John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001–2005), in the George W. Bush Administration. He later founded The Ashcroft Group, a Washington D.C. lobbying firm.
Ashcroft previously served as Attorney General of Missouri (1976–1985), and as the 50th Governor of Missouri (1985–1993), having been elected for two consecutive terms in succession (a historical first for a Republican candidate in the state), and he also served as a U.S. Senator from Missouri (1995–2001). He had early appointments in Missouri state government and was mentored by John Danforth. He has written several books about political and moral issues.
|79th United States Attorney General|
February 2, 2001 – February 3, 2005
|President||George W. Bush|
|Deputy||Robert Mueller (acting)|
|Preceded by||Janet Reno|
|Succeeded by||Alberto Gonzales|
|United States Senator|
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2001
|Preceded by||John Danforth|
|Succeeded by||Jean Carnahan|
|Chair of the National Governors Association|
August 20, 1991 – August 4, 1992
|Preceded by||Booth Gardner|
|Succeeded by||Roy Romer|
|50th Governor of Missouri|
January 14, 1985 – January 11, 1993
|Preceded by||Kit Bond|
|Succeeded by||Mel Carnahan|
|38th Missouri Attorney General|
January 10, 1977 – January 14, 1985
|Preceded by||John Danforth|
|Succeeded by||William L. Webster|
|29th Auditor of Missouri|
January 8, 1973 – January 14, 1975
|Preceded by||Kit Bond|
|Succeeded by||George W. Lehr|
John David Ashcroft
May 9, 1942
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Children||3, including Jay|
|Education||Yale University (BA)|
University of Chicago (JD)
Ashcroft was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Grace P. (née Larsen) and James Robert Ashcroft. The family later lived in Springfield, Missouri, where his father was a minister in an Assemblies of God congregation, served as president of Evangel University (1958–74), and jointly as President of Central Bible College (1958–63). His mother was a homemaker, whose parents had emigrated from Norway.
Ashcroft went to local schools in Springfield. He attended Yale University, where he was a member of the St. Elmo Society, graduating in 1964. He received a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Chicago School of Law (1967).
After law school, Ashcroft briefly taught Business Law and worked as an administrator at Southwest Missouri State University. During the Vietnam War, he was not drafted because he received six student draft deferments and one occupational deferment because of his teaching work.
In 1972, Ashcroft ran for a Congressional seat in southwest Missouri in the Republican primary election, narrowly losing to Gene Taylor. After the primary, Missouri Governor Kit Bond appointed Ashcroft to the office of State Auditor, which Bond had vacated when he became governor.
In 1974, Ashcroft was narrowly defeated for election to that post by Jackson County County Executive George W. Lehr. He had argued that Ashcroft, who is not an accountant, was not qualified to be the State Auditor.
Missouri Attorney General John Danforth, who was then in his second term, hired Ashcroft as an Assistant State Attorney General. During his service, Ashcroft shared an office with Clarence Thomas, a future U.S. Supreme Court Supreme Court Justice. (In 2001, Thomas administered Ashcroft's oath of office as U.S. Attorney General.)
In 1976, Danforth was elected to the U.S. Senate, and Ashcroft was elected to replace him as State Attorney General. In 1980, Ashcroft was re-elected with 64.5 percent of the vote, winning 96 of Missouri's 114 counties.
In 1983, Ashcroft wrote the leading amicus curiae brief in the U.S. Supreme Court Case Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., supporting the use of video cassette recorders for time shifting of television programs.
In 1984, his opponent was the Democratic Lt. Governor Ken Rothman. The campaign was so negative on both sides that a reporter described the contest as "two alley cats [scrapping] over truth in advertising". In his campaign, Ashcroft contrasted his rural-base against an urban-based opponent from St. Louis. Democrats did not close ranks on primary night. The defeated candidate Mel Carnahan endorsed Rothman. In the end, Ashcroft won 57 percent of the vote and carried 106 counties—then the largest Republican gubernatorial victory in Missouri history.
In 1988, Ashcroft won by a larger margin over his Democratic opponent, Betty Cooper Hearnes, the wife of the former governor Warren Hearnes. Ashcroft received 64 percent of the vote in the general election—the largest landslide for governor in Missouri history since the U.S. Civil War.
During his second term, Ashcroft served as chairman of the National Governors Association (1991–92).
As governor, Ashcroft helped enact tougher standards and sentencing for gun crimes, increased funding for local law enforcement, and tougher standards and punishment for people bringing guns into schools. While Ashcroft was in office:
In 1994 Ashcroft was elected to the U.S. Senate from Missouri, again succeeding John Danforth, who retired from the position. Ashcroft won 59.8% of the vote against Democratic Congressman Alan Wheat. As Senator:
In the midst of a tight race, Carnahan died in an airplane crash two weeks prior to the election. Ashcroft suspended all campaigning after the plane crash. Because of Missouri state election laws and the short time to election, Carnahan's name remained on the ballot. Lieutenant Governor Roger Wilson became governor upon Carnahan's death. Wilson said that should Carnahan be elected, he wanted to appoint his widow, Jean Carnahan, to serve in her husband's place; Mrs. Carnahan announced that, in accordance with her late husband's goal, she would serve in the Senate if voters elected his name. Following these developments, Ashcroft resumed campaigning.
Carnahan won the election 51% to 49%. No one had ever posthumously won election to the Senate, though voters had on at least three occasions chosen deceased candidates for the House of Representatives. Ashcroft also has the unique distinction of being the only congressman defeated for re-election by a dead person.
In December 2000, following his Senatorial defeat, Ashcroft was chosen for the position of U.S. attorney general by president-elect George W. Bush. He was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 58 to 42, with most Democratic senators voting against him, citing his prior opposition to using forced busing to achieve desegregation, and their opposition to Ashcroft's pro-life views.
In May 2001, the FBI revealed that they had misplaced thousands of documents related to the investigation of the Oklahoma City bombing. Ashcroft granted a 30-day stay of execution for Timothy McVeigh, the man convicted and sentenced to death for the bombing.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, Ashcroft was a key administration supporter of passage of the USA Patriot Act. One of its provisions, Section 215, allows the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to apply for an order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to require production of "any tangible thing" for an investigation. This provision was criticized by citizen and professional groups concerned about violations of privacy. Ashcroft referred to the American Library Association's opposition to Section 215 as "hysteria" in two separate speeches given in September 2003. While Attorney General, Ashcroft consistently denied that the FBI or any other law enforcement agency had used the Patriot Act to obtain library circulation records or those of retail sales. According to the sworn testimony of two FBI agents interviewed by the 9/11 Commission, Ashcroft ignored warnings of an imminent al-Qaida attack.
In 2002, under Ashcroft, curtains were installed blocking the Spirit of Justice statue in the Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, which is of a woman wearing a toga-like dress with one breast revealed, from view during speeches. The curtains were first used on a rental basis during the administration of Dick Thornburgh. Justice officials long insisted that the curtains were put up to improve the room's use as a television backdrop and that Ashcroft had nothing to do with it. Ashcroft's successor, Alberto Gonzales, removed the curtains in June 2005. Ashcroft also held daily prayer meetings.
In March 2004, the Justice Department under Ashcroft ruled that the Stellar Wind domestic intelligence program was illegal. The day after the ruling, Ashcroft became critically ill with acute pancreatitis. President Bush sent his White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales and Chief of Staff Andrew Card Jr. to Ashcroft's hospital bed. They wanted him to sign a document reversing the Justice Department's ruling. The semi-conscious Ashcroft refused to sign; Acting Attorney General James Comey and Jack Goldsmith, head of the Office of Legal Counsel for DOJ, were there to back him up. FBI Director Robert Mueller, who also was rushing to the hospital, spoke by phone to Ashcroft's security detail, ordering them not to allow Card or Gonzales to have Comey removed from the hospital room.
Following accounts of the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal in Iraq, one of the Torture memos was leaked to the press in June 2004. Jack Goldsmith, then head of the Office of Legal Counsel, had already withdrawn the Yoo memos and advised agencies not to rely on them. After Goldsmith was forced to resign because of his objections, Attorney General Ashcroft issued a one paragraph opinion re-authorizing the use of torture.
On November 9, 2004, following George W. Bush's re-election, Ashcroft announced his resignation, which took effect on February 3, 2005, after the Senate confirmed White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales as the next attorney general. Ashcroft said in his hand-written resignation letter, dated November 2, "The objective of securing the safety of Americans from crime and terror has been achieved."
In May 2005, Ashcroft laid the groundwork for a strategic consulting firm, The Ashcroft Group, LLC. He started operation in the fall of 2005 and as of March 2006 had twenty-one clients, turning down two for every one accepted. In 2005 year-end filings, Ashcroft's firm reported collecting $269,000, including $220,000 from Oracle Corporation, which won Department of Justice approval of a multibillion-dollar acquisition less than a month after hiring Ashcroft. The year-end filing represented, in some cases, only initial payments.
According to government filings, Oracle is one of five Ashcroft Group clients that seek help in selling data or software with security applications. Another client, Israel Aircraft Industries International, is competing with Seattle's Boeing Company to sell the government of South Korea a billion dollar airborne radar system.
In March 2006, The New York Times reported that Ashcroft had positioned himself as an "anti-Abramoff." In an hour-long interview, Ashcroft used the word integrity scores of times. In May 2006, based on conversations with members of Congress, key aides and lobbyists, The Hill magazine listed Ashcroft as one of the top 50 "hired guns" (lobbyists) that K Street had to offer.
In August 2006, the Washington Post reported that Ashcroft's firm had 30 clients, many of which made products or technology aimed at homeland security. The firm had not disclosed about a third of its client list on grounds of confidentiality. The firm also had equity stakes in eight client companies. It reported receiving $1.4 million in lobbying fees in the past six months, a small fraction of its total earnings.
After the proposed merger of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. and XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc., Ashcroft offered the firm his consulting services, according to a spokesman for XM. The spokesman said XM declined Ashcroft's offer. Ashcroft was subsequently hired by the National Association of Broadcasters, which is strongly opposed to the merger.
In May 2011, Xe Services (formerly Blackwater International) named Ted Wright as CEO. Wright hired a new governance chief to oversee ethical and legal compliance and established a new board composed of former government officials, including former White House counsel Jack Quinn and Ashcroft. In December 2011, Xe changed its name again, to Academi.
The firm also has a law firm under its umbrella, called the Ashcroft Law Firm. In December 2014, the law firm was hired by convicted Russian arms trafficker Viktor Bout to overturn his 2011 conviction.
In June 2017, Ashcroft was hired by the government of Qatar to carry out a compliance and regulatory review of Qatar's anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing framework, to help challenge accusations of supporting terrorism by its neighbors, following a regional blockade, as well as claims by U.S. President Donald Trump.
In June 2018, it is reported that Ashcroft was hired by Najib Razak among other top U.S lawyers to defend him in the 1MDB scandal, it is reported that Ashcroft was hired to advise him on the 1MDB case back in 2016. According to the document, the firm was hired to provide legal advice and counsel to Najib regarding "improper actions by third parties to attempt to destabilise the government of Malaysia". Although it is unsure whether Najib will retain the services of Ashcroft on the issue due to the United States Department of Justice's probe into 1MDB.
In January 2002, the partially nude female statue of the Spirit of Justice, which stands in the Great Hall of the Justice Department, where Ashcroft held press conferences, was covered with blue curtains, along with its male counterpart, the Majesty of Justice. Some speculated that Ashcroft thought that reporters were photographing him with the female statue in the background to make fun of his church's opposition to pornography. A Justice Department spokeswoman said that Ashcroft knew nothing of the decision to spend $8,000 for the curtains; a spokesman said the decision for permanent curtains was intended to save on the $2,000 per use rental costs of temporary curtains used for formal events.
In July 2002, Ashcroft proposed the creation of Operation TIPS, a domestic program in which workers and government employees would inform law enforcement agencies about suspicious behavior they encounter while performing their duties. The program was widely criticized from the beginning, with critics deriding the program as essentially a Domestic Informant Network along the lines of the East German Stasi or the Soviet KGB, and an encroachment upon the First and Fourth amendments. The United States Postal Service refused to be a party to it. Ashcroft defended the program as a necessary component of the ongoing War on Terrorism, but the proposal was eventually abandoned.
Ashcroft proposed a draft of the Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003, legislation to expand the powers of the U.S. government to fight crime and terrorism, while simultaneously eliminating or curtailing judicial review of these powers for incidents related to domestic terrorism. The bill was leaked and posted to the Internet on February 7, 2003.
On May 26, 2004, Ashcroft held a news conference at which he said that intelligence from multiple sources indicated that the terrorist organization, al Qaeda, intended to attack the United States in the coming months. Critics suggested he was trying to distract attention from a drop in the approval ratings of President Bush, who was campaigning for re-election.
Groups supporting individual gun ownership praised Ashcroft's support through DOJ for the Second Amendment. He said specifically, "the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to keep and bear arms," expressing the position that the second amendment expresses a right.
In 2009 in Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco found that Ashcroft could be sued and held personally responsible for the wrongful detention of Abdullah al-Kidd. The American citizen was arrested at Dulles Airport in March 2003 on his way to Saudi Arabia for study. He was held for 15 days in maximum security in three states, and 13 months in supervised release, to be used as a material witness in the trial of Sami Omar Al-Hussayen. (The latter was acquitted of all charges of supporting terrorism). Al-Kidd was never charged and was not called as a witness in the Al-Hussayen case.)
The panels court described the government's assertions under the USA Patriot Act (2001) as "repugnant of the Constitution". In a detailed and at times passionate opinion, Judge Milan Smith likened allegations against al-Kidd as similar to the repressive practices of the British Crown that sparked the American Revolution. He wrote that the government asserts it can detain American citizens "not because there is evidence that they have committed a crime, but merely because the government wishes to investigate them for possible wrongdoing". He called it "a painful reminder of some of the most ignominious chapters of our national history".
Abdullah Al-Kidd was held in a maximum security prison for 16 days, and in supervised release for 13 months. Al-Kidd was born Lavoni T. Kidd in 1973 in Wichita, Kansas. When he converted to Islam as a student at the University of Idaho, where he was a prominent football player, he changed his name. He asserts that Ashcroft violated his civil liberties as an American citizen, as he was treated like a terrorist and not allowed to consult an attorney. Al-Kidd's lawyers say Ashcroft, as US Attorney General, encouraged authorities after 9/11 to arrest potential suspects as material witnesses when they lacked probable cause to believe the suspects had committed a crime.
The US Supreme Court agreed on October 18, 2010 to hear the case. On May 31, 2011, the US Supreme Court unanimously overturned the lower court's decision, saying that al-Kidd could not personally sue Ashcroft, as he was protected by limited immunity as a government official. A majority of the justices held that al-Kidd could not have won his case on the merits, because Ashcroft did not violate his Fourth Amendment rights.
Ashcroft has been a proponent of the War on Drugs. In a 2001 interview on Larry King Live, Ashcroft announced his intention to escalate efforts in this area. In 2003, Ashcroft and John B. Brown, the acting DEA Administrator, announced a series of indictments resulting from two nationwide investigations code-named Operation Pipe Dream and Operation Headhunter. The investigations targeted businesses selling drug paraphernalia, mostly for cannabis use, under a little-used statute (Title 21, Section 863(a) of the U.S. Code).
Tommy Chong, a counterculture icon, was one of those charged, for his part in financing and promoting Chong Glass/Nice Dreams, a company started by his son Paris. Of the 55 individuals charged as a result of the operations, only Chong was given a prison sentence after conviction (nine months in a federal prison, plus forfeiting $103,000 and a year of probation). The other 54 individuals were given fines and home detentions. While the DOJ denied that Chong was treated any differently from the other defendants, critics thought the government was trying to make an example of him. Chong's experience as a target of Ashcroft's sting operation is the subject of Josh Gilbert's feature-length documentary a/k/a Tommy Chong, which premiered at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival.
When Karl Rove was being questioned in 2005 by the FBI over the leak of a covert CIA agent's identity in the press (the Valerie Plame affair), Ashcroft was allegedly briefed about the investigation. The Democratic U.S. Representative John Conyers described this as a "stunning ethical breach that cries out for an immediate investigation." Conyers, the ranking Democrat on the House Judiciary Committee, asked, in a statement, for a formal investigation of the time between the start of Rove's investigation and John Ashcroft's recusal.
Since his service in government, Ashcroft has continued to oppose proposals for physician-assisted suicide, which some states have passed by referenda. When interviewed about it in 2012, when a case had reached the US Supreme Court after California voters had approved a law to permit it under regulated conditions, he said,
I certainly believe that people who are in pain should be helped and assisted in every way possible, that the drugs should be used to mitigate their pain but I believe the law of the United States of America which requires that drugs not be used except for legitimate health purposes.
Ashcroft composed a paean titled "Let the Eagle Soar," which he sang at the Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in February 2002. Ashcroft has written and sung a number of other songs. He has collected these on compilation tapes, including In the Spirit of Life and Liberty and Gospel (Music) According to John. In 1998, he wrote a book with author Gary Thomas titled Lessons from a Father to His Son.
With more than 60 percent of the precincts reporting, Ashcroft, a Republican, had captured 90 percent of the vote, to 10 percent for Marc Perkel
After senior administration officials gave permission to the C.I.A. to use all previously approved "enhanced" interrogation techniques except waterboarding, Mr. Ashcroft sent a one-paragraph memo to the agency stating that it would be lawful to use those techniques on Mr. Gul. This memo, the report said, simply stated that conclusion and contained no legal analysis to support its claim.
| Auditor of Missouri
| Governor of Missouri
| Chair of the National Governors Association
| Attorney General of Missouri
| United States Attorney General
|Party political offices|
| Republican nominee for Governor of Missouri
| Chair of the Republican Governors Association
| Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Missouri
| United States Senator (Class 1) from Missouri
Served alongside: Kit Bond
The Missouri gubernatorial election of 1984 was Missouri's 46th gubernatorial election. The election was held on November 6, 1984 and resulted in a victory for the Republican nominee, Missouri Attorney General John Ashcroft, over the Democratic candidate, Lt. Governor Ken Rothman, and Independent Bob Allen.1988 Missouri gubernatorial election
The Missouri gubernatorial election of 1988 was Missouri's 47th gubernatorial election. The election was held on November 8, 1988 and resulted in a victory for the Republican nominee, incumbent Governor John Ashcroft, over the Democratic candidate, State Representative Betty Cooper Hearnes, and Libertarian Mike Roberts.
Betty Hearnes was the wife of Warren E. Hearnes, who had served as governor from 1965 to 1973.1994 United States Senate election in Missouri
The 1994 United States Senate election in Missouri was held November 8, 1994. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator John Danforth decided to retire and not seek re-election. Former Governor of Missouri John Ashcroft won the open seat in a landslide.2000 United States Senate election in Missouri
The 2000 United States Senate election in Missouri was held on November 7, 2000, to select the next U.S. Senator from Missouri. Incumbent Senator John Ashcroft lost the election to Mel Carnahan, despite Carnahan's death three weeks before election day.Gene Taylor (Missouri politician)
Gene Taylor (February 10, 1928 – October 27, 1998) was a Republican U.S. representative from Missouri.
He was born near Sarcoxie, Missouri, where Taylor attended local public schools.
He attended Southwest Missouri State College, Springfield from 1945 to 1947 then served in the One Hundred and Eighth Cavalry, Missouri National Guard from 1948 to 1949.
From 1954 to 1960, he served as mayor of Sarcoxie, Missouri while starting his automobile dealership which he ran until 1973. He served as a delegate to Republican National Conventions between 1960 and 1968 and as a delegate to Missouri State Republican conventions in 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1972. He was also a Republican national committeeman from 1966 to 1972.
Taylor was first elected to Congress in 1972, defeating future U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft in the primary, and was subsequently re-elected to the seven succeeding congresses, though he was nearly defeated in 1974 and 1982. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1988 to the 101st Congress. He died on October 27, 1998, in Springfield, Missouri.
The main post office in Springfield, Missouri is named the Gene Taylor Building in the congressman's honor.Harriett Woods
Ruth Harriett Woods (June 2, 1927 – February 8, 2007) was an American politician and activist, a two-time Democratic nominee for the United States Senate from Missouri, who served as the 42nd Lieutenant Governor of Missouri under Governor John Ashcroft. She was Missouri's first and thus far only female Lieutenant Governor.John Danforth
John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936) is a retired American politician who began his career in 1968 as the Attorney General of Missouri and served three terms as United States Senator from Missouri. In 2004, he served briefly as United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Danforth is an ordained Episcopal priest.Kit Bond
Christopher Samuel Bond (born March 6, 1939) is an American attorney, politician and former United States Senator from Missouri and a member of the Republican Party. First elected to the U.S. Senate in 1986, he defeated Democrat Harriett Woods by a margin of 53%–47%. He was re-elected in 1992, 1998, and 2004. On January 8, 2009, he announced that he would not seek re-election to a fifth term in 2010, and was succeeded by fellow Republican Roy Blunt on January 3, 2011. Following his retirement from the Senate, Bond became a partner at Thompson Coburn.Before his career in the U.S. Senate, Bond served two non-consecutive terms as Governor of Missouri, from 1973 to 1977 and from 1981 to 1985. He was previously State Auditor of Missouri from 1971 to 1973.Let the Eagle Soar
"Let the Eagle Soar" is a song written by former Missouri Senator and U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft, who is seen singing the song at a Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary function on February 23, 2002. The song was sung during President of the United States George W. Bush's second inauguration in January 2005 by Guy Hovis, a vocalist from the 1970s variety program The Lawrence Welk Show.
On July 4, 2011 Angela McKenzie, a singer and radio personality of the syndicated program Initiative Radio with Angela McKenzie, quietly released a contemporary Country music version of the song as a digital download with the official approval and blessing of John Ashcroft.Mark Corallo
Mark Corallo is an American political communications and public relations professional, who is the co-founder and co-principal of Corallo Comstock. A Republican, he formed Corallo Media Strategies, a public relations firm. He was the communications director for the U.S. Department of Justice under Attorney General John Ashcroft, and later became a senior adviser with The Ashcroft Group.Material witness
A material witness (in American law) is a person with information alleged to be material concerning a criminal proceeding. The authority to detain material witnesses dates to the First Judiciary Act of 1789, but the Bail Reform Act of 1984 most recently amended the text of the statute, and it is now codified at 18 U.S.C. § 3144. The most recent version allows material witnesses to be held to ensure the giving of their testimony in criminal proceedings or to a grand jury.
Since September 11, 2001, the U.S. has used the material witness statute to detain suspects without charge for indefinite periods of time, often under the rubric of securing grand-jury testimony. This use of the statute is controversial and is currently under judicial review. In Ashcroft v. al-Kidd (2011), the detainee was never charged or called as a witness, and sued then-U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft. The U.S. Supreme Court overturned a ruling by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and held that Ashcroft qualified for immunity because of his official position.Max Bacon (politician)
Max E. Bacon (born 1941) is a Missouri Associate Circuit Judge and former state legislator.
Bacon is a native of Springfield, Missouri, where he attended public school. He graduated from Southwest Missouri State University with a B.S. in education, and from the University of Missouri, where he received his law degree. He was admitted to the bar in 1968. Before being elected as a Democrat to the Missouri House of Representatives, he served as a prosecuting attorney in two Missouri counties. He and his wife, Jenine, and their two children live in Springfield and attend the Broadway Baptist Church. - see White House Reference
Bacon has had a stint singing and writing music with future attorney general John Ashcroft, recording and releasing an album entitled Truth in the late 1960s or early 1970s. In 1977 John Ashcroft and Max Bacon co-wrote, produced, and recorded "In the Spirit of Life and Liberty". The song "Let the Eagle Soar" has been long associated with John Ashcroft. - See Reference John Ashcroft Biography
Max E. Bacon is a member of the Ozark Mountain Jubilee - Bacon Family Singers.
- see Reference Bacon Family Singers
Max and his family are often on stage. The Bacons are in their 16th season in Branson at the Grand Country Music Hall Complex. They perform in both the Sunday Gospel Jubilee show, at 2pm, and the Ozark Mountain Jubilee show, at 7pm, every Sunday, February to December.Mel Carnahan
Melvin Eugene Carnahan (February 11, 1934 – October 16, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 51st Governor of Missouri from 1993 until his death in a plane crash in 2000. A Democrat, he was elected posthumously to the U.S. Senate; his widow held his seat for two years.Monica Goodling
Monica Marie Goodling (born August 6, 1973) is a former United States government lawyer and Republican political appointee in the George W. Bush administration who is best known for her role in the controversy about the politically motivated firings of several United States Attorneys in 2007. She was the principal deputy director of public affairs for the United States Department of Justice, serving under Attorneys General John Ashcroft and Alberto Gonzales. A Department of Justice investigation concluded that she had violated the law, but she was not prosecuted because she had been granted immunity in exchange for her testimony. The Virginia State Bar publicly reprimanded Goodling in May 2011 for having "improperly utilized political affiliation and other political considerations when making hiring decisions for career positions."Never Breathe What You Can't See
Never Breathe What You Can't See is an album by Jello Biafra and The Melvins. It was released in 2004 through Alternative Tentacles (Virus 300). The liner notes claim that Mohamed Atta and John Ashcroft helped Biafra with the lyrics of "Caped Crusader" (in truth, some lines are lifted from each), and invite the listener to "spot the difference." Plethysmograph, which deals with the government tool which measures arousal in sex offenders in regard to different stimuli, features the lyric "If Stuart could talk what would he say?", which is the chorus of The Dickies song If Stuart Could Talk, which is also about the singer's penis.Political party strength in Missouri
The following table indicates the party of elected officials in the U.S. state of Missouri:
The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:
For years in which a presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes.
The parties are as follows: Democratic (D), Democratic-Republican (DR), Liberal Republican (LR), no party (N), National Republican (NR), National Union (NU), Republican (R), Whig (W), and a tie or coalition within a group of elected officials.Rafil A. Dhafir
Dr. Rafil A. Dhafir is an American Iraqi-born physician, who was sentenced on October 28, 2005, to 22 years in prison for violating the Iraqi sanctions by sending money to Iraq through his charity program Help the Needy, as well as fraud, money laundering, tax evasion, and a variety of other crimes. Five other people, including his wife, had already pleaded guilty to charges in connection with the case.Following his arrest, in February 2003, both Attorney General John Ashcroft and New York State Governor Pataki characterized Dhafir as a "suspected terrorist," a claim the federal government did not pursue.An appeal was filed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Oral arguments were presented on August 28, 2008. Ruling almost a year later, on August 18, 2009, the court of appeals upheld Dr. Dhafir's convictions but vacated his sentence and remanded to the district court for resentencing.Reggie Walton
Reggie Barnett Walton (born February 8, 1949) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. He is the former presiding judge of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.September 11th Victim Compensation Fund
The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund (VCF) was created by an Act of Congress, the Air
Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (49 USC 40101), shortly after 9/11 to compensate the victims of the attack (or their families) in exchange for their agreement not to sue the airline corporations involved. Kenneth Feinberg was appointed by Attorney General John Ashcroft to be Special Master of the fund. He worked for 33 months pro bono. He developed the regulations governing the administration of the fund and administered all aspects of the program.
Chairs of the National Governors Association