
  • Slaven, A (July 1977). "A Shipyard in Depression: John Browns of Clydebank 1919–1938". Business History. 19 (2): 192–218. doi:10.1080/00076797700000025.

External links

Coordinates: 55°53′52″N 4°24′16″W / 55.897786°N 4.404423°W

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Fortean Times

Fortean Times is a British monthly magazine devoted to the anomalous phenomena popularised by Charles Fort. Previously published by John Brown Publishing (from 1991 to 2001) and then I Feel Good Publishing (2001 to 2005), it is now published by Dennis Publishing Ltd.

In December 2018 its print circulation was just over 14,800 copies per month. This now appears to include digital sales. The magazine's tagline is "The World of Strange Phenomena".

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading transcendentalist, Thoreau is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay "Civil Disobedience" (originally published as "Resistance to Civil Government"), an argument for disobedience to an unjust state.

Thoreau's books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry amount to more than 20 volumes. Among his lasting contributions are his writings on natural history and philosophy, in which he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern-day environmentalism. His literary style interweaves close observation of nature, personal experience, pointed rhetoric, symbolic meanings, and historical lore, while displaying a poetic sensibility, philosophical austerity, and Yankee attention to practical detail. He was also deeply interested in the idea of survival in the face of hostile elements, historical change, and natural decay; at the same time he advocated abandoning waste and illusion in order to discover life's true essential needs.He was a lifelong abolitionist, delivering lectures that attacked the Fugitive Slave Law while praising the writings of Wendell Phillips and defending the abolitionist John Brown. Thoreau's philosophy of civil disobedience later influenced the political thoughts and actions of such notable figures as Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr.Thoreau is sometimes referred to as an anarchist. Though "Civil Disobedience" seems to call for improving rather than abolishing government—"I ask for, not at once no government, but at once a better government"—the direction of this improvement contrarily points toward anarchism: "'That government is best which governs not at all;' and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have."

John Brown's Body

"John Brown's Body" (originally known as "John Brown's Song") is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War. The tune arose out of the folk hymn tradition of the American camp meeting movement of the late 18th and early 19th century. According to an 1890 account, the original John Brown lyrics were a collective effort by a group of Union soldiers who were referring both to the famous John Brown and also, humorously, to a Sergeant John Brown of their own battalion. Various other authors have published additional verses or claimed credit for originating the John Brown lyrics and tune.

The "flavor of coarseness, possibly of irreverence" led many of the era to feel uncomfortable with the earliest "John Brown" lyrics. This in turn led to the creation of many variant versions of the text that aspired to a higher literary quality. The most famous of these is Julia Ward Howe's "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," which was written when a friend suggested, "Why do you not write some good words for that stirring tune?"Numerous informal versions and adaptations of the lyrics and music have been created from the mid-1800s down to the present, making "John Brown's Body" an example of a living folk music tradition.

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry (also known as John Brown's raid or The raid on Harpers Ferry) was an 1859 effort by abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in Southern states by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. It has been called the dress rehearsal for the Civil War.Brown's party of 22 was defeated by a company of U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Israel Greene. Colonel Robert E. Lee was in overall command of the operation to retake the arsenal. Stonewall Jackson was part of the troops guarding the arrested Brown, and John Wilkes Booth was a spectator at his execution. John Brown had originally asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, both of whom he had met in his transformative years as an abolitionist in Springfield, Massachusetts, to join him in his raid, but Tubman was prevented by illness and Douglass declined, as he believed Brown's plan would fail.The label "raid" was not used at the time. A month after the attack, a Baltimore newspaper listed 26 terms used, including "insurrection", "rebellion", "treason", and "crusade". "Raid" was not among them.

John Brown (Kentucky)

John Brown (September 12, 1757 – August 29, 1837) was an American lawyer and statesman who participated in the development and formation of the State of Kentucky after the American Revolutionary War.

Brown represented Virginia in the Continental Congress (1777–1778) and the U.S. Congress (1789–1791). While in Congress, he introduced the bill granting Statehood to Kentucky. Once that was accomplished, he was elected by the new state legislature as a U.S. Senator for Kentucky.

John Brown (abolitionist)

John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist. Brown advocated the use of armed insurrection to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. He first gained attention when he led small groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis of 1856. He was dissatisfied with the pacifism of the organized abolitionist movement: "These men are all talk. What we need is action—action!" In May 1856, Brown and his supporters killed five supporters of slavery in the Pottawatomie massacre, which responded to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces. Brown then commanded anti-slavery forces at the Battle of Black Jack (June 2) and the Battle of Osawatomie (August 30, 1856).

In October 1859, Brown led a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (today West Virginia), intending to start a slave liberation movement that would spread south through the mountainous regions of Virginia and North Carolina; there was a draft constitution for the state he hoped to establish. He seized the armory, but seven people were killed, and ten or more were injured. He intended to arm slaves with weapons from the arsenal, but only a small number of local slaves joined his revolt. Within 36 hours, those of Brown's men who had not fled were killed or captured by local farmers, militiamen, and US Marines, the latter led by Robert E. Lee. He was hastily tried for treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia, the murder of five men (including three blacks), and inciting a slave insurrection; he was found guilty on all counts and was hanged. He was the first person convicted of treason in the history of the country.Historians agree that the Harpers Ferry raid and Brown's trial, both covered extensively by the national press, escalated tensions that led to the South's secession a year later and the American Civil War. Brown's raid captured the nation's attention; Southerners feared that it was just the first of many Northern plots to cause a slave rebellion that might endanger their lives, while Republicans dismissed the notion and claimed that they would not interfere with slavery in the South. "John Brown's Body" was a popular Union marching song that portrayed him as a martyr.

Brown's actions as an abolitionist and the tactics he used still make him a controversial figure today. He is both memorialized as a heroic martyr and visionary, and vilified as a madman and a terrorist. Historian James Loewen surveyed American history textbooks and noted that historians considered Brown perfectly sane until about 1890, but generally portrayed him as insane from about 1890 until 1970, when new interpretations began to gain ground.

John Brown (footballer, born 1962)

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Brown was a first team regular for Rangers as they won eight consecutive Scottish League championships between 1988 and 1996. After retiring as a player, he became a coach and has managed Clyde and Dundee. Known for his combative playing style, he is often referred to by the nickname "Bomber".

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John Brown Farm State Historic Site

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John Brown Gordon

John Brown Gordon (February 6, 1832 – January 9, 1904) was an attorney, a planter, general in the Confederate States Army, and politician in the postwar years. By the end of the Civil War, he had become "one of Robert E. Lee's most trusted generals".After the war, Gordon strongly opposed Reconstruction during the late 1860s. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected by the state legislature to serve as a U.S. Senator, from 1873 to 1880, and again from 1891 to 1897. He also was elected as the 53rd Governor of Georgia, serving from 1886 to 1890.

John Brown University

John Brown University (JBU) is a private, interdenominational, Christian liberal arts college in Siloam Springs, Arkansas. Founded in 1919, JBU enrolls 2,613 students from 41 states and 50 countries in its traditional undergraduate, graduate, online, and concurrent education programs.The 200-acre (0.81 km2) main campus in northwest Arkansas has been the site of the university since it was founded in 1919. JBU has 2,613 students as of the 2017-2018 school year, 1,972 of whom are traditional undergraduates. Of these, 932 live on campus.

The Graduate School at John Brown University has 641 students and offers 16 graduate degrees in business, education, counseling, and cybersecurity.JBU is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and competes athletically in the Sooner Athletic Conference. In 2017, U.S. News & World Report named JBU the top ranked Arkansas university in its cohort. It also named JBU a "Best College for Veterans. Programs within the university have specialized accreditation from Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), Council for Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), American Council for Construction Education (ACCE), Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP), and Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE).

Pottawatomie massacre

The Pottawatomie massacre occurred during the night of May 24 and the morning of May 25, 1856. In reaction to the sacking of Lawrence, Kansas by pro-slavery forces, John Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers—some of them members of the Pottawatomie Rifles—killed five pro-slavery settlers north of Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas. This was one of the many violent episodes in Kansas preceding the American Civil War, which came to be known collectively as Bleeding Kansas. Bleeding Kansas involved conflicts between pro- and anti-slavery settlers over whether Kansas Territory would enter the Union as a slave state or free state.

Republic Records

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Santa Fe Trail (film)

Santa Fe Trail is a 1940 American western film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Raymond Massey, Ronald Reagan and Alan Hale. Written by Robert Buckner, the film is about the abolitionist John Brown and his campaign against slavery prior to the American Civil War. In a subplot, J. E. B. Stuart and George Armstrong Custer compete for the hand of Kit Carson Holliday.

The film was one of the top-grossing films of the year, and the seventh Flynn–de Havilland collaboration. Its content has little relevance to the actual Santa Fe Trail.

The film is not to be confused with the Raoul Walsh movie They Died with Their Boots On, released the following year, in which Flynn plays Custer, also with de Havilland as his leading lady.

The Good Lord Bird

The Good Lord Bird is a 2013 novel by James McBride about a slave who unites with John Brown in Brown's abolitionist mission. The novel won the National Book Award for Fiction in 2013 and received positive to mixed reviews from critics.

Wally Moon

Wallace Wade Moon (April 3, 1930 – February 9, 2018) was an American professional baseball outfielder in Major League Baseball. Moon played his 12-year career in the major leagues for the St. Louis Cardinals (1954–58) and Los Angeles Dodgers (1959–65). He batted left-handed and threw right-handed.

Moon was the 1954 National League Rookie of the Year. He was an All-Star for two seasons and a Gold Glove winner one season. Moon batted .295 or more for seven seasons. He led the National League in triples in 1959 and in fielding percentage as a left fielder in 1960 and 1961.

Moon was a 3-time World Series champion with the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1959, 1963, and 1965.

Shipyards of the Clyde
Modern timeline of British shipbuilding companies, 1960-present
1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
Hawthorn Leslie & Company
Caledon Sh'b. & Eng. Co. Robb Caledon Shipbuilding
Henry Robb
Harland and Wolff Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries
Ailsa Shipbuilding Company Ferguson Ailsa Ailsa & Perth
Ferguson Brothers Ferguson Shipbuilders
Lithgows Scott Lithgow Scott Lithgow
Scotts Sh'b. & Eng. Co.
Greenock Dockyard Co.
Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson Swan Hunter Group Swan Hunter
Smiths Dock Co.
John Readhead & Sons
Hall Russell & Co. Hall Russell A&P
Austin & Pickersgill North East Shipbuilders Ltd. A&P Appledore International A&P Group
William Doxford & Sons
Appledore Shipbuilders DML Appledore Babcock Marine Appledore
Cammell Laird & Company VSEL Coastline Cammell Laird A&P Shiprepair NWSL CLSS
Vickers-Armstrongs Vickers Ltd. Shipbuilding Marconi Marine (VSEL) BAE Systems Marine BAE Sub. Solutions
Yarrow & Co. Y'w. Sh'b. Ltd. Upper Clyde Shipbuilders YSL Marconi Marine (YSL) BAE Surf. Flt. Solutions BVT Surface Fleet BAE Systems Surface Ships
Fairfield Sh'b. & Eng. Co. Govan Sh'b. Kvaerner Govan
Charles Connell & Company Scotstoun Marine
John Brown & Company Marathon (Clydebank) UiE Scotland
Alexander Stephen and Sons
W. Denny & Bros.
A. & J. Inglis
Simons & Lobnitz
Barclay Curle
J. I. Thornycroft & Co. Vosper Thornycroft Vosper Thornycroft VT Group
Vosper & Co.
British Hovercraft Corporation
Hoverwork Ltd. Griffon Hoverwork
Griffon Hovercraft Ltd.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
BSC = British Shipbuilders Corporation

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