John A. Gronouski

John Austin Gronouski Jr. (October 26, 1919 – January 7, 1996) was the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation and served as the United States Postmaster General from 1963 until 1965 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

John Gronouski
John Austin Gronouski
United States Ambassador to Poland
In office
December 7, 1965 – May 26, 1968
PresidentLyndon B. Johnson
Preceded byJohn M. Cabot
Succeeded byWalter J. Stoessel Jr.
56th United States Postmaster General
In office
September 30, 1963 – November 2, 1965
PresidentJohn F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded byJ. Edward Day
Succeeded byLarry O'Brien
Personal details
Born
John Austin Gronouski Jr.

October 26, 1919
Dunbar, Wisconsin, U.S.
DiedJanuary 7, 1996 (aged 76)
Green Bay, Wisconsin, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Mary Metz
Children2
EducationUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison (BA, MA, PhD)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1942-1945
UnitUnited States Army Air Forces
Battles/warsWorld War II

Biography

Gronouski was born in Dunbar, Wisconsin, the son of Mary (Riley) and John Austin Gronouski. He was of Polish and Irish descent.[1] He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1942, and he joined the military during World War II. Gronouski served as a navigator in the Air Force until October 1945. Gronouski married the former Mary Louise Metz on January 24, 1948. They had two daughters, Stacy Ann Jennings and Julia Kay Glieberman.

He earned an M.A. in 1947 and a Ph.D. in 1955, both from the University of Wisconsin.[2] In 1952, he ran for the United States Senate against Joseph McCarthy, who won reelection. In 1959, Gronouski joined the Wisconsin Department of Revenue and was named the executive director of the Revenue Survey Commission.

GRONOUSKI 1966
John Gronouski, Ambassador to Poland, meets his friends Wiesław and Longina Czajkowski with Chairman of the Polish-American Chamber of Commerce in Detroit, Chester A. Kozdroj and his wife Helena at the U.S. Embassy in Warsaw, September, 1966.

In 1960, he became the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation, and he supported John F. Kennedy for President. In 1963 Gronouski was appointed Postmaster General, the first Polish-American Cabinet officer. As Postmaster General, Gronouski promoted the original five-digit zip code system, and worked to end racial discrimination against postal employees.[3] After he left the Cabinet on November 2, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him to be Ambassador to Poland.

After President Richard M. Nixon took office in 1969, Gronouski became founding dean of the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. Gronouski served as dean until 1974.[4] He served as a member of Eisenhower Commission (on international radio broadcasting) and as the Chairman of the Board for International Broadcasting during the Carter administration.[5]

In retirement, Gronouski lived in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where he died on January 7, 1996. He is interred in Allouez Catholic Cemetery and Chapel Mausoleum in Green Bay, Wisconsin.

References

  1. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/10/world/john-gronouski-76-kennedy-era-postal-chief.html
  2. ^ http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary/index.asp?action=view&term_id=985&search_term=gronouski
  3. ^ "John A. Gronouski (1963)". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
  4. ^ http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/about/history.php
  5. ^ http://www.poles.org/db/G_names/Gronouski_J/Gronouski_J.html
Political offices
Preceded by
J. Edward Day
United States Postmaster General
Served under: John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson

September 30, 1963–November 2, 1965
Succeeded by
Lawrence F. O'Brien
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John M. Cabot
United States Ambassador to Poland
1965–1968
Succeeded by
Walter J. Stoessel Jr.
Board for International Broadcasting

The Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) is a commission established in the United States as a privately incorporated organization in 1973 by the International Broadcasting Act of 1973, Public Law 93-129, on October 19, 1973. This primarily covered Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), established as an option to USSR broadcasting during the Cold War. In 1994, President Bill Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This act disbanded the BIB and put control of the RFE/RL under the newly created bipartisan Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG).

Dunbar, Wisconsin

Dunbar is a town in Marinette County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 1,303 at the 2000 census. The census-designated place of Dunbar is located in the town.

Green Bay, Wisconsin

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River. It is 581 feet (177 m) above sea level and 112 miles (180 km) north of Milwaukee. The population was 104,057 at the 2010 census. Green Bay is the third-largest city in the state of Wisconsin, after Milwaukee and Madison, and the third-largest city on Lake Michigan's west shore, after Chicago and Milwaukee. Green Bay is home to the National Football League's Green Bay Packers.

Green Bay is the principal city of the Green Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Brown, Kewaunee, and Oconto counties; the MSA had a combined population of 306,241 at the 2010 census.Green Bay is an industrial city with several meatpacking plants, paper mills, and a port on Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan known locally as "the Bay of Green Bay". Green Bay hosts the Neville Public Museum, with exhibitions of art, history, and science; the Children's Museum; and the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay.

Index of World War II articles (J)

J Malan Heslop

J. Aird Nesbitt

J. Allen Frear Jr.

J. B. Stoner

J. Braid

J. C. Gilbert

J. Caleb Boggs

J. Carson Mark

J. D. Salinger

J. D. Tippit

J. Douglas Blackwood

J. F. Lehmann

J. Fraser McLuskey

J. Henry Birtles

J. Howard Miller

J. J. Nickson

J. James Exon

J. Lawton Collins

J. Minos Simon

J. P. Donleavy

J. R. Wasson

J. Rayburn Bertrand

J. Robert Elliott

J. Roger Pichette

J. Roy Rowland

J. Salwyn Schapiro

J. T. Rutherford

J.R. Bhonsle

Jędrusie

Jānis Lipke

Jūrō Gotō

Józef Światło

Józef Arkusz

Józef Bartosik

Józef Batory

Józef Chaciński

Józef Chyliński

Józef Cukier

Józef Cyrankiewicz

Józef Franczak

Józef Garliński

Józef Gasienica

Józef Grzesiak

Józef Korbas

Józef Marcinkiewicz

Józef Noji

Józef Olszyna-Wilczyński

Józef Pukowiec

Józef Rzepka

Józef Siemieński

Józef Stefan Godlewski

Józef Szajna

Józef Szczepański

Józef Unrug

Józef Zwonarz

Józefa Kantor

József Eisenhoffer

József Vitéz Heszlényi

József Vértesy

Jørgen Kieler

Jørstad River bridge sabotage

Jaap Boot

Jaap Meijer

Jaap Penraat

Jabit III (B-29)

Jacek Jędruch

Jack Aeby

Jack Agazarian

Jack Anderson

Jack Baldwin (RAF officer)

Jack Beddington

Jack Beresford

Jack Black (Viz)

Jack Breaux

Jack Broome

Jack Buck

Jack C. Montgomery

Jack Churchill

Jack Coggins

Jack Daniels (politician)

Jack Davis (cartoonist)

Jack de Manio

Jack Edwards (Hong Kong)

Jack Fairman

Jack Fearey

Jack Foreman Mantle

Jack Garfein

Jack Hallett

Jack Hargreaves

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Jack Hayward

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Jack J. Catton

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Jack Kirby

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Jack L. Anson

Jack L. Knight

Jack L. Treadwell

Jack Lemmon

Jack Lummus

Jack M. Campbell

Jack Mandelbaum

Jack Mason Gougar

Jack Miller, USMC

Jack Miller

Jack Oatey

Jack Owen (footballer)

Jack P.F. Gremillion

Jack Paar

Jack Palance

Jack Portland

Jack Reynolds (footballer born 1881)

Jack Ridley

Jack Ruby

Jack Soo

Jack Stang

Jack T. Chick

Jack Tramiel

Jack Turnbull

Jack Valenti

Jack van der Geest

Jack W. Mathis

Jack W. Robbins

Jack Warden

Jack Webb

Jack William Wintle

Jack Williams (Medal of Honor)

Jack Wong Sue

Jackboot Mutiny

Jackdaws

Jackie Coogan

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Jackie Fields

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Jackie Robinson

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Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 2)

Jagdgeschwader 101

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Jagdgeschwader 51

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Jagdgeschwader 6

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Jagdgeschwader 77

Jagdgeschwader z.b.V.

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Jane's WWII Fighters

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Janowska concentration camp

January 28 Incident

Janusz Ślązak

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Jaouad Zairi

Japan campaign

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Japanese-German pre-WWII industrial co-operation

Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi

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Japanese American life after World War II

Japanese American life before World War II

Japanese American redress and court cases

Japanese battlecruiser Amagi

Japanese battleship Aki

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Japanese battleship Kashima

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Japanese battleship Okinoshima

Japanese battleship Ryūjō (1864)

Japanese battleship Sagami

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Japanese Burma Area Army

Japanese Canadian internment

Japanese capture of Burma

Japanese Central China Area Army

Japanese China Garrison Army

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Japanese cruiser Akashi

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Japanese cruiser Aoba

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Japanese cruiser Ashigara

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Japanese cruiser Azuma

Japanese cruiser Chōkai

Japanese cruiser Chikuma (1911)

Japanese cruiser Chikuma (1938)

Japanese cruiser Chishima

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Japanese cruiser Furutaka

Japanese cruiser Haguro

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Japanese cruiser Ibuki (1907)

Japanese cruiser Ibuki (1943)

Japanese cruiser Ikoma

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Japanese cruiser Jintsu

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Japanese cruiser Mogami (1908)

Japanese cruiser Mogami (1934)

Japanese cruiser Myōkō

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Japanese cruiser Takachiko

Japanese cruiser Takao (1930)

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Japanese declaration of war on the United States and Britain

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Japanese destroyer Arare (1937)

Japanese destroyer Arashi

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Japanese destroyer Ariake (1934)

Japanese destroyer Asagiri (1929)

Japanese destroyer Asagumo (1938)

Japanese destroyer Asashimo

Japanese destroyer Asashio (1936)

Japanese destroyer Ayanami (1929)

Japanese destroyer Fubuki (1927)

Japanese destroyer Fujinami

Japanese destroyer Fuyutsuki

Japanese destroyer Hagikaze

Japanese destroyer Hamakaze (1940)

Japanese destroyer Hamanami

Japanese destroyer Hanazuki

Japanese destroyer Harusame (1935)

Japanese destroyer Harutsuki

Japanese destroyer Hatsuharu (1933)

Japanese destroyer Hatsukaze

Japanese destroyer Hatsushimo (1933)

Japanese destroyer Hatsuyuki (1928)

Japanese destroyer Hatsuzuki

Japanese destroyer Hayanami

Japanese destroyer Hayashimo

Japanese destroyer Hayate (1925)

Japanese destroyer Ikazuchi (1931)

Japanese destroyer Inazuma (1932)

Japanese destroyer Isokaze (1939)

Japanese destroyer Isonami (1927)

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Japanese destroyer Kasumi (1937)

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Japanese destroyer Kazagumo

Japanese destroyer Kisaragi (1925)

Japanese destroyer Kishinami

Japanese destroyer Kiyonami

Japanese destroyer Kiyoshimo

Japanese destroyer Kuroshio

Japanese destroyer Maikaze

Japanese destroyer Makigumo (1941)

Japanese destroyer Makinami (1941)

Japanese destroyer Matsu (1944)

Japanese destroyer Michishio

Japanese destroyer Minegumo (1937)

Japanese destroyer Minekaze

Japanese destroyer Miyuki

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Japanese destroyer Natsushio

Japanese destroyer Natsuzuki

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Japanese destroyer Nowaki (1940)

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Japanese destroyer Okinami

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Japanese destroyer Sagiri

Japanese destroyer Samidare (1935)

Japanese destroyer Sazanami (1931)

Japanese destroyer Shigure (1935)

Japanese destroyer Shikinami (1929)

Japanese destroyer Shimakaze (1942)

Japanese destroyer Shimotsuki

Japanese destroyer Shinonome (1927)

Japanese destroyer Shirakumo (1927)

Japanese destroyer Shiranui (1938)

Japanese destroyer Shiratsuyu (1935)

Japanese destroyer Shirayuki (1928)

Japanese destroyer Suzukaze

Japanese destroyer Suzunami (1943)

Japanese destroyer Suzutsuki (1942)

Japanese destroyer Takanami (1942)

Japanese destroyer Tamanami

Japanese destroyer Tanikaze (1940)

Japanese destroyer Teruzuki (1941)

Japanese destroyer Tokitsukaze (1939)

Japanese destroyer Umikaze

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Japanese destroyer Uranami

Japanese destroyer Ushio

Japanese destroyer Usugumo

Japanese destroyer Wakaba

Japanese destroyer Wakatsuki

Japanese destroyer Yamagumo

Japanese destroyer Yamakaze

Japanese destroyer Yoizuki

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Japanese destroyer Yūgiri

Japanese destroyer Yūgure

Japanese destroyer Yukikaze

Japanese Devils

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Japanese escort Hachijo

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Japanese expansion (1941-1942)

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Japanese Invasion of Thailand

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Japanese occupation of Guam

Japanese occupation of Hong Kong

Japanese occupation of Indonesia

Japanese occupation of Malaya

Japanese occupation of British Borneo

Japanese occupation of Singapore

Japanese orphans in China

Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

Japanese raiders in Indian Ocean Campaign

Japanese Relocation (1942 film)

Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya

Japanese Second Area Army

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Japanese ship naming conventions

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Japanese Sixth Army

Japanese Southern China Area Army

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Japanese submarine I-34

Japanese submarine I-52 (1943)

Japanese submarine I-8

Japanese submarine RO-45

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Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka

Japanese torpedo boat Tomozuru

Japanese Twelfth Area Army

Japanese War Crimes: Murder Under The Sun

Japanese war crimes

Japanese war tuba

Japanese warship Asahi Maru

Japanese warship Hōō Maru

Japanese warship Hōshō

Japanese warship Kanrin Maru

Japanese warship Kasuga (1862)

Japanese warship Moshun

Japanese warship San Buena Ventura

Japanese warship San Juan Bautista

Japanese warship Shohei Maru

Japanese World War II destroyers

Japhet N'Doram

Jaques of London

Jardin d'Acclimatation

Jardin de Tivoli, Paris

Jardin des Plantes

Jardin du Luxembourg

Jardin Turc

Jarosław Dąbrowski

Jaroslav Jiřík

Jaroslav Krejčí

Jarvis Cocker

Jascha Horenstein

Jasenovac concentration camp

Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara

Jasmin (Paris Métro)

Jason Robards

Jasper Maskelyne

Jassy–Kishinev Offensive (August 1944)

Jasta 11

Jaurès (Paris Métro)

Javel - André Citroën (Paris Métro)

Javad Hakimli

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jay-Jay Okocha

Jay Hebert

Jay Humphry

Jay Pierrepont Moffat

Jay T. Robbins

Jay U. Gunter

Jay Williams (author)

Jay Zeamer Jr.

JB-2 Launch Site (USA)

Je suis partout

Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis

Jean-Étienne Valluy

Jean-Antoine Chaptal

Jean-Antoine de Mesmes

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset

Jean-Baptiste Berlier

Jean-Baptiste Biot

Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Corneille

Jean-Baptiste de La Curne de Sainte-Palaye

Jean-Baptiste Dubos

Jean-Baptiste Dumas

Jean-Baptiste Dureau de la Malle

Jean-Baptiste Gail

Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire

Jean-Baptiste Isabey

Jean-Baptiste Janssens

Jean-Baptiste Labat

Jean-Baptiste Lafond

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai

Jean-Baptiste Mimiague

Jean-Baptiste Rousseau

Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Vivien de Châteaubrun

Jean-Bernard Raimond

Jean-Charles de Borda

Jean-Charles Trouabal

Jean-Christophe Grangé

Jean-Christophe Thomas

Jean-Christophe Thouvenel

Jean-Christophe Yoccoz

Jean-Claude Bras

Jean-Claude Killy

Jean-Claude Lemoult

Jean-Claude Osman

Jean-Claude Pressac

Jean-Claude Suaudeau

Jean-Daniel Dätwyler

Jean-Denis Bredin

Jean-Dominique Bauby

Jean-François Beltramini

Jean-François Bizot

Jean-François Champollion

Jean-François de La Harpe

Jean-François Deniau

Jean-François Ducis

Jean-François Leriget de La Faye

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Marmontel

Jean-Félix Adolphe Gambart

Jean-Gabriel Castel

Jean-Gaspard Deburau

Jean-Guy Gauthier

Jean-Henri Gourgaud

Jean-Hugues Ateba

Jean-Jacques Ampère

Jean-Jacques Eydelie

Jean-Jacques Goldman

Jean-Jacques Lefranc, marquis de Pompignan

Jean-Jacques Pierre

Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer

Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber

Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant

Jean-Joseph Carriès

Jean-Joseph Languet de Gergy

Jean-Lambert Tallien

Jean-Louis-Paul-François, 5th duc de Noailles

Jean-Louis Barrault

Jean-Louis Garcia

Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac

Jean-Louis Koszul

Jean-Louis Laya

Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour

Jean-Loup Dabadie

Jean-Luc Godard

Jean-Luc Sassus

Jean-Marc Chanelet

Jean-Marc Nattier

Jean-Marc Pilorget

Jean-Marcel Jeanneney

Jean-Marie Charles Abrial

Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois

Jean-Marie Hullot

Jean-Marie Lehn

Jean-Marie Lustiger

Jean-Marie Rouart

Jean-Martial Kipré

Jean-Martin Charcot

Jean-Michel Badiane

Jean-Michel Ferri

Jean-Michel Larqué

Jean-Nicolas Pache

Jean-Noël Huck

Jean-Noël Jeanneney

Jean-Paul Bertrand-Demanes

Jean-Paul Rostagni

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Philippe Fleurian

Jean-Pierre-André Amar

Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat

Jean-Pierre Adams

Jean-Pierre Aumont

Jean-Pierre Azéma

Jean-Pierre Barda

Jean-Pierre Changeux

Jean-Pierre Cortot

Jean-Pierre Dantan

Jean-Pierre Dogliani

Jean-Pierre Jabouille

Jean-Pierre Kahane

Jean-Pierre Léaud

Jean-Pierre Ponnelle

Jean-Pierre Sauvage

Jean-Pierre Serre

Jean-Pierre Simb

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Jean-Pierre Timbaud

Jean-Pierre Tokoto

Jean-Pierre Vernant

Jean-Pierre Wimille

Jean-Rodolphe Perronet

Jean-Roland Malet

Jean-Sifrein Maury

Jean-Yves Girard

Jean-Yves Le Gallou

Jean-Yves Mvoto

Jean Aicard

Jean Améry

Jean Antoine Injalbert

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon

Jean Baptiste Emile Vidal

Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre

Jean Baptiste Massillon

Jean Bayard

Jean Benner-Fries

Jean Bernard (physician)

Jean Borotra

Jean Bourgain

Jean Casimir-Perier

Jean Cau (rower)

Jean Cavaillès

Jean Cayrol

Jean Ces

Jean Chalgrin

Jean Chapelain

Jean Chardin

Jean Charles Flipart

Jean Cocteau

Jean Coleman (officer)

Jean Collas

Jean d'Estrées

Jean d'Ormesson

Jean Daniélou

Jean Darcet

Jean de Beaumont

Jean de Broglie

Jean de Brunhoff

Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin

Jean de La Bruyère

Jean de La Fontaine

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Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

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Jean Decoux

Jean Delarge

Jean Deloffre

Jean Delumeau

Jean Djorkaeff

Jean Dondelinger

Jean Dutourd

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Jean Gabin

Jean Galbert de Campistron

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Jean Giraud

Jean Gounot

Jean Graton

Jean Grelaud

Jean Gutweninger

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Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès

Jean Jérome

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean Leclant

Jean Leguay

Jean Louis Émile Boudier

Jean Louis Burnouf

Jean Luchaire

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Jean Lécuyer

Jean Martin

Jean Mistler

Jean Moulin

Jean Ousset

Jean Piat

Jean Pierre-Bloch

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Jean Pierre Flourens

Jean Prouvé

Jean Prévost

Jean Racine

Jean Renaud de Segrais

Jean Richepin

Jean Rostand

Jean Rémy

Jean Schlumberger (jewelry designer)

Jean Servais

Jean Sirmond

Jean Suret-Canale

Jean Sylvain Bailly

Jean Tatlock

Jean Tiberi

Jean Vaysse

Jean Victoire Audouin

Jean Victor Allard

Jean Welter

Jean Wicki

Jean Ybarnegaray

Jean, duc de Decazes

Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg

Jeanette Wohl

Jeanne Balibar

Jeanne Coroller-Danio

Jeanne Delvair

Jeanne Hébuterne

Jeanne Loriod

Jeanne Moreau

Jeanne Paquin

Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston

JEATH War Museum

Jedwabne pogrom

Jeff Cooper (colonel)

Jeff Davis Woodson

Jefferson in Paris

Jefferson J. DeBlanc

Jeffrey Hamm

Jeffrey Herf

Jeffrey Hunter

Jehan Alain

Jenkin Robert Oswald Thompson

Jennifer Azzi

Jenny-Wanda Barkmann

Jens Christian Hauge

Jens Hundseid

Jens Müller

Jerome War Relocation Center

Jerrold R. Zacharias

Jerry (WWII)

Jerry Atkinson

Jerry Coleman

Jerry D. Page

Jerry Rosholt

Jerry Wexler

Jerrycan

Jerzy Braun

Jerzy Einhorn

Jerzy Ficowski

Jerzy Jan Lerski

Jerzy Kirchmayer

Jerzy Niezbrzycki

Jerzy Różycki

Jerzy Skolimowski (rowing)

Jerzy Szacki

Jerzy Ustupski

Jerzy Wołkowicki

Jerzy Wojnar

Jerzy Zagórski

Jerzy Zborowski

Jess Hill

Jesse Addison Udall

Jesse Helms

Jesse Holman Jones

Jesse Monroe Knowles

Jesse R. Drowley

Jesse R. Pitts

Jesse Rutherford Jr.

Jessie Vasey

Jesús A. Villamor

Jesus Baza Duenas

Jeune Europe

Jewish Amsterdam

Jewish Brigade

Jewish Children's Home in Oslo

Jewish Combat Organization

Jewish deportees from Norway during World War II

Jewish Military Union

Jewish partisans

Jewish Police (Holocaust)

Jewish resistance during the Holocaust

Jews outside Europe under Nazi occupation

Jezdimir Dangić

JF-17 Thunder

Ji Hongchang

Ji Shengde

Jiří Raška

Jiang Dingwen

Jiang Guangnai

Jianggezhuang

Jiangqiao Campaign

Jiffs

Jigme Wangchuk

Jilin Self-Defence Army

Jim Brideweser

Jim Butterfield (football)

Jim Clark (sheriff)

Jim Crowley

Jim Dunnigan

Jim Fridley

Jim Garrison

Jim Hensley

Jim Humphreys

Jim Lawrence (football player)

Jim Leavelle

Jim Mooney (football player)

Jim Morrison

Jim Moscrip

Jim Park (footballer)

Jim Siedow

Jim Thompson (designer)

Jim Wallwork

Jim Wright

Jimmie W. Monteith

Jimmy Algerino

Jimmy Dell

Jimmy Doolittle

Jimmy Douglas (American soccer player)

Jimmy Edwards

Jimmy Fitzmorris

Jimmy Hughes (footballer)

Jimmy Juan

Jimmy Launders

Jimmy Modeste

Jimmy Mullen (footballer born 1923)

Jimmy T. Murakami

Jimmy Patterson

Jin-Roh

Jinan Incident

Jinan Military Region

Jing Shan-Zhongxiang Campaign

Jinggangshan Mountains

Jinichi Kusaka

Jinzaburō Masaki

Jirō Minami

Jirō Shiizaki

Jirō Tamon

Jisaburō Ozawa

JM cloche

Jüdischer Kulturbund

Jürgen Graf

Jürgen Rieger

Jürgen Stroop

Jüri Uluots

Jo Grimond

Jo Gullett

Jo Iimura

Jo Spier

Jože Javoršek

Joachim Albrecht Eggeling

Joachim Brendel

Joachim Fest

Joachim Helbig

Joachim Hoffmann

Joachim Kirschner

Joachim Lemelsen

Joachim Müncheberg

Joachim Mrugowsky

Joachim Murat

Joachim Peiper

Joachim Rønneberg

Joachim Schepke

Joachim von Ribbentrop

Joan-Eleanor system

Joan Bartlett

Joan Hughes

Joan of Paris

Joanna Cruickshank

Jocelyn Angloma

Jocelyn Gourvennec

Jocelyn Simon, Baron Simon of Glaisdale

Jocelyn Woollcombe

Jock column

Jock Colville

Jock Lewes

Joe's Bridge

Joe Abbey

Joe Baker-Cresswell

Joe Benoit

Joe C. Specker

Joe D. Smith Jr.

Joe David Brown

Joe DiMaggio

Joe E. Mann

Joe Ekins

Joe Flanigan

Joe Foss

Joe Gray Taylor

Joe Greene (Ontario politician)

Joe Hayashi

Joe Henry Cooper

Joe Hunt (tennis)

Joe Kendrick Sr.

Joe Kieyoomia

Joe Louis

Joe M. Jackson

Joe M. Nishimoto

Joe Maniaci

Joe McCorquodale

Joe Mercer

Joe P. Martinez

Joe Perry (American football)

Joe Purcell

Joe R. Hastings

Joe Redington

Joe Rosenthal

Joe Routt

Joe Schlesinger

Joe Shell

Joe Sinnott

Joe Sostilio

Joe Stydahar

Joe Turner (ice hockey)

Joe W. Kelly

Joe Waggonner

Joel Brand

Joel Camargo

Joel Hayward

Joel Teitelbaum

Johan Benders

Johan Bernhard Hjort

Johan Borgen

Johan Carp

Johan Hendrik Weidner

Johan Hin

Johan Nygaardsvold

Johan Petro

Johan Richthoff

Johann Christian Claudius Devaranne

Johann Gruber

Johann Heynlin

Johann Kremer

Johann Maier

Johann Rattenhuber

Johann Rickmers

Johann von Leers

Johann von Ravenstein

Johann Wilhelm Trollmann

Johanna Kirchner

Johanna Langefeld

Johanna Wolf

Johannes Bölter

Johannes Blaskowitz

Johannes Bobrowski

Johannes de Grocheio

Johannes Dieckmann

Johannes Drost

Johannes Flintrop

Johannes Frießner

Johannes Gandil (athlete)

Johannes Hentschel

Johannes Kleiman

Johannes Kunze

Johannes Lohs

Johannes Maas

Johannes Mayer

Johannes Plendl

Johannes Popitz

Johannes Stark

Johannes Steinhoff

Johannes Terwogt

Johannes van Dijk

Johannes Wiese

Johin

John A. English

John A. Gronouski

John A. Kent

John A. Nerud

John A. Volpe

John Addison

John Agar

John Aiken (RAF officer)

John Alan Quinton

John Albert O’Toole

John Aldam Aizlewood

John Alexander French

John Alexander Sinclair

John Amery

John Anderson Barstow

John Andrew Pearson (Royal Navy officer)

John Arbuthnott, 16th Viscount of Arbuthnott

John Archibald Wheeler

John Arnold Austin

John Arthur Jarvis

John Arthur Love

John Aspinwall Roosevelt

John Augustine Collins

John B. Kelly Sr.

John Bagot Glubb

John Barbour (poet)

John Barron (actor)

John Basilone

John Baskeyfield

John Bassett

John Beeley

John Beresford (polo player)

John Berger

John Bernard Croak

John Bernard Mackey

John Birch (missionary)

John Birmingham

John Boles (sport shooter)

John Boyd-Carpenter, Baron Boyd-Carpenter

John Bradburne

John Bradley (Iwo Jima)

John Bray (athlete)

John Bridge

John Brown (spy)

John Brown Hamilton

John Brunt

John Bunch

John C. Arrowsmith

John C. Browne (physicist)

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort

John C. England

John C. H. Lee

John C. Metzler Sr.

John C. Meyer

John C. Morgan

John C. Sjogren

John C. Squires

John C. Waldron

John C. West

John C. Whitehead

John C. Woods

John Cade

John Cecil Currie

John Chafee

John Charles Campbell

John Charles Fenton

John Charles Oakes Marriott

John Christmas Møller

John Ciardi

John Clarence Butler

John Cobb (motorist)

John Codd

John Connally

John Connolly (rugby)

John Courtis

John Cregan (athlete)

John Crichton, 5th Earl Erne

John Cridlan Barrett

John Crocker

John Cross Jr

John Cruickshank

John Cullen Murphy

John Cunningham (RAF officer)

John Curtin

John D. Bulkeley

John D. Hawk

John D. Kelly (World War II soldier)

John D. Lavelle

John D. MacDonald

John D. Magrath

John D. New

John Dale Ryan

John David Provoo

John David Vanderhoof

John David Wingfield

John Davies (businessman)

John de Courcy, 35th Baron Kingsale

John de Innes

John Demjanjuk

John Derbyshire (swimmer)

John Dering Nettleton

John Desmond

John Dill

John Dingell

John Drayton Baker

John Duncan Sr.

John Dutton Frost

John E. Butts

John E. Dahlquist

John E. Hull

John Edmondson, 2nd Baron Sandford

John Edwin Ashley Williams

John Ehrlichman

John Eisenhower

John Eldridge Jr.

John Elliott (British boxer)

John Exley

John F. "Jack" Hasey

John F. Gerry

John F. Kennedy

John F. Thorson

John Faunthorpe

John Flanagan (athlete)

John Ford

John Francis McLaren

John Frederick Andrews Higgins

John Frost (pilot)

John Fullerton Evetts

John G. Crommelin

John G. W. Husted Jr.

John Gardner (thriller writer)

John Geiger

John George Kemeny

John George Walters Clark

John Gillespie Magee Jr.

John Glenn

John Godley, 3rd Baron Kilbracken

John Godwin RNVR

John Gofman

John Gorman (politician)

John Gottowt

John Gregory Crace

John Gretton, 1st Baron Gretton

John Gudenus

John Gurdon

John H. D. Cunningham

John H. Griffith

John H. Hammond

John H. Hubbard

John H. Lang

John H. Leims

John H. Manley

John H. Michaelis

John H. Secondari

John H. Sides

John H. Stickell

John Hamilton (archbishop)

John Hamilton (artist)

John Hamilton Wedgwood

John Hannah (VC)

John Hansl

John Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton

John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham

John Harlan Willis

John Harvey-Jones

John Hawkesworth (British Army officer)

John Hawkesworth (producer)

John Hay Whitney

John Henebry

John Henry Anstice

John Henry Balch

John Henry Lake

John Henry Towers

John Hollar

John Hollington Grayburn

John Holt (educator)

John Hope (meteorologist)

John Howard (American actor)

John Howard (British Army officer)

John Howard Griffin

John Hurst Edmondson

John J. Creedon

John J. Gilligan

John J. Hennessey

John J. McVeigh

John J. Parker

John J. Pinder Jr.

John J. Tominac

John James Powers

John Jansson

John Jarman

John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin

John Johnston (Royal Household)

John Joseph Doherty

John Joseph Gilligan Jr.

John Joseph Parle

John K. Cannon

John K. Gerhart

John K. Lawson

John K. Singlaub

John K. Snyder

John K. Waters

John Keefer Mahony

John Kenley

John Kennedy (rowing)

John Kenneth Macalister

John Kimbrough

John Kitzmiller

John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne

John L. DeWitt

John L. Hall Jr.

John L. Jerstad

John L. McLucas

John L. Throckmorton

John Lanham

John Lavarack

John Le Mesurier

John Leach (Royal Navy officer)

John Lemoinne

John Leon Williamson

John Leonard Wilson

John Lesinski Jr.

John Lesley

John List

John Lucian Smith

John Lukacs

John Lymington

John M. Janzen

John M. Robsion Jr.

John M. Spalding

John MacLeod (Ross and Cromarty MP)

John Macquarrie

John Macy

John Magee (missionary)

John Manchester Allen

John Marshall Harlan II

John Masters

John McGiver

John McKay (football coach)

John McKilligan

John McLean (athlete)

John McNally (American football)

John Michael Bermingham

John Mihalowski

John Miller (rower)

John Miller Martin

John Mills

John Misha Petkevich

John Moffat (pilot)

John Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara

John Morrow Godfrey

John Murray (soldier)

John N. Mitchell

John N. Reese Jr.

John Nash (artist)

John Neil Randle

John Northcott

John O'Neil (rugby player)

John O'Neill (VC)

John O'Shea (director)

John Okada

John Ormsby Evelyn Vandeleur

John P. Cromwell

John P. Davies

John P. Fardy

John P. Lucas

John P. Washington

John Patrick (rugby player)

John Patrick Kenneally

John Paul Hammerschmidt

John Paul Stevens

John Pelham Mann

John Pendlebury

John Pennington Harman

John Peyton, Baron Peyton of Yeovil

John Phillips (actor)

John Prebble

John Prendergast (soldier)

John Profumo

John R. Alison

John R. Crews

John R. Deane Jr.

John R. Dunning

John R. Foley

John R. Fox

John R. Hodge

John R. Towle

John Rabe

John Randolph (actor)

John Rarick

John Rathbone (Bodmin)

John Rawls

John Raymond Broadbent (Quartermaster)

John Raymond Broadbent (Major General)

John Raymond Rice

John Reith, 1st Baron Reith

John Renshaw Starr

John Richard Hyde

John Rigas

John Rimmer

John Robert Osborn

John Rockefeller Prentice

John Roderick (correspondent)

John Russell (actor)

John Russell, 13th Duke of Bedford

John Ruthven (artist)

John S. Blue

John S. McCain Jr.

John S. McCain Sr.

John S. Service

John S. Wilder

John Salmond

John Severin

John Sidney Garrett

John Smith (Conservative politician)

John Spellman (wrestler)

John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer

John Stacey

John Steele (paratrooper)

John Stuart Mould

John Swainson

John Sweet (actor)

John Sydney Lethbridge

John Symes

John T. "Tommy" Blackburn

John T. Corley

John T. Eversole

John Tate

John Thach

John Thivy

John Thomas Davies

John Thompson McKellar Anderson

John Tiltman

John Toland (author)

John Tovey, 1st Baron Tovey

John Tower

John Tremayne Babington

John Trevor Godfrey

John Tyler Morgan

John V. Power

John Vassall

John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort

John Vincent (sailor)

John von Neumann

John W. Bonner

John W. Dutko

John W. Meagher

John W. Minick

John W. O'Daniel

John W. Peterson

John W. Rankin

John W. Vogt Jr.

John Waldegrave

John Wallace Linton

John Warburton Paul

John Ward (airman)

John Warner

John Warrender, 2nd Baron Bruntisfield

John Wayne Airport

John Weir Foote

John Wells (20th-century British politician)

John Wheeler-Bennett

John Whyte-Melville-Skeffington, 13th Viscount Massereene

John Widgery, Baron Widgery

John William Best

John William Finn

John William Haas

John William Harper

John William Vessey Jr.

John Wilson, 2nd Baron Moran

John Winthrop Hackett Junior

John Wooldridge

John Wyndham

John Yates (bishop)

John Zacherle

John, Dauphin of France (1398-1417)

Johnnie David Hutchins

Johnnie Johnson (RAF officer)

Johnny Beazley

Johnny Carson

Johnny Checketts

Johnny Grant (radio personality)

Johnny Höglin

Johnny Johnson (British Army officer)

Johnny Mølby

Johnny Murray

Johnny Orr

Johnny Ramensky

Johnny Reder

Johnny Rigney

Johnny Schmitz

Johnny Vaught

Johnny Weissmuller

Joice NanKivell Loch

Jon Baker

Jon Elster

Jon Istad

Jon Latimer

Jon Whitcomb

Jona von Ustinov

Jonah Edward Kelley

Jonas H. Ingram

Jonas Lie (government minister)

Jonas Slier

Jonastal

Jonathan Assous

Jonathan Biabiany

Jonathan Higgins

Jonathan Joseph-Augustin

Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV

Jonathan O. Seaman

Jonathan Tokplé

Jonathan Winters

Jonni Myyrä

Jonny Nilsson

Joop Westerweel

Jordan Nikolov Orce

Jorge Alonso Treviño

Jorge Burruchaga

Jorge Semprún

Jorge Tibiriçá Piratininga

Jorge Ubico

Jorma Sarvanto

Jose Calugas

Jose F. Valdez

Jose M. Cabanillas

Jose M. Lopez

Josef Čapek

Josef Balabán

Josef Blösche

Josef Bühler

Josef Bürckel

Josef Bremm

Josef Eder

Josef Feistmantl

Josef František

Josef Grohé

Josef Haas

Josef Harpe

Josef Jacobs

Josef Jakobs

Josef Kammhuber

Josef Kramer

Josef Krips

Josef Matoušek

Josef Mengele

Josef Nassy

Josef Oberhauser (war criminal)

Josef Pfitzner

Josef Plieseis

Josef Priller

Josef Rosensaft

Josef Schneider (rower)

Josef Schwammberger

Josef Terboven

Josef Thorak

Josef Wagner (Gauleiter)

Josef Wilhelm

Josef Wirmer

Josef Wurmheller

Josef Zwernemann

Joseph-Alfred Foulon

Joseph-Nicolas Delisle

Joseph A. Farinholt

Joseph Albert Walker

Joseph Alexandre Laboulbène

Joseph Alzin

Joseph André

Joseph Autran

Joseph Babinski

Joseph Bangust

Joseph Bau

Joseph Bech

Joseph Berchtold

Joseph Beyrle

Joseph Bodner

Joseph Burlazzi

Joseph Burnett

Joseph C. McConnell

Joseph Caillaux

Joseph Carlebach

Joseph Chénier

Joseph Crockett

Joseph d'Haussonville

Joseph Darnand

Joseph De Combe

Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert

Joseph Dodge

Joseph E. Muller

Joseph E. Schaefer

Joseph Edward Connolly

Joseph Epstein (French Resistance leader)

Joseph F. Biroc

Joseph F. Merrell

Joseph F. Smith (politician)

Joseph Fourier University

Joseph Fourier

Joseph François Michaud

Joseph Gainard

Joseph Gilbert Hamilton

Joseph Goebbels

Joseph Gregory

Joseph Grew

Joseph H. Harper

Joseph Harcourt Tombs

Joseph Heller

Joseph Henry Silk

Joseph Hughes (GC)

Joseph J. Clark

Joseph J. McCarthy

Joseph J. Nazzaro

Joseph J. Sadowski

Joseph Joffre

Joseph Jules Beecken

Joseph Justus Scaliger

Joseph Kessel

Joseph Kofi Adda

Joseph Lakanal

Joseph Leo Doob

Joseph Liebgott

Joseph Louis François Bertrand

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Lagrange

Joseph M. Gaydos

Joseph M. Reeves

Joseph McCarthy

Joseph Müller (Catholic lawyer)

Joseph Müller (priest)

Joseph Olivier (rugby union)

Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.

Joseph Paul Franklin

Joseph Pletinckx

Joseph R. Holzapple

Joseph R. Julian

Joseph Retinger

Joseph Riddle Jr.

Joseph Rochefort

Joseph Rosenstock

Joseph Rotblat

Joseph Rovan

Joseph S. Clark

Joseph Salas

Joseph Sarnoski

Joseph Schacht

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stilwell

Joseph Stone, Baron Stone

Joseph T. Dawson

Joseph T. McNarney

Joseph T. O'Callahan

Joseph Taussig

Joseph Ujlaki

Joseph W. Barr

Joseph W. Dailey

Joseph W. Finch Jr.

Joseph W. Kennedy

Joseph W. Ozbourn

Joseph Wapner

Joseph Warren Stilwell Jr.

Joseph Watt

Joseph Weldon Bailey Jr.

Josephine Baker

Joshua Logan

Josiah E. DuBois Jr.

Josiah McCracken

Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp

Josias Hartmann

Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont

Josip Broz Tito

Josip Kraš

José-Karl Pierre-Fanfan

José Álvarez de Bohórquez

José Cabrero Arnal

José Cobos

José Dolhem

José María de Heredia

José Mouzinho

José Nasazzi

José Navarro Morenes

José Naya

José P. Laurel

José Touré

José Vidal (footballer)

Jourdain (Paris Métro)

Journal des débats

Journal of Historical Review

Journey for Margaret

Jovan Plamenac

Jovanka Broz

Joy Bright Hancock

Joyce Lebra

Joyce Lussu

Jozef Gabčík

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Jozef Turanec

Joël Bats

Ján Golian

János Garay (fencer)

János Wenk

Juan Antonio Ríos

Juan César Cordero Dávila

Juan Gilberto Funes

Juan José Calandria

Juan José de Amézaga

Juan Martín Hernández

Juan Modesto

Juan Pablo Sorín

Juan Pujol (alias Garbo)

Juana Bormann

Jud Simons

Judah Messer Leon (1166)

Judah P. Benjamin

Judenfrei

Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial

Judenrat

Judges' Trial

Judgment at Nuremberg

Judith Auer

Judith Kerr

Jugendbund

Juho Kusti Paasikivi

Jules Armand Dufaure

Jules Bocandé

Jules Bonvalet

Jules Cambon

Jules De Bisschop

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Jules James

Jules Janin

Jules Joffrin (Paris Métro)

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Jules Sandeau

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Julia Catherine Stimson

Julia Child

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Julian Amery, Baron Amery of Lustleigh

Julian C. Smith

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Julius Ochs Adler

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Julius Schreck

Julius Schulte-Frohlinde

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Juliusz Bursche

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Juliusz Zulauf

July 20 plot

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Junker (SS rank)

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Junrokurō Matsuura

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Just Fontaine

Just Like That

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Jérôme Leroy (footballer)

Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve

Jérôme Rothen

Jérémy Clément

Jérémy Toulalan

Jäger Report

J. Edward Day

James Edward Day (October 11, 1914 – October 29, 1996) was an American lawyer and business executive, most widely known as the United States Postmaster General under whose leadership the ZIP code was introduced.

John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president.

Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U.S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953. He was subsequently elected to the U.S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960. While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, who was the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president (after Theodore Roosevelt), the youngest man to be elected as U.S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was also the first president to have served in the U.S. Navy.Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War. He increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. He subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba. However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U.S. spy planes discovered that Soviet missile bases had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting period of tensions, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, nearly resulted in the breakout of a global thermonuclear conflict. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies.

On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days later and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964. Kennedy continues to rank highly in polls of U.S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has also been the focus of considerable public fascination, particularly following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs. His average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval.

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and museum of John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917–1963), the 35th President of the United States (1961–1963). It is located on Columbia Point in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, next to the University of Massachusetts at Boston, the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, and the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum. Designed by the architect I. M. Pei, the building is the official repository for original papers and correspondence of the Kennedy Administration, as well as special bodies of published and unpublished materials, such as books and papers by and about Ernest Hemingway.

The library and museum is part of the Presidential Library System, which is administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).The library and Museum were dedicated in 1979 by 39th President Jimmy Carter and members of the Kennedy family. It can be reached from nearby Interstate 93 or via shuttle bus or walk from the JFK/UMass stop on the Boston Subway's Red Line.

John Moors Cabot

John Moors Cabot (December 11, 1901 – February 24, 1981) was an American diplomat and U.S. Ambassador to four nations during the Eisenhower and Kennedy administration. He also served as Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs.

Larry O'Brien

Lawrence Francis O'Brien Jr. (July 7, 1917 – September 28, 1990) was one of the United States Democratic Party's leading electoral strategists for more than two decades. He served as Postmaster General in the cabinet of President Lyndon Johnson and chair of the Democratic National Committee. He also served as commissioner of the National Basketball Association from 1975 to 1984. The NBA Championship Trophy is named after him.

O'Brien, son of Irish immigrants, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts. When he was not working in politics, O'Brien managed his family's real estate and worked in public relations.

List of ambassadors of the United States to Poland

The history of Ambassadors of the United States to Poland began in 1919.

Until the end of the Great War, Poland had been partitioned between Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. After the war and the collapse of the empires, Poland became an independent republic in 1918.

The United States recognized the Second Polish Republic and established diplomatic relations. The first U.S. Minister to Poland was Hugh S. Gibson, appointed in 1919.

Diplomatic relations were maintained throughout the years of World War II with the government-in-exile of Poland resident in London.

The U.S. Embassy in Poland is located in Warsaw.

List of people from Wisconsin

This is a list of notable people from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The person's hometown is in parentheses.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. Formerly the 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people who have served in all four federal elected positions.Born in a farmhouse in Stonewall, Texas, Johnson was a high school teacher and worked as a congressional aide before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1937. He won election to the Senate in 1948 and was appointed to the position of Senate Majority Whip in 1951. He became the Senate Minority Leader in 1953 and the Senate Majority Leader in 1955. He became known for his domineering personality and the "Johnson treatment", his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation.

Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he accepted the invitation of then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate. They went on to win a close election over the Republican ticket of Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated and Johnson succeeded him as president. The following year, Johnson won in a landslide, defeating Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. With 61.1 percent of the popular vote, Johnson won the largest share of the popular vote of any candidate since the largely uncontested 1820 election.

In domestic policy, Johnson designed the "Great Society" legislation to expand civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicare, Medicaid, aid to education, the arts, urban and rural development, public services and his "War on Poverty". Assisted in part by a growing economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration. Civil rights bills that he signed into law banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace and housing; the Voting Rights Act prohibited certain requirements in southern states used to disenfranchise African Americans. With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed, encouraging greater emigration from regions other than Europe. Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism after the New Deal era.

In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use military force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 525,000 in 1967, many in combat roles. American casualties soared and the peace process stagnated. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry anti-war movement based chiefly among draft-age students on university campuses.

Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots began in major cities in 1965 and crime rates soared, as his opponents raised demands for "law and order" policies. While Johnson began his presidency with widespread approval, support for him declined as the public became frustrated with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as anti-war elements denounced Johnson; he ended his bid for renomination after a disappointing finish in the New Hampshire primary. Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, where he died of a heart attack at age 64, on January 22, 1973.

Johnson is ranked favorably by many historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws that affected civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, and Social Security, although he has also drawn substantial criticism for his escalation of the Vietnam War.

Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs

The Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs (or LBJ School of Public Affairs) is a graduate school at The University of Texas at Austin that was founded in 1970 to offer professional training in public policy analysis and administration for students interested in pursuing careers in government and public affairs-related areas of the private and nonprofit sectors. Degree programs include a Master of Public Affairs (MPAff), a mid-career MPAff sequence, 16 MPAff dual degree programs, a Master of Global Policy Studies (MGPS), eight MGPS dual degree programs, an Executive Master of Public Leadership, and a Ph.D. in public policy.

Operation Marigold

Marigold was an American codename for a failed secret attempt to reach a compromise solution to the Vietnam War, carried out by Polish diplomat Janusz Lewandowski, a member of the International Control Commission, and the Italian ambassador in Saigon, Giovanni D'Orlandi, in collaboration with US ambassador in Saigon Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. at the end of 1966.In his 2012 book, James Hershberg argues that had not the USA missed this opportunity, direct talks between the United States and North Vietnam could have begun (roughly a year-and-a-half before they actually did, in Paris, in May 1968), the war (or at least the massive US direct military involvement in it) might have ended sooner, and the number of Americans who perished in the war might not have escalated from 6,250 to over 58,000.The suspended bombing of Hanoi by the Americans during the period when Lewandowski's mission was there in late November was interpreted as a subtle hint that the USA was open to talks. Via Lewandowski's mediation, both the North Vietnamese and US Governments agreed that a direct meeting would take place between their ambassadors in Warsaw, at which the US Ambassador, John A. Gronouski, would confirm that Washington indeed adhered to the positions (known as the "Ten Points") that Lewandowski had conveyed to Hanoi from Lodge. However the efforts halted when bombing in the Hanoi area resumed (for the first time in more than five months) on the 2 and 4, and again on 13–14 December 1966. US President Lyndon Johnson had authorized the continued strikes despite warnings from the Poles, and then from senior members of his own national security team, that any further attacks on Hanoi might cause Marigold to collapse. After the Poles (evidently reflecting Hanoi's wishes) broke off the initiative on December 14, Johnson belatedly halted bombing within a ten-mile radius of Hanoi's center, but despite Polish urging the North Vietnamese leadership refused to reconsider its decision to retract its agreement for direct contacts. Polish Foreign Minister Adam Rapacki relayed Hanoi's final rejection to Gronouski on December 30, and Marigold was dead.The episode first leaked into public print in a pair of articles by Robert H. Estabrook in The Washington Post in February 1967 and was then the subject of an intense investigation by Los Angeles Times reporters David Kraslow and Stuart H. Loory, who published their findings in The Secret Search for Peace in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1968). The American side of the affair first emerged in declassified US included in a lengthy chronology included in the Pentagon Paper's diplomatic volumes, which were not leaked by Daniel Ellsberg but emerged only gradually.

Presidency of John F. Kennedy

The presidency of John F. Kennedy began on January 20, 1961, when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States, and ended on November 22, 1963, upon his assassination, a span of 1,036 days. A Democrat, he took office following the 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon. He was succeeded by Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Kennedy's time in office was marked by Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union and Cuba. In Cuba, a failed attempt was made in April 1961 at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. In October 1962, the Kennedy administration learned that Soviet ballistic missiles had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting period of unease, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, is seen by many historians as the closest the human race has ever come to nuclear war between nuclear-armed belligerents. Ultimately, the United States and the Soviet Union came to an agreement to end the crisis, and the Soviets withdrew the missiles. To contain Communist expansion in Asia, Kennedy increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower; a further escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War would take place after Kennedy's death.

In domestic politics, Kennedy made bold proposals in his New Frontier agenda, but few were passed by Congress. He presided over a growing economy that experienced low inflation and a drop in unemployment rates. Kennedy took steps to support the Civil Rights Movement, helping to pass the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which abolished poll taxes. He also established the Peace Corps and intensified the Space Race. Two major pieces of Kennedy's domestic agenda, a civil rights bill and a tax cut, were enacted within a year of his death.

Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963 while visiting Dallas, Texas. Though the Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy, Kennedy's death gave rise to various conspiracy theories. Kennedy was the first Roman Catholic to serve as President of the United States, as well as the youngest individual ever to win a U.S. presidential election. Historians and political scientists tend to rank Kennedy as an above-average president.

USS Casimir Pulaski (SSBN-633)

USS Casimir Pulaski (SSBN-633), a James Madison-class ballistic missile submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Casimir Pulaski (1745–1779), a Polish general who served in the American Revolutionary War.

United States Postmaster General

The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service; Megan Brennan is the current Postmaster General.

Appointed members of the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service select the Postmaster General and Deputy Postmaster General, who then join the Board.

Walter J. Stoessel Jr.

Walter John Stoessel Jr. (January 24, 1920 – December 9, 1986) was an American diplomat.

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