Johann Jakob Kaup

Johann Jakob von Kaup[1] (10 April 1803 – 4 July 1873) was a German naturalist. A proponent of natural philosophy, he believed in an innate mathematical order in nature and he attempted biological classifications based on the Quinarian system. Kaup is also known for having coined popular prehistoric taxa like Pterosauria and Machairodus.

KaupClassification
Kaup's pentagram representing the structure of the crow family
Kaup Johann Jakob 1803-1873
Johann Jakob Kaup.

Biography

He was born at Darmstadt. After studying at Göttingen and Heidelberg he spent two years at Leiden, where his attention was specially devoted to the amphibians and fishes. He then returned to Darmstadt as an assistant in the grand ducal museum, of which in 1840 he became inspector. In 1829 he published Skizze zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der europäischen Thierwelt, in which he regarded the animal world as developed from lower to higher forms, from the amphibians through the birds to the beasts of prey; but subsequently he repudiated this work as a youthful indiscretion, and on the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species he declared himself against its doctrines. The extensive fossil deposits in the neighbourhood of Darmstadt gave him ample opportunities for palaeontological inquiries, and he gained considerable reputation by his Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss der urweltlichen Säugethiere (1855–1862). He also wrote Classification der Säugethiere und Vögel (1844), and, with Heinrich Georg Bronn, Die Gavial-artigen Reste aus dem Lias (1842–1844).

He died at Darmstadt.

Mastodon fossil

A particularly important incident in the history of paleontology involves Kaup. In 1854 he bought the American mastodon found in 1799 in Orange County, New York. This is the mastodon immortalized in Charles Willson Peale's painting of the 1801 excavation (painting executed between 1806 and 1808). This mastodon was on display for many years in Peale's Museum and is currently on display in Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Germany[2] This mastodon is the first complete example found in the United States, and may be only the second fossil animal ever mounted for display.

References

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kaup, Johann Jakob" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Watkins, M. & Boelens, B. (2015): Sharks: An Eponym Dictionary. pp. 219. Pelagic Publishing. ISBN 978-1-907807-93-0.
  2. ^ Gaylord Simpson and H. Tobien, George (1954). "The Rediscovery of Peale's Mastodon". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 98 (4).
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Bronchocela

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Choeroichthys

Choeroichthys is a genus of pipefishes of the family Syngnathidae native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Corythoichthys

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Males and females engage in seasonal pair bonding and are most often found in pairs on reefs. During courtship, the male and female "dance" around one another above the substrate. The female lays her eggs in a sheet, which she then presses against the underside of the male. The male will then grow skin over the eggs to form a brood pouch. Small pipefish hatch out of the eggs within a few weeks.

Gonocephalus

Gonocephalus is also a synonym of the catfish genus Clarotes.

Gonocephalus is a genus of agamid lizards endemic to southeast Asia.

Hoplarchus

Hoplarchus is a genus of cichlid in the tribe Heroini. It contains the single species Hoplarchus psittacus, which is endemic to the blackwater rivers in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela, including the Rio Negro, Jamari, Preto da Eva, Urubu rivers and upper Orinoco drainages. This fish can reach a length of 35 centimetres (14 in) TL and is important as a food fish to local indigenous peoples. This species is occasionally kept as an aquarium fish and is traded under the common name "parrot cichlid" (a name also used for one other species and a hybrid fish).

Hydrosaurus

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Ictonyx

Ictonyx is a genus in the family Mustelidae (weasels). It contains two species :

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Striped polecat (Ictonyx striatus)

Leptonotus

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Machairodus

Machairodus is a genus of large machairodontine saber-toothed cats that lived in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America from the late Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene. It is the animal from which the family Machairodontidae gets its name and has since become a wastebasket taxon over the years as many genera of sabertooth cat have been and are still occasionally lumped into it.

Narke (genus)

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Phrynocephalus

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Poecile

Poecile is a genus of birds in the tit family Paridae. It contains 15 species, which are scattered across North America, Europe and Asia; the North American species are the chickadees. In the past, most authorities retained Poecile as a subgenus within the genus Parus, but treatment as a distinct genus, initiated by the American Ornithologists Union, is now widely accepted. This is supported by mtDNA cytochrome b sequence analysis.The genus Poecile was erected by the German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829. The type species was subsequently designated as the marsh tit. The name Poecile is from Ancient Greek poikilos "colourful". A related word poikilidos denoted an unidentified small bird. It has traditionally been treated as feminine (giving name endings such as cincta); however, this was not specified by the original genus author Johann Jakob Kaup, and under the ICZN the genus name must therefore be treated by default as masculine, giving name endings such as cinctus.

Sebastidae

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Southern banded snake eagle

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Stigmatopora

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Synanceiidae

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Uracentron

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Xanthichthys

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