John Bingham

John Armor Bingham (January 21, 1815 – March 19, 1900) was an American Republican Representative from Ohio, an assistant to Judge Advocate General in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination, and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of U.S. President Andrew Johnson. He was also the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.[1]

John Armor Bingham
BinghamFacingForward
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 21st district
In office
March 4, 1855 – March 3, 1863
Preceded byAndrew Stuart
Succeeded byMartin A. Foran
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 16th district
In office
March 4, 1865 – March 3, 1873
Preceded byJoseph Worthington White
Succeeded byLorenzo Danford
7th United States Ambassador to Japan
In office
October 7, 1873 – July 2, 1885
PresidentUlysses Grant
Preceded byCharles E. DeLong
Succeeded byRichard B. Hubbard
Personal details
BornJanuary 21, 1815
Mercer, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedMarch 19, 1900 (aged 85)
Cadiz, Ohio, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Amanda Bingham
ProfessionPolitician, lawyer, judge
Signature
John Bingham's signature

Early life and education

Born in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, where his carpenter and bricklayer father, Hugh, had moved after service in the War of 1812, Bingham attended local public schools. After his mother's death in 1827, his father remarried. John moved west to Ohio to live with his merchant uncle, Thomas, after clashing with his new stepmother. The teenager apprenticed as a printer for two years, helping to publish the Luminary, an anti-Masonic newspaper.[2] He then returned to Pennsylvania to study at Mercer College, after which Bingham studied law at Franklin College in New Athens, Harrison County, Ohio. There, Bingham befriended former slave Titus Basfield, who became the first African American to graduate college in Ohio. They continued to correspond for many years.[3]

Both Hugh and Thomas Bingham were long time abolitionists as well as active in local politics. They initially allied with the Anti-Masonic Party, led by Pennsylvania Governor Joseph Ritner and Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly Thaddeus Stevens. Hugh became clerk of the Mercer County court and later a perennial Whig candidate in the county, known for opposing war with Mexico.[4] Rev. John Walker, of the Associated Reform Congregational Church, ran Franklin College and was a prominent abolitionist in Ohio[5] as well as mentor to Titus Basfield, who, after further studies, became a Presbyterian minister. Another of Bingham's longtime and childhood friends was Matthew Simpson, who later became a bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church, urged President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, and ultimately delivered funeral orations for the assassinated President at the White House and his interment at Springfield, Illinois.

Bingham married his uncle Thomas' daughter, Amanda Bailey Bingham, in 1844. During 41 years of marriage, they raised three daughters, two of whom survived their parents, but one died in Japan.

Career

Early legal career

After graduation, Bingham returned to Mercer, Pennsylvania to read law with John James Pearson and William Stewart, and he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar on March 25, 1840 and the Ohio bar by year's end. Bingham then returned to Cadiz, Ohio, to begin his legal and political career. An active Whig, Bingham campaigned for President William Henry Harrison. His uncle, Thomas, a prominent Presbyterian in the area, had served as associate judge in the Harrison County Court of Common Pleas from 1825 to 1839. The young lawyer's practice extended to Tuscarawas County, Ohio, and its seat, New Philadelphia. In 1846, Bingham won his first election, as district attorney for Tuscarawas County, serving from 1846 to 1849.[6]

Early political career

Bingham's political activity continued despite the Whig Party's decline. Campaigning as candidate of the Opposition Party, he was elected to the Thirty-fourth Congress, representing the 21st Congressional District. In Washington, DC, he roomed at the same boarding house as fellow Ohio Representative Joshua Giddings, a prominent abolitionist Bingham admired.[7] Voters re-elected Bingham to the Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh Congresses as a Republican. However, the district was one of two Ohio districts eliminated in the redistricting following the census of 1860. Bingham thus ran for re-elected from what became the 16th District. Known for his abolitionist views, he lost to Democratic peace candidate Joseph W. White, and thus failed to return for the Thirty-eighth Congress, in part because Union soldiers (mostly-Republican leaning), who were away from home fighting in the war, were not allowed to vote by mail in Ohio at the time. Nonetheless, the House of Representatives appointed him as one of the managers of impeachment proceedings against West H. Humphreys.

During the Civil War, Bingham strongly supported the Union and became known as a Radical Republican. President Abraham Lincoln appointed him Judge Advocate of the Union Army with the rank of major during his hiatus from Congress, and Bingham briefly became solicitor of the United States Court of Claims in 1865.

Bingham defeated White in the next congressional election (Ohio had changed its law and now allowed soldiers away from home to vote by mail) and thus returned to serve in the Thirty-ninth Congress, which first met on March 4, 1865.

Lincoln assassination

JBingham-JHolt-HBurnett
John Bingham (left) along with Joseph Holt (center) and Henry Burnett (right) were the three prosecutors in charge of the Lincoln assassination trial.

The following month, the capital fell into chaos as John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, and Booth's co-conspirator Lewis Powell severely injured Secretary of State William H. Seward on the night of April 14, 1865. Booth died on April 26, 1865 from a gunshot wound. When the trials for the conspirators involved in the Lincoln assassination were ready to start, Bingham's old friend from Cadiz, Edwin Stanton, appointed him to serve as Assistant Judge Advocate General along with General Henry Burnett, another Assistant Judge Advocate General, and Joseph Holt, the Judge Advocate General.

The accused conspirators were George Atzerodt, David Herold, Lewis Powell (Paine), Samuel Arnold, Michael O'Laughlen, Edman Spangler, Samuel Mudd, and Mary Surratt. The trial began on May 10, 1865. The three prosecutors spent nearly two months in court, awaiting the jury's verdict. Bingham and Holt attempted to obscure the fact that there were two plots. The first plot was to kidnap the president and hold him hostage in exchange for the Confederate prisoners held by the Union. The second was to assassinate the president, Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward and thereby throw the government into electoral chaos. The prosecution did not reveal the existence of a diary taken from Booth's body, which made clear that the assassination plan dated from 14 April. The defense surprisingly did not call for Booth's diary to be produced in court.

On June 29, 1865, the eight were found guilty for their involvement in the conspiracy to kill the President. Spangler was sentenced to six years in prison; Arnold, O'Laughlen and Mudd were sentenced to life in prison, and Atzerodt, Herold, Paine and Surratt were sentenced to hang. They were executed July 7, 1865. Surratt was the first woman in American history to be executed. O'Laughlen died in prison in 1867. Arnold, Spangler and Mudd were pardoned by President Andrew Johnson in early 1869.

14th Amendment

In 1866, during the Thirty-ninth Congress, Bingham was appointed to a subcommittee of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction tasked with considering suffrage proposals. As a member of the subcommittee, Bingham submitted several versions of an amendment to the Constitution to apply the Bill of Rights to the States. His final submission, which was accepted by the Committee on April 28, 1866, read, "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." The Committee recommended for the language to become Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It was introduced in the spring of 1866, passing both houses by June 1866.[8]

In the closing debate in the House, Bingham stated:

[M]any instances of State injustice and oppression have already occurred in the State legislation of this Union, of flagrant violations of the guarantied privileges of citizens of the United States, for which the national Government furnished and could furnish by law no remedy whatever. Contrary to the express letter of your Constitution, 'cruel and unusual punishments' have been inflicted under State laws within this Union upon citizens, not only for crimes committed, but for sacred duty done, for which and against which the Government of the United States had provided no remedy and could provide none.

It was an opprobrium to the Republic that for fidelity to the United States they could not by national law be protected against the degrading punishment inflicted on slaves and felons by State law. That great want of the citizen and stranger, protection by national law from unconstitutional State enactments, is supplied by the first section of this amendment.[9]

Except for the addition of the first sentence of Section 1, which defined citizenship, the amendment weathered the Senate debate without substantial change. The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868.

Despite Bingham's likely intention for the 14th Amendment to apply the first eight amendments of the Bill of Rights to the States, the US Supreme Court declined to interpret it that way in the Slaughter-House Cases and in United States v. Cruikshank. In the 1947 case of Adamson v. California, Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black argued in his dissent that the framers' intent should control the Court's interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, and he attached a lengthy appendix that quoted extensively from Bingham's congressional testimony.[10] Though the Adamson Court declined to adopt Black's interpretation, the Court for the next 25 years, used a doctrine of selective incorporation that eventually extended the protections in the Bill of Rights as well as other, unenumerated rights.

Ohio ratified the Fourteenth Amendment on January 4, 1867, but Bingham continued to explain its extension of citizenship during the fall election season.[11] The Fourteenth Amendment has vastly expanded civil rights protections and has come to be cited in more litigation than any other amendment to the Constitution.[12]

Minister to Japan

President Ulysses Grant then appointed his ally Bingham as United States Minister to Japan, which involved a salary increase but also economic responsibilities with respect to the small embassy. Initially, Bingham tried to switch ambassadorships with John Watson Foster of Indiana, whom Grant had appointed ambassador to Mexico, but Foster declined. Bingham thus sailed with his wife and two of his three daughters to Japan.[13] Bingham ultimately served longer than any other US Ambassador to that nation, for more than twelve years and under four Republican presidents, from May 31, 1873 to July 2, 1885, when his successor, appointed by newly-elected Democratic President Grover Cleveland, arrived. (The next-longest serving American ambassador to Japan would prove to be former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Michael Joseph Mansfield, who served for ten years a century later).

Bingham initially moved the embassy from an unsuitable location and replaced a problematic interpreter with a Presbyterian missionary from Ohio and then mastered the art of consulting with his superiors in the State Department and trimmed the imperialistic ambitions of fellow Union veteran Charles Le Gendre.[14] Bingham came to greatly respect Japanese culture, but he also presciently expressed his fear that Japan's military culture would hurt the country's development.[15][16]

Bingham most distinguished himself from other Western diplomats by fighting against the unequal treaties imposed upon Japan by Britain, particularly provisions for extraterritoriality and tariff control by Westerners.[17] Initially, Bingham supported Japan's right to restrict hunting by foreigners to certain times and places and later its right to regulate incoming ships via quarantines to restrict the spread of cholera. Bingham later negotiated return of the Shimonoseki indemnity in 1877 as well as a revision of Japan's treaty with the United States in 1879, which restored some tariff autonomy to Japan, conditioned upon other treaties with Westerners.[18]

Later life and death

Bingham-Stevens
John A. Bingham and Thaddeus Stevens before the Senate addressing the vote on President Andrew Johnson's impeachment by the House of Representatives.

Bingham continued his career as a representative and was re-elected to the Fortieth, Forty-first, and Forty-second Congresses. He served as Chairman of the Committee on Claims from 1867 to 1869 and a member of the Committee on the Judiciary from 1869 to 1873.

In 1868, Bingham was one of the House managers in the impeachment trial of U.S. President Andrew Johnson. Bingham was also implicated in the Credit Mobilier scandal and in 1872, he lost the election. Three local Republican political bosses made a deal to cut out Bingham, instead selecting Lorenzo Danford as the party's candidate. Thus, Danford came to represent the 16th district in the Forty-third Congress and was re-elected several times but with a hiatus.

Bingham died in Cadiz, Ohio on March 19, 1900, nine years after his wife Amanda. He was interred next to her in the Old Cadiz (Union) Cemetery in Cadiz.[19]

Legacy

In 1901, Harrison County erected a bronze statue honoring Bingham in Cadiz.[20]

Mercer County has John Bingham's house dedicated to him and now serves as the county's Republican Headquarters.

References

  1. ^ Bingham, John Armor; Miscellaneous Pamphlet Collection (Library of Congress) DLC [from old catalog]. "One country, one Constitution, and one people. Speech of Hon. John A. Bingham, of Ohio, in the House of representatives, February 28, 1866, in support of the proposed amendment to enforce the bill of rights". [Washington, Printed at the Congressional globe office – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^ "John Armor Bingham (1815–1900)".
  3. ^ Erving T. Beauregard, Ohio's First Black College Graduate, available at http://www.harrisonhistory.org/Notables/Entries/2010/12/2_Ohios_First_Black_College_Graduate_from_Queen_City_Heritage_45_By_Erving_E._BeauregardUsed_with_permission_from_Cincinnati_Museum_Center_at_Union_Terminal_files/ohi-019.pdf
  4. ^ Richard L. Aynes, The Continuing Importance of Congressman John A. Bingham and the Fourteenth Amendment, at pp. 592-593, available at https://www.uakron.edu/dotAsset/727357.pdf
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved May 9, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "John A. Bingham".
  7. ^ Aynes, p. 600
  8. ^ Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46, 103-104 (1947)
  9. ^ Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46, 107 (1947)
  10. ^ Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46, 92-118 (1947)
  11. ^ Aynes p. 615
  12. ^ "Primary Documents in American History", Library of Congress
  13. ^ Leonard Hammersmith, Spoilsmen in a "flowery Fairyland": The Development of the U.S. Legation in Japan (Kent State University Press) p. 108
  14. ^ Hammersmith pp. 112-113
  15. ^ Hammersmith p. 117 et seq.
  16. ^ "John Bingham on Japan (1895)". concurringopinions.com.
  17. ^ Philip Dare, John A. Bingham and Treaty Revision with Japan 1871-1885(University of Kentucky PhD thesis 1975)
  18. ^ Erving E. Beauregard, John A. Bingham, First American Minister Plenipotentiary To Japan (1873-1885) Journal of Asian History Vol. 22, No. 2 (1988), pp. 101-130
  19. ^ "John Armor Bingham (1815 - 1900) - Find A Grave Memorial". www.findagrave.com.
  20. ^ "John Armor Bingham," Ohio Civil War Central, 2015, Ohio Civil War Central. 23 Jan 2015 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=1015>

Sources

  • Gerard N. Magliocca, American Founding Son: John Bingham and the Invention of the Fourteenth Amendment. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

External links

Baron Clanmorris

Baron Clanmorris, of Newbrook in the County of Mayo, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created on 6 August 1800 for John Bingham. He was a descendant of John Bingham of Foxford in County Mayo, whose brother Sir Henry Bingham, 1st Baronet, of Castlebar, was the ancestor of the Earls of Lucan. The first Baron's great-great-great-grandson, the seventh Baron, was a spy and crime novelist (as John Bingham). As of 2010 the title is held by the latter's son, the eighth Baron, who succeeded in 1988.

The Hon. Edward Bingham, a younger son of the fifth Baron won the Victoria Cross for his actions during the battle of Jutland. The novelist Charlotte Bingham is the daughter of the seventh and the sister of the eighth Baron Clanmorris. A granddaughter of the fourth Baron was Zara Pollock, who married Alexander Hore-Ruthven who, as 1st Baron Gowrie, was Governor-General of Australia 1936–44.

Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27–30, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law. It was mainly intended, in the wake of the American Civil War, to protect the civil rights of persons of African descent born in or brought to the United States. This legislation was passed by Congress in 1865 and vetoed by U.S. President Andrew Johnson. In April 1866 Congress again passed the bill to support the Thirteenth Amendment. Johnson again vetoed it, but a two-thirds majority in each chamber overcame the veto to allow it to become law without presidential signature.

John Bingham and other congressmen argued that Congress did not yet have sufficient constitutional power to enact this law. Following passage of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, Congress ratified the 1866 Act in 1870.

Clanmorris

The barony of Clanmorris is a barony in County Mayo, Ireland. It is also known as Crossboyne, and was formed from the ancient territories of the Conmaicne Cuile Toladh.

The Baron Clanmorris title dates from 1800AD when it was created for John Bingham.

Earl of Lucan

Earl of Lucan is a title which has been created twice in the Peerage of Ireland for related families.

Enforcement Act of 1870

The Enforcement Act of 1869, also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1870 or First Ku Klux Klan Act, or Force Act was a United States federal law written to empower the President with the legal authority to enforce the first section of the Fifteenth Amendment throughout the United States. The act was the first of three Enforcement Acts passed by the United States Congress from 1870 to 1871 during the Reconstruction Era to combat attacks on the suffrage rights of African Americans from state officials or violent groups like the Ku Klux Klan.The act would develop from separate legislative actions in the House and Senate. H.R. 1293 was introduced by House Republican John Bingham from Ohio on February 21, 1870, and discussed on May 16, 1870. S. 810 grew from several bills from several Senators. Senator George F. Edmunds from Vermont submitted the first bill, followed by Sen. Oliver P. Morton from Indiana, Sen. Charles Sumner from Massachusetts, and Sen. William Stewart from Nevada. After three months of debate in the Committee on the Judiciary, the final Senate version of the bill was introduced to the Senate on April 19, 1870. The act was passed by Congress in May 1870 and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on May 31, 1870.

The Enforcement Act of 1870 prohibited discrimination by state officials in voter registration on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It established penalties for interfering with a person's right to vote and gave federal courts the power to enforce the act. The act also authorized the President to employ the use of the army to uphold the act and the use of federal marshals to bring charges against offenders for election fraud, the bribery or intimidation of voters, and conspiracies to prevent citizens from exercising their constitutional rights.

Fragment of Fear

Fragment of Fear is a 1970 British thriller film, adapted from the book A Fragment of Fear by John Bingham, starring David Hemmings, Gayle Hunnicutt, Wilfrid Hyde-White, Roland Culver, Flora Robson and Arthur Lowe. The wild British jazz score composed by Johnny Harris was later used by Levi's to soundtrack their European Kung Fu TV advertising campaign in the late nineties.

George Bingham, 8th Earl of Lucan

George Charles Bingham, 8th Earl of Lucan (born 21 September 1967), styled Lord Bingham until 2016, is a British hereditary peer.

J. B. Morton

John Cameron Andrieu Bingham Michael Morton, better known by his preferred abbreviation J. B. Morton (7 June 1893 – 10 May 1979) was an English humorous writer noted for authoring a column called "By the Way" under the pen name 'Beachcomber' in the Daily Express from 1924 to 1975.

G. K. Chesterton described Morton as "a huge thunderous wind of elemental and essential laughter"; according to Evelyn Waugh, he had "the greatest comic fertility of any Englishman".

John Bingham, 5th Baron Clanmorris

John George Barry Bingham, 5th Baron Clanmorris DL, JP (27 August 1852 – 4 November 1916), was an Irish peer.

Bingham was the son of John Bingham, 4th Baron Clanmorris, by Sarah Selina, daughter of Burton Persse. His mother and grandmother were members of the Persse family, making him a cousin of Augusta, Lady Gregory. He was educated at Eton. In 1876, aged 23, he succeeded his father in the barony. This was an Irish peerage and did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords. Lord Clanmorris was an aide-de-camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland between 1876 and 1878 and served as a Deputy Lieutenant of County Mayo and as a Justice of the Peace for County Down and County Galway.Lord Clanmorris lived mainly at Cregclare, Ardrahan, County Galway, though with addresses in Dublin, London and County Mayo. His Galway seats were Cregclare and Seamount. He owned over three thousand acres (12 km²) in Galway alone, and had paid nineteen thousand for a section of the Lambert family property. At the age of twenty-six he was registered a member of eight clubs across the United Kingdom, including gentleman's and yacht clubs.Lord Clanmorris died at Bangor Castle, County Down, in November 1916, aged 64. He had married Matilda Catherine Maude, daughter of Robert Edward Ward of Bangor Castle, County Down, in 1878 and had seven sons and three daughters. Their third son the Honourable Edward Bingham was a Rear-Admiral in the Royal Navy. Lord Clanmorris was succeeded by his eldest son, Arthur. Lady Clanmorris died at Bangor Castle in February 1941, aged 82. One of his daughters, Ierne, married Herbert Lightfoot Eason in 1908 but died in 1917. Eason was later Vice Chancellor of the University of London.

John Bingham, 7th Baron Clanmorris

John Michael Ward Bingham, 7th Baron Clanmorris (3 November 1908 – 6 August 1988) was a former MI5 spy and an English novelist who published 17 thrillers, detective novels and spy novels.

John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan

Richard John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan (18 December 1934 – disappeared 8 November 1974), commonly known as Lord Lucan, was a British peer who disappeared after being suspected of murder. He was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, the eldest son of George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan by his mother, Kaitlin Dawson. An evacuee during the Second World War, Lucan returned to attend Eton College, and then from 1953 to 1955 served with the Coldstream Guards in West Germany. He developed a taste for gambling and, skilled at backgammon and bridge, became an early member of the Clermont Club. Although his losses often exceeded his winnings, he left his job at a London-based merchant bank and became a professional gambler. He was known as Lord Bingham from April 1949 until January 1964, during his father's lifetime.

Once considered for the role of James Bond in the cinematic adaptations of Ian Fleming's novels, Lucan was known for his expensive tastes; he raced power boats and drove an Aston Martin. In 1963 he married Veronica Duncan, by whom he had three children. When the marriage collapsed late in 1972, he moved out of the family home at 46 Lower Belgrave Street, in London's Belgravia, to a property nearby. A bitter custody battle ensued, which Lucan lost. He began to spy on his wife and record their telephone conversations, apparently obsessed with regaining custody of the children. This fixation, combined with his gambling losses, had a dramatic effect on his life and personal finances.

On the evening of 7 November 1974, the children's nanny, Sandra Rivett, was bludgeoned to death in the basement of the Lucan family home. Lady Lucan was also attacked; she later identified Lucan as her assailant. As the police began their murder investigation, Lucan telephoned his mother, asking her to collect the children, and then drove a borrowed Ford Corsair to a friend's house in Uckfield, East Sussex. Hours later, he left the property and vanished without trace. The car was found abandoned in Newhaven, its interior stained with blood and its boot containing a piece of bandaged lead pipe similar to one found at the crime scene. A warrant for Lucan's arrest was issued a few days later, and in his absence the inquest into Rivett's death named him as her murderer, the last occasion in Britain a coroner's court did so.

Within Britain, there has been continuing interest in Lucan's fate. Since Rivett's murder, hundreds of reported sightings have been made in various countries around the world; none have been substantiated. Despite a police investigation and huge press interest, Lucan has not been found. He was presumed deceased in chambers on 11 December 1992 and declared legally dead in October 1999; a death certificate was issued in 2016.

John Bingham (Roundhead)

John Bingham (1615–1673) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1645 and 1659. He served in the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War.

Bingham was the son of Richard Bingham, of Bingham's Melcombe, Dorset and his wife Jane Hopton, daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton. He matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford on 9 December 1631, aged 18. He was a student of the Middle Temple in 1632.In the Civil War, Bingham was colonel of a regiment of the parliamentary army and Bingham's Melcombe was used as the headquarters of the local parliamentary forces. He was governor of Poole, and took part in the siege of Corfe Castle. He was elected Member of Parliament for Shaftesbury in 1645 in the Long Parliament and survived Pride's Purge to serve in the Rump Parliament. He was nominated MP for Dorset in 1653 for the Barebones Parliament and elected MP for Dorset in 1654, 1656 and 1658 for the First, Second and Third Protectorate Parliaments.

He was Governor of Guernsey from 1651 to 1660.

Bingham married firstly Frances Trenchard, daughter of John Trenchard, and secondly Jane Norwood of Gloucestershire. He had no male heir and was succeeded by his nephew Richard.

John Bingham (loyalist)

John Dowey Bingham (c. 1953 – 14 September 1986) was a prominent Northern Irish loyalist who led "D Company" (Ballysillan), 1st Battalion, Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). He was shot dead by the Provisional IRA after they had broken into his home. Bingham was one of a number of prominent UVF members to be assassinated during the 1980s, the others being Lenny Murphy, William Marchant, Robert Seymour and Jackie Irvine.

John Bingham (pianist)

John Bingham (31 March 1942 – 6 December 2003) was a British classical pianist. He was born and died in Sheffield, Yorkshire.

Notable students include Peter Arnold.

John Bingham (runner)

John Bingham (born 1948) is an American marathon runner and author, nicknamed "The Penguin", who has achieved widespread recognition for promoting the walking of long-distance race courses to the general public.Bingham is the author of several books and the No Need for Speed column in Runner's World. He believes that the goals of running are to have fun and finish—and that for a vast majority of amateur athletes running fast should not be the only aim.

His philosophies are often challenged and dismissed by runners, who feel that Bingham's "penguins" have lowered the bar for athletic achievement.He has completed over 40 marathons and many shorter races.

In June 2014 Bingham announced that he would retire from writing and public speaking at the end of the year.

Larry Marley

Laurence "Larry" Marley (c. 1945 – 2 April 1987) was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) member from Ardoyne, Belfast, Northern Ireland. He was one of the masterminds behind the 1983 mass escape of republican prisoners from the Maze Prison, where Marley was imprisoned at the time, although he did not participate in the break-out. Marley was described by British journalist Peter Taylor as having been a close friend of Sinn Féin president Gerry Adams. Marley was shot dead by an Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) unit two years after his release from the Maze. His shooting was in retaliation for the killing of leading UVF member John Bingham the previous September by the Ardoyne IRA.

Roberts syndrome

Roberts syndrome, or sometimes called pseudothalidomide syndrome, is an extremely rare genetic disorder that is characterized by mild to severe prenatal retardation or disruption of cell division, leading to malformation of the bones in the skull, face, arms, and legs.

Roberts syndrome is also known by many other names, including: hypomelia-hypotrichosis-facial hemangioma syndrome, SC syndrome (once thought to be an entirely separate disease), pseudothalidomide syndrome, Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome, SC phocomelia syndrome, Appelt-Gerken-Lenz syndrome, RBS, SC pseudothalidomide syndrome, and tetraphocomelia-cleft palate syndrome. It is a genetic disorder caused by the mutation of the ESCO2 gene on 8th chromosome. Named after the famous Philadelphia surgeon and physician, Dr. John Bingham Roberts (1852–1924), who first described the syndrome in 1919, it is one of the rarest autosomal recessive disorders, affecting approximately 150 known individuals.

The syndrome is both autosomal, in that there are equal numbers of copies of the gene in both males and females, and recessive, meaning the child must inherit the defective gene from both parents. The mutation causes cell division to occur slowly or unevenly, and the cells with abnormal genetic content die. Roberts syndrome can affect both males and females. Although the disorder is rare, the affected group is diverse. The mortality rate is high in severely affected individuals.

Sir John Bingham, 5th Baronet

Sir John Bingham, 5th Baronet (1690 – 21 September 1749) was an Irish politician.

He was the eldest son of Sir George Bingham, 4th Baronet, and his first wife Mary Scott. Bingham was educated at the Middle Temple. He was appointed High Sheriff of Mayo in 1721 and was Governor of County Mayo. In 1727, he entered the Irish House of Commons for Mayo, the same constituency his father had represented before, and sat for it until his death in 1749. In 1730, he succeeded his father as baronet.By 1730, he married Anne Vesey, daughter of Agmondisham Vesey and had five daughters and three sons. Bingham died in 1749 and was buried at Castlebar. He was succeeded in the baronetcy successively by his sons John and Charles.

Sir John Bingham, 6th Baronet

Sir John Bingham, 6th Baronet (November 1728 – 27 November 1750) was an Irish politician and baronet.

He was the oldest son of Sir John Bingham, 5th Baronet and his wife Anne Vesey, daughter of Agmondisham Vesey. In 1749, Bingham succeeded his father as baronet as well as Member of Parliament for Mayo, however died already a year later. He died unmarried and was buried in Castlebar. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his younger brother Charles, later elevated to the Peerage of Ireland as Earl of Lucan.

Offices and distinctions
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Andrew Stuart
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 21st congressional district

March 4, 1855 – March 3, 1863
Succeeded by
Martin A. Foran
Preceded by
Joseph Worthington White
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 16th congressional district

March 4, 1865 – March 3, 1873
Succeeded by
Lorenzo Danford
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Charles E. DeLong
United States Ambassador to Japan
1873–1885
Succeeded by
Richard B. Hubbard
Resident Minister
Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary
Ambassador Extraordinary
and Plenipotentiary
Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio's 16th congressional district
Ohio 21
Ohio 22

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