Johann Jakob von Kaup (10 April 1803 – 4 July 1873) was a German naturalist. A proponent of natural philosophy, he believed in an innate mathematical order in nature and he attempted biological classifications based on the Quinarian system. Kaup is also known for having coined popular prehistoric taxa like Pterosauria and Machairodus.
He was born at Darmstadt. After studying at Göttingen and Heidelberg he spent two years at Leiden, where his attention was specially devoted to the amphibians and fishes. He then returned to Darmstadt as an assistant in the grand ducal museum, of which in 1840 he became inspector. In 1829 he published Skizze zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der europäischen Thierwelt, in which he regarded the animal world as developed from lower to higher forms, from the amphibians through the birds to the beasts of prey; but subsequently he repudiated this work as a youthful indiscretion, and on the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species he declared himself against its doctrines. The extensive fossil deposits in the neighbourhood of Darmstadt gave him ample opportunities for palaeontological inquiries, and he gained considerable reputation by his Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss der urweltlichen Säugethiere (1855–1862). He also wrote Classification der Säugethiere und Vögel (1844), and, with Heinrich Georg Bronn, Die Gavial-artigen Reste aus dem Lias (1842–1844).
He died at Darmstadt.
A particularly important incident in the history of paleontology involves Kaup. In 1854 he bought the American mastodon found in 1799 in Orange County, New York. This is the mastodon immortalized in Charles Willson Peale's painting of the 1801 excavation (painting executed between 1806 and 1808). This mastodon was on display for many years in Peale's Museum and is currently on display in Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Germany This mastodon is the first complete example found in the United States, and may be only the second fossil animal ever mounted for display.
Apodemus is the genus of Muridae (true mice and rats) which contains the Eurasian field mice.Bronchocela
Bronchocela is a genus of Asian lizards in the family Agamidae.Choeroichthys
Choeroichthys is a genus of pipefishes of the family Syngnathidae native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.Corythoichthys
Corythoichthys is a genus of pipefishes of the family Syngnathidae. All species in the genus are found in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans on reefs or rubble bottoms. Relationships and taxonomy within the genus are still in debate, but there may be at least 23 species.
Males and females engage in seasonal pair bonding and are most often found in pairs on reefs. During courtship, the male and female "dance" around one another above the substrate. The female lays her eggs in a sheet, which she then presses against the underside of the male. The male will then grow skin over the eggs to form a brood pouch. Small pipefish hatch out of the eggs within a few weeks.Gonocephalus
Gonocephalus is also a synonym of the catfish genus Clarotes.
Gonocephalus is a genus of agamid lizards endemic to southeast Asia.Hoplarchus
Hoplarchus is a genus of cichlid in the tribe Heroini. It contains the single species Hoplarchus psittacus, which is endemic to the blackwater rivers in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela, including the Rio Negro, Jamari, Preto da Eva, Urubu rivers and upper Orinoco drainages. This fish can reach a length of 35 centimetres (14 in) TL and is important as a food fish to local indigenous peoples. This species is occasionally kept as an aquarium fish and is traded under the common name "parrot cichlid" (a name also used for one other species and a hybrid fish).Hydrosaurus
Hydrosaurus, commonly known as the sailfin lizards, is a genus in the family Agamidae. These relatively large lizards are named after the sail-like structure on their tails. They are native to the Philippines, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, where they are generally found near water, such as rivers and mangrove. Sailfin lizards are semiaquatic and able to run short distances across water using both their feet and tail for support, similar to the basilisks. They are threatened by both habitat loss and overcollection for the wild animal trade.They are the only members of the subfamily Hydrosaurinae.Ictonyx
Ictonyx is a genus in the family Mustelidae (weasels). It contains two species :
Saharan striped polecat (Ictonyx libycus)
Striped polecat (Ictonyx striatus)Leptonotus
Leptonotus is a genus of pipefishes of the family Syngnathidae. The name is derived from the Greek leptos meaning "thin" and noton meaning "back".Machairodus
Machairodus is a genus of large machairodontine saber-toothed cats that lived in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America from the late Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene. It is the animal from which the family Machairodontidae gets its name and has since become a wastebasket taxon over the years as many genera of sabertooth cat have been and are still occasionally lumped into it.Narke (genus)
Narke is a genus of electric rays in the family Narkidae, found in the western Indo-Pacific and off southern Africa. They have nearly circular pectoral fin discs and short, thick tails with large caudal fins, and can be identified by their single dorsal fin (a trait shared only by Typhlonarke within the family). There are three described species, as well as a fourth undescribed dwarf species from Taiwan.Phrynocephalus
Phrynocephalus is a genus which includes 44 species of small and medium-sized agamid lizards, commonly called toadhead agamas or toad-headed agamas, that inhabit open arid and semiarid environments of Asia and Eastern Europe. The systematics of this genus are very complicated with many controversial points of view about the unclear phylogeny of this group. All representatives of this genus have adopted the so-called "sit and wait" hunting strategy and they actively use visual orientation when watching for food. In general, the ecological niche and role of Phrynocephalus species in lizard communities of arid environments of Asia are poorly studied, but seem to be similar to that of Phrynosoma, Cophosaurus, Holbrookia, Uta, and Sceloporus in the New World, as well as Moloch in Australia.Poecile
Poecile is a genus of birds in the tit family Paridae. It contains 15 species, which are scattered across North America, Europe and Asia; the North American species are the chickadees. In the past, most authorities retained Poecile as a subgenus within the genus Parus, but treatment as a distinct genus, initiated by the American Ornithologists Union, is now widely accepted. This is supported by mtDNA cytochrome b sequence analysis.The genus Poecile was erected by the German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829. The type species was subsequently designated as the marsh tit. The name Poecile is from Ancient Greek poikilos "colourful". A related word poikilidos denoted an unidentified small bird. It has traditionally been treated as feminine (giving name endings such as cincta); however, this was not specified by the original genus author Johann Jakob Kaup, and under the ICZN the genus name must therefore be treated by default as masculine, giving name endings such as cinctus.Sebastidae
Sebastidae is a family of marine fish in the order Scorpaeniformes. Their common names include rockfishes, rock perches, ocean perches, sea perches, thornyheads, scorpionfishes, sea ruffes and rockcods. Despite the latter name, they are not closely related to the cods in the genus Gadus, nor the rock cod, Lotella rhacina.
Not all authorities recognise this family as distinct from Scorpaenidae. FishBase, a finfish database generated by a consortium of academic institutions, does, but the United States Federal government's Integrated Taxonomic Information System does not.A substantial majority of the approximately 130 species in this family belong to genus Sebastes, including the rose fish (Sebastes norvegicus). They are found in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. More than 100 of the species are viviparous, and these occur mainly in the North Pacific. All species have venom glands in their dorsal, anal, and pelvic spines.Southern banded snake eagle
The southern banded snake eagle, also known as the East African snake eagle or fasciated snake eagle (Circaetus fasciolatus) is a species of snake eagle in the family Accipitridae which is found in eastern Sub-Saharan Africa.Stigmatopora
Stigmatopora is a genus of pipefishes native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.Synanceiidae
Synanceiidae is a family of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish, found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. They are primarily marine, though some species are known to live in fresh or brackish waters. The various species of this family are known informally as stonefish, stinger, stingfish and ghouls. The most prominent genus of the family is Synanceia, which is sometimes placed in the family Scorpaenidae. Its species are known to have the most potent neurotoxins of all the fish venoms, secreted from glands at the base of their needle-like dorsal fin spines. The vernacular name of the species derives from their behaviour of camouflaging as rocks. The type species of the family is the stonefish, Synanceia verrucosa.Uracentron
Uracentron is a genus of Tropidurid lizards found in forests in northern South America. It contains only two species, which are both arboreal, have a relatively short spiny tail, and mainly feed on ants.Xanthichthys
Xanthichthys is a genus of triggerfishes native to reef environments in the western Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean.