Johann Gottlieb Fichte (/ˈfɪxtə/; German: [ˈjoːhan ˈɡɔtliːp ˈfɪçtə]; 19 May 1762 – 27 January 1814) was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. Recently, philosophers and scholars have begun to appreciate Fichte as an important philosopher in his own right due to his original insights into the nature of self-consciousness or self-awareness. Fichte was also the originator of thesis–antithesis–synthesis, an idea that is often erroneously attributed to Hegel. Like Descartes and Kant before him, Fichte was motivated by the problem of subjectivity and consciousness. Fichte also wrote works of political philosophy; he has a reputation as one of the fathers of German nationalism.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
|Born||May 19, 1762|
|Died||January 27, 1814 (aged 51)|
University of Jena
(1780; no degree)
(1781–1784; no degree)
Post-Kantian transcendental idealism
Coherence theory of truth
|Institutions||University of Jena|
University of Erlangen
University of Berlin
|Academic advisors||Immanuel Kant|
|Notable students||Immanuel Hermann Fichte (son)|
|Self-consciousness and self-awareness, moral philosophy, political philosophy|
Fichte was born in Rammenau, Upper Lusatia. The son of a ribbon weaver, he came of peasant stock which had lived in the region for many generations. The family was noted in the neighborhood for its probity and piety. Christian Fichte, Johann Gottlieb's father, married somewhat above his station. It has been suggested that a certain impatience which Fichte himself displayed throughout his life was an inheritance from his mother.
He received the rudiments of his education from his father. He showed remarkable ability from an early age, and it was owing to his reputation among the villagers that he gained the opportunity for a better education than he otherwise would have received. The story runs that the Freiherr von Militz, a country landowner, arrived too late to hear the local pastor preach. He was, however, informed that a lad in the neighborhood would be able to repeat the sermon almost verbatim. As a result, the baron took the lad into his protection, which meant that he paid his tuition.
Fichte was placed in the family of Pastor Krebel at Niederau near Meissen, and there received a thorough grounding in the classics. From this time onward, Fichte saw little of his parents. In October 1774, he was attending the celebrated foundation-school at Pforta near Naumburg. This school is associated with the names of Novalis, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schlegel and Nietzsche. The spirit of the institution was semi-monastic and, while the education given was excellent in its way, it is doubtful whether there was enough social life and contact with the world for a pupil of Fichte's temperament and antecedents. Perhaps his education strengthened a tendency toward introspection and independence, characteristics which appear strongly in his doctrines and writings.
In 1780, he began study at the theology seminary of the University of Jena. He was transferred a year later to study at the Leipzig University. Fichte seems to have supported himself at this period of bitter poverty and hard struggle. Freiherr von Militz continued to support him, but when he died in 1784, Fichte had to end his studies prematurely, without completing his degree.
During the years 1784 to 1788, he supported himself in a precarious way as tutor in various Saxon families. In early 1788, he returned to Leipzig in the hope of finding a better employment, but eventually he had to settle for a much less promising position with the family of an innkeeper in Zurich. He lived in Zurich for the next two years (1788–1790), which was a time of great contentment for him. There he met his future wife, Johanna Rahn, and Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. There he also became, in 1793, a member of the Freemasonry lodge "Modestia cum Libertate" with which Johann Wolfgang Goethe was also connected. In the spring of 1790, he became engaged to Johanna. Fichte began to study the works of Kant in the summer of 1790, but this occurred initially because one of his students wanted to know about them. They had a lasting effect on the trajectory of his life and thought. While he was assimilating the Kantian philosophy and preparing to develop it, fate dealt him a blow: the Rahn family had suffered financial reverses, and his impending marriage had to be postponed.
From Zurich, Fichte returned to Leipzig in May 1790. In the spring of 1791, he obtained a tutorship at Warsaw in the house of a Polish nobleman. The situation, however, quickly proved disagreeable and he was released. He then got a chance to see Kant at Königsberg. After a disappointing interview on July 4 of the same year, he shut himself in his lodgings and threw all his energies into the composition of an essay which would compel Kant's attention and interest. This essay, completed in five weeks, was the Versuch einer Critik aller Offenbarung (Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation, 1792). In this book, according to Henrich, Fichte investigated the connections between divine revelation and Kant's critical philosophy. The first edition of the book was published without Kant's or Fichte's knowledge, moreover without Fichte's name or signed preface. It was thus mistakenly thought to be a new work by Kant himself.
Reviews were assuming Kant was the author when Kant cleared the confusion and openly praised the work and author. Fichte's reputation skyrocketed as many intellectuals of the day were of the opinion that it was "the most shocking and astonishing news... [since] nobody but Kant could have written this book. This amazing news of a third sun in the philosophical heavens has set me into such confusion". Karl Popper considers the book as essentially "a fraud" which though rather boring cleverly imitated Kant's style and that the rumours that Kant himself had written the book to be contrived. Kant waited seven years to make public statement about the incident; after considerable external pressure he dissociated himself from Fichte. In his statement, he inscribed, "May God protect us from our friends. From our enemies, we can try to protect ourselves."
In October 1793, he was married in Zurich, where he remained the rest of the year. Stirred by the events and principles of the French Revolution, he wrote and anonymously published two pamphlets which led to him being seen as a devoted defender of liberty of thought and action and an advocate of political changes. In December of the same year, he received an invitation to fill the position of extraordinary professor of philosophy at the University of Jena. He accepted and began his lectures in May of the next year. With extraordinary zeal, he expounded his system of "transcendental idealism". His success was immediate. He seems to have excelled as a lecturer because of the earnestness and force of his personality. These lectures were later published under the title The Vocation of the Scholar (Einige Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten). He gave himself up to intense production, and a succession of works soon appeared.
After weathering a couple of academic storms, he was finally dismissed from Jena in 1799 as a result of a charge of atheism. He was accused of this in 1798, after publishing his essay "Ueber den Grund unsers Glaubens an eine göttliche Weltregierung" ("On the Ground of Our Belief in a Divine World-Governance"), which he had written in response to Friedrich Karl Forberg's essay "Development of the Concept of Religion", in his Philosophical Journal. For Fichte, God should be conceived primarily in moral terms: "The living and efficaciously acting moral order is itself God. We require no other God, nor can we grasp any other" ("On the Ground of Our Belief in a Divine World-Governance"). Fichte's intemperate "Appeal to the Public" ("Appellation an das Publikum", 1799) provoked F. H. Jacobi to publish an open letter to him, in which he equated philosophy in general and Fichte's transcendental philosophy in particular with nihilism.
Since all the German states except Prussia had joined in the cry against Fichte, he was forced to go to Berlin. There he associated himself with the Schlegels, Schleiermacher, Schelling and Tieck. In April 1800, through the introduction of Hungarian writer Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, he was initiated into Freemasonry in the Lodge Pythagoras of the Blazing Star where he was elected minor warden. At first Fichte was a warm admirer of Fessler, and was disposed to aid him in his proposed Masonic reform. But later he became Fessler's bitter opponent. Their controversy attracted much attention among Freemasons. Fichte presented two lectures on the philosophy of Masonry during the same period as part of his work on the development of various higher degrees for the lodge in Berlin. A certain Johann Karl Christian Fischer, a high official of the Grand Orient, published those lectures in 1802/03 in two volumes under the title Philosophy of Freemasonry: Letters to Konstant (Philosophie der Maurerei. Briefe an Konstant), where Konstant referred to a fictitious non-Mason.
In November 1800, Fichte published The Closed Commercial State: A Philosophical Sketch as an Appendix to the Doctrine of Right and an Example of a Future Politics (Der geschlossene Handelsstaat. Ein philosophischer Entwurf als Anhang zur Rechtslehre und Probe einer künftig zu liefernden Politik), a philosophical statement of his property theory, a historical analysis of European economic relations, and a political proposal for reforming them. In 1805, he was appointed to a professorship at the University of Erlangen. The Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806, in which Napoleon completely crushed the Prussian army, drove him to Königsberg for a time, but he returned to Berlin in 1807 and continued his literary activity.
After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, where German southern principalities resigned as member states and became part of a French protectorship, Fichte delivered the famous Addresses to the German Nation (Reden an die deutsche Nation, 1807-1808) which attempted to define the German Nation, and guided the uprising against Napoleon. He became a professor at the new University of Berlin, founded in 1810. By the votes of his colleagues Fichte was unanimously elected its rector in the succeeding year. But, once more, his impetuosity and reforming zeal led to friction, and he resigned in 1812. The campaign against Napoleon began, and the hospitals at Berlin were soon full of patients. Fichte's wife devoted herself to nursing and caught a virulent fever. Just as she was recovering, he himself was stricken down. He died of typhus at the age of 51.
In mimicking Kant's difficult style, his critics argued that Fichte produced works that were barely intelligible. "He made no hesitation in pluming himself on his great skill in the shadowy and obscure, by often remarking to his pupils, that 'there was only one man in the world who could fully understand his writings; and even he was often at a loss to seize upon his real meaning.'" On the other hand, Fichte himself acknowledged the difficulty of his writings, but argued that his works were clear and transparent to those who made the effort to think without preconceptions and prejudices.
Fichte did not endorse Kant's argument for the existence of noumena, of "things in themselves", the supra-sensible reality beyond the categories of direct human perception. Fichte saw the rigorous and systematic separation of "things in themselves" (noumena) and things "as they appear to us" (phenomena) as an invitation to skepticism. Rather than invite such skepticism, Fichte made the radical suggestion that we should throw out the notion of a noumenal world and instead accept the fact that consciousness does not have a grounding in a so-called "real world". In fact, Fichte achieved fame for originating the argument that consciousness is not grounded in anything outside of itself. The phenomenal world as such, arises from self-consciousness; the activity of the ego; and moral awareness. His student (and critic), Arthur Schopenhauer, wrote:
Fichte who, because the thing-in-itself had just been discredited, at once prepared a system without any thing-in-itself. Consequently, he rejected the assumption of anything that was not through and through merely our representation, and therefore let the knowing subject be all in all or at any rate produce everything from its own resources. For this purpose, he at once did away with the essential and most meritorious part of the Kantian doctrine, the distinction between a priori and a posteriori and thus that between the phenomenon and the thing-in-itself. For he declared everything to be a priori, naturally without any evidence for such a monstrous assertion; instead of these, he gave sophisms and even crazy sham demonstrations whose absurdity was concealed under the mask of profundity and of the incomprehensibility ostensibly arising therefrom. Moreover, he appealed boldly and openly to intellectual intuition, that is, really to inspiration.— Arthur Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena, Vol. I, §13
Søren Kierkegaard was also a student of the writings of Fichte:
Our whole age is imbued with a formal striving. This is what led us to disregard congeniality and to emphasize symmetrical beauty, to prefer conventional rather than sincere social relations. It is this whole striving which is denoted by — to use the words of another author — Fichte's and the other philosophers' attempts to construct systems by sharpness of mind and Robespierre's attempt to do it with the help of the guillotine; it is this which meets us in the flowing butterfly verses of our poets and in Auber's music, and finally, it is this which produces the many revolutions in the political world. I agree perfectly with this whole effort to cling to form, insofar as it continues to be the medium through which we have the idea, but it should not be forgotten that it is the idea which should determine the form, not the form which determines the idea. We should keep in mind that life is not something abstract but something extremely individual. We should not forget that, for example, from a poetic genius' position of immediacy, form is nothing but the coming into existence of the idea in the world, and that the task of reflection is only to investigate whether or not the idea has gotten the properly corresponding form. Form is not the basis of life, but life is the basis of form. Imagine that a man long infatuated with the Greek mode of life had acquired the means to arrange for a building in the Greek style and a Grecian household establishment — whether or not he would be satisfied would be highly problematical, or would he soon prefer another form simply because he had not sufficiently tested himself and the system in which he lived. But just as a leap backward is wrong (something the age, on the whole, is inclined to acknowledge), so also a leap forward is wrong — both of them because a natural development does not proceed by leaps, and life's earnestness will ironize over every such experiment, even if it succeeds momentarily.— Søren Kierkegaard, Journals, "Our Journalistic Literature", 28 November 1835.
In his work Foundations of Natural Right (1797), Fichte argued that self-consciousness was a social phenomenon — an important step and perhaps the first clear step taken in this direction by modern philosophy. A necessary condition of every subject's self-awareness, for Fichte, is the existence of other rational subjects. These others call or summon (fordern auf) the subject or self out of its unconsciousness and into an awareness of itself as a free individual.
Fichte's account proceeds from the general principle that the I (das Ich) must posit itself as an individual in order to posit (setzen) itself at all, and that in order to posit itself as an individual it must recognize itself as it were to a calling or summons (Aufforderung) by other free individual(s) — called, moreover, to limit its own freedom out of respect for the freedom of the other. The same condition applied and applies, of course, to the other(s) in its development. Hence, mutual recognition (gegenseitig anerkennen) of rational individuals turns out to be a condition necessary for the individual I in general. This argument for intersubjectivity is central to the conception of selfhood developed in the Foundations of the Science of Knowledge (Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre, 1794/1795).
In Fichte's view consciousness of the self depends upon resistance or a check by something that is understood as not part of the self yet is not immediately ascribable to a particular sensory perception. In his later 1796–99 lectures (his Nova methodo), Fichte incorporated it into his revised presentation of the very foundations of his system, where the summons takes its place alongside original feeling, which takes the place of the earlier Anstoss (see below) as both a limit upon the absolute freedom of the I and a condition for the positing of the same.
The I itself posits this situation for itself. To posit does not mean to 'create' the objects of consciousness. The principle in question simply states that the essence of an I lies in the assertion of one's own self-identity, i.e., that consciousness presupposes self-consciousness. Such immediate self-identity, however, cannot be understood as a psychological fact, nor as an act or accident of some previously existing substance or being. It is an action of the I, but one that is identical with the very existence of this same I. In Fichte's technical terminology, the original unity of self-consciousness is to be understood both as an action and as the product of the same I, as a "fact and/or act" (Thathandlung; Modern German: Tathandlung), a unity that is presupposed by and contained within every fact and every act of empirical consciousness, although it never appears as such therein.
The I must posit itself in order to be an I at all; but it can posit itself only insofar as it posits itself as limited. Moreover, it cannot even posit for itself its own limitations, in the sense of producing or creating these limits. The finite I cannot be the ground of its own passivity. Instead, for Fichte, if the I is to posit itself off at all, it must simply discover itself to be limited, a discovery that Fichte characterizes as an "impulse," "repulse," or "resistance" (Anstoss; Modern German: Anstoß) to the free practical activity of the I. Such an original limitation of the I is, however, a limit for the I only insofar as the I posits it out as a limit. The I does this, according to Fichte's analysis, by positing its own limitation, first, as only a feeling, then as a sensation, then as an intuition of a thing, and finally as a summons of another person.
The Anstoss thus provides the essential impetus that first posits in motion the entire complex train of activities that finally result in our conscious experience both of ourselves and others as empirical individuals and of the world around us. Although Anstoss plays a similar role as the thing in itself does in Kantian philosophy, unlike Kant, Fichte's Anstoss is not something foreign to the I. Instead, it denotes the original encounter of the I with its own finitude. Rather than claim that the not-I (das Nicht-Ich) is the cause or ground of the Anstoss, Fichte argues that not-I is posited by the I precisely in order to explain to itself the Anstoss, that is, in order to become conscious of Anstoss. The Wissenschaftslehre demonstrates that such an Anstoss must occur if self-consciousness is to come about but is unable to deduce or to explain the actual occurrence of such an Anstoss — except as a condition for the possibility of consciousness. Accordingly, there are strict limits to what can be expected from any a priori deduction of experience, and this limitation, for Fichte, equally applies to Kant's transcendental philosophy. According to Fichte, transcendental philosophy can explain that the world must have space, time, and causality, but it can never explain why objects have the particular sensible properties they happen to have or why I am this determinate individual rather than another. This is something that the I simply has to discover at the same time that it discovers its own freedom, and indeed, as a condition for the latter.
Dieter Henrich (1966) proposed that Fichte was able to move beyond a "reflective theory of consciousness". According to Fichte, the self must already have some prior acquaintance with itself, independent of the act of reflection ("no object comes to consciousness except under the condition that I am aware of myself, the conscious subject [jedes Object kommt zum Bewusstseyn lediglich unter der Bedingung, dass ich auch meiner selbst, des bewusstseyenden Subjects mir bewusst sey]"). This idea is what Henrich called Fichte's original insight.
Between December 1807 and March 1808, Fichte gave a series of lectures concerning the "German nation" and its culture and language, projecting the kind of national education he hoped would raise it from the humiliation of its defeat at the hands of the French.  Having been a supporter of Revolutionary France, Fichte became disenchanted by 1804 as Napoleon's armies advanced through Europe, occupying German territories, stripping them of their raw materials and subjugating them to foreign rule. Consequently, Fichte came to believe Germany would be responsible to carry the virtues of the French Revolution into the future. Furthermore, his nationalism was not aroused by Prussian military defeat and humiliation, for these had not yet occurred, but resulted from devotion to his own humanitarian philosophy. Through disappointment in the French he turned to the German nation as the instrument of fulfilling it.
These lectures, entitled the Addresses to the German Nation, coincided with a period of reform in the Prussian government, under the chancellorship of Baron vom Stein. The Addresses display Fichte's interest during that period in language and culture as vehicles of human spiritual development. Fichte built upon the earlier ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder and attempted to unite them with his more systematic approach. The aim of the German nation, according to Fichte, was to "found an empire of spirit and reason, and to annihilate completely the crude physical force that rules of the world." Like Herder's German nationalism, Fichte's was wholly cultural, and grounded in the aesthetic, literary, and moral.
The nationalism propounded by Fichte in the Addresses would be appealed to over a century later by the Nazi Party in Germany, which sought in Fichte a forerunner to its own nationalist ideology. Like Nietzsche, the association of Fichte with the Nazi regime came to colour readings of Fichte's German nationalism in the post-war period. This reading of Fichte was often bolstered through reference to an unpublished letter from 1793, Contributions to the Correction of the Public's Judgment concerning the French Revolution, wherein Fichte expressed anti-semitic sentiments, such as arguing against extending civil rights to Jews and calling them a "state within a state" that could "undermine" the German nation.
However, attached to the letter is a footnote in which Fichte provides an impassioned plea for permitting Jews to practice their religion without hindrance. Furthermore, the final act of Fichte's academic career was to resign as rector of the University of Berlin in protest when his colleagues refused to punish the harassment of Jewish students. While recent scholarship has sought to dissociate Fichte's writings on nationalism with his adoption by the Nazi Party, the association continues to blight his legacy, although Fichte, as if to exclude all ground of doubt, clearly and distinctly prohibits — in his reworked version of The Science of Ethics as Based on the Science of Knowledge (see § Final period in Berlin) — genocide and other crimes against humanity:
Fichte argued that "active citizenship, civic freedom and even property rights should be withheld from women, whose calling was to subject themselves utterly to the authority of their fathers and husbands."
Fichte gave a wide range of public and private lectures in Berlin from the last decade of his life. These form some of his best known work, and are the basis of a revived German-speaking scholarly interest in his work.
The lectures include two works from 1806. In The Characteristics of the Present Age (Die Grundzüge des gegenwärtigen Zeitalters), Fichte outlines his theory of different historical and cultural epochs. His mystic work The Way Towards the Blessed Life (Die Anweisung zum seligen Leben oder auch die Religionslehre) gave his fullest thoughts on religion. In 1807-1808 he gave a series of speeches in French-occupied Berlin, Addresses to the German Nation.
In 1810, the new University of Berlin was set up, designed along lines put forward by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Fichte was made its rector and also the first Chair of Philosophy. This was in part because of educational themes in the Addresses, and in part because of his earlier work at Jena University.
Fichte lectured on further versions of his Wissenschaftslehre. Of these, he only published a brief work from 1810, The Science of Knowledge in its General Outline (Die Wissenschaftslehre, in ihrem allgemeinen Umrisse dargestellt; also translated as Outline of the Doctrine of Knowledge). His son published some of these thirty years after his death. Most only became public in the last decades of the twentieth century, in his collected works. This included reworked versions of the Doctrine of Science (Wissenschaftslehre, 1810–1813), The Science of Rights (Das System der Rechtslehre, 1812), and The Science of Ethics as Based on the Science of Knowledge (Das System der Sittenlehre nach den Principien der Wissenschaftslehre, 1812; 1st ed. 1798).
The new standard edition of Fichte's works in German, which supersedes all previous editions, is the Gesamtausgabe ("Collected Works" or "Complete Edition", commonly abbreviated as GA), prepared by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences: Gesamtausgabe der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 42 volumes, edited by Reinhard Lauth, Hans Gliwitzky, Erich Fuchs and Peter Schneider, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 1962–2012.
It is organized into four parts:
Fichte's works are quoted and cited from GA, followed by a combination of Roman and Arabic numbers, indicating the series and volume, respectively, and the page number(s). Another edition is Johann Gottlieb Fichtes sämmtliche Werke (abbrev. SW), ed. I. H. Fichte. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1971.
Wenn du sagtest, es sei dir durch dein Gewissen geboten, Völker zur Strafe für ihre Sünden auszurotten, […] so können wir dir mit Zuversicht sagen, daß du dich täuschest; denn dergleichen kann der freien und sittlichen Kraft nie geboten werden', schrieb Fichte 1812 (SL 1812; Akad.-Ausg. II, 13, S. 368).Heger, Christoph. "Reinhard Lauth" (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-09-14. Retrieved 2018-09-14. ISBN 3-935990-14-6 (paperback), ISBN 3-935990-15-4 (hardback).
The Addresses to the German Nation (German: Reden an die deutsche Nation, 1808) is a political literature book by German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte that advocates German nationalism in reaction to the occupation and subjugation of German territories by Napoleon's French Empire. Fichte evoked a sense of German distinctiveness in language, tradition, and literature that composed a common identity.An Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation
An Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation (German: Versuch einer Critik aller Offenbarung; 1792) was the first published work by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. It was briefly mistaken by the public to be a fourth Critique by Immanuel Kant, and thereby gained Fichte much philosophical fame.
In this work, Fichte argued that any revelation in relation to God must be consistent with morality, which was against many aspects of orthodox Christian belief at the time.Atheism dispute
The atheism dispute (German: Atheismusstreit) was an event in German cultural history that lasted between 1798–1800 which had an effect on the German philosophy of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.Caroline-Schlegel-Preis
The Caroline-Schlegel-Preis is a literary award of Germany, reserved for the genres of essay and feuilleton. The city of Jena first advertised it by way of a public competition in 2000, when the "Romantikerhaus" (the former residence of the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte) re-opened as a museum for literary culture. The award has been offered once in a period of three years each time, starting from 2002. There is a main award ("Hauptpreis"; €5.000) and a subsidiary award ("Förderpreis"; €2.500). The complete prize money of €7.500 has been granted by an anonymous private patron.Foundations of Natural Right
Foundations of Natural Right (German: Grundlagen des Naturrechts nach Prinzipien der Wissenschaftslehre) is a philosophical text by the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte and it was first published in 1797. The book is one of Fichte's most important and one of his broadest books in terms of subjects covered.
The book begins with the subject of self-consciousness. Fichte believes that self-consciousness requires resistance from exterior objects, but this resistance can only come from other rational beings, making consciousness a social phenomenon. Because of this, people are inevitably involved in relations with others that Fichte calls a 'relation of right.' The relation of right relies on mutual recognition of rationality and consciousness by all parties involved. Each conscious agent, Fichte thinks, should retain their own 'sphere of freedom' in which they are free from outside forces.
As the text continues, Fichte uses the idea of the 'sphere of freedom' to establish what he calls 'original right.' Original right is a fictitious concept in which a being can exist only as a cause, and never be caused or effected by exterior forces. To violate one's original right is to violate one's freedom and to commit coercion.
To combat coercion, Fichte suggests taking away any incentive to commit such a crime. Namely, there must be a society that, whenever one attempts to commit a crime, the exact opposite of the criminal's intention will occur. He then concludes that a society such as this could only exist in a commonwealth, and goes on to discuss the exact nature of such a commonwealth.Foundations of the Science of Knowledge
Foundations of the Science of Knowledge (German: Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaftslehre) is a 1794/1795 book by the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Based on lectures Fichte had delivered as a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Jena, it was later reworked in various versions. The standard Wissenschaftslehre was published in 1804, but other versions appeared posthumously.Friedrich Gustav Lisco
Friedrich Gustav Lisco (February 12, 1791 – July 5, 1866) was a German Protestant Christian theologian born in Brandenburg an der Havel. His son, Emil Gustav Lisco, was also a preacher.
He studied at Viadrina University in Frankfurt and at the University of Berlin, where his instructors were Friedrich Schleiermacher, August Boeckh, Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, with the latter being an important influence to his career. From 1814 he worked as a preacher in Berlin. In 1839 he obtained an honorary doctorate from the University of Berlin.Johann Gottfried Langermann
Johann Gottfried Langermann (August 8, 1768 – September 5, 1832) was a German psychiatrist and administrator born in Maxen, near Dresden.Initially he studied law in Leipzig, afterwards transferring to the University of Jena, where his focus turned to medicine. At Jena he had as instructors Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762–1836) and philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814). In 1797 he obtained his medical doctorate with a dissertation on the diagnosis and treatment of melancholia. He worked for a period of time as a physician in a madhouse in Torgau, and from 1805 to 1810 was director of a psychiatric institute at Bayreuth. Later in his career he was appointed director of Prussian Health Services, where he wielded influence on the overall development of Prussian mental hospitals.
During his tenure at Bayreuth he made efforts at transforming a former penitentiary-madhouse into a place of treatment for the mentally ill, having limited success. As a psychiatrist he equated mental illness with uncontrolled passions, and defined treatment as establishing control of reason over passions by educational means.Karl Leonhard Reinhold
Karl Leonhard Reinhold (26 October 1757 – 10 April 1823) was an Austrian philosopher who helped to popularise the work of Immanuel Kant in the late 18th century. His "elementary philosophy" (Elementarphilosophie) also influenced German idealism, notably Johann Gottlieb Fichte, as a critical system grounded in a fundamental first principle.
He was the father of Ernst Christian Gottlieb Reinhold (1793–1855), also a philosopher.Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Breyer
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Breyer (29 September 1771, in Heutingsheim – 28 April 1818, in Munich) was a German historian.
From 1789 he studied philosophy and theology at the Tübinger Stift in Tübingen, then from 1797 furthered his education at the University of Jena as a student of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In 1803 he became an associate professor, and during the following year, was appointed professor of history and statistics at the University of Landshut. In 1807 he became a member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, and later on, a professor of history at the lyceum in Munich.Ludolph Christian Treviranus
Ludolph Christian Treviranus (September 18, 1779 in Bremen – May 6, 1864 in Bonn) was a German botanist born in Bremen. He was a younger brother to naturalist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776–1837).
In 1801 he earned his doctorate at the University of Jena, where he had as instructors; botanist August Batsch (1761–1802) and philosophers Friedrich Schelling (1775–1854) and Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814). In 1807 he was a professor at the Lyceum at Bremen, and in 1812 became a professor of natural history and botany at the University of Rostock, where he was also director of the botanical gardens. In 1816 he replaced Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (1767–1851) as professor of botany at the University of Breslau, and in 1820 transferred to the University of Bonn, where he was successor to Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck (1776–1858). Treviranus remained at Bonn until his death in 1864.
In his earlier studies, he worked mostly in the fields of plant anatomy and physiology, afterwards focusing on taxonomic issues. Between 1815 and 1828, he published noted works on the sexuality and embryology of phanerogams. He is credited for discovery of the intercellular space in a plant's parenchyma.The botanical genus Trevirana (Gesneriaceae) was named in his honor by Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765–1812).National mysticism
National mysticism (German Nationalmystik) is a form of nationalism which raises the nation to the status of numen or divinity. Its best known instance is Germanic mysticism, which gave rise to occultism under the Third Reich. The idea of the nation as a divine entity was presented by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. National mysticism is closely related to Romantic nationalism, but goes beyond the expounding of romantic sentiment, to a mystical veneration of the nation as a transcendent truth. It often intersects with ethnic nationalism by pseudohistorical assertions about the origins of a given ethnicity.
National mysticism is encountered in many nationalisms other than Germanic or Nazi mysticism, and expresses itself in the use of occult, pseudoscientific, or pseudohistorical beliefs to back up nationalistic claims, often involving unrealistic notions of the antiquity of a nation (antiquity frenzy) or any national myth defended as "true" by pseudo-scholarly means. Notable instances of national mysticism include:
The Sun Language Theory in Pan-Turkism
Kurdish nationalists often make the claim that they are the descendants of the Medes
Greek Epsilonism and Proto-Greeks theory (see also and List of Ancient Greek tribes)
Some branches of revisionist history theories of Bulgarians and Bulgaria (i.e. 'Thracomania') and Macedonian nationalist history theories
Narratives on the origin of the Albanians in Albanian nationalism
The Croat Illyrian movement
The Battle of Kosovo as the national myth in Serbian nationalism
American Manifest Destiny
The Indigenous Aryans theory in Hindu nationalism
Currents of Tamil nationalism (as in Devaneya Pavanar)
Claims of interplanetary travel, possible existence of in-vitro fertilization and genetic engineering by Ancient Indians (102nd Indian Science Congress)
Some currents of Armenian nationalism (see Armenia, Subartu and Sumer)
Currents of Russian nationalism
Kabbalistic currents in religious Zionism
Hungarian Holy Crown DoctrinePrimordialism
Primordialism or perennialism is the argument which contends that nations are ancient, natural phenomena.Primordialism can be traced philosophically to the ideas of German Romanticism, particularly in the works of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Johann Gottfried Herder. For Herder, the nation was synonymous with language group. In Herder's thinking, language was synonymous with thought, and as each language was learnt in community, then each community must think differently. This also suggests that the community would hold a fixed nature over time.
Primordialism encountered enormous criticism after the Second World War, with many scholars of nationalism coming to treat the nation as a community constructed by the technologies and politics of modernity (see Modernism).Primordialism, in relation to ethnicity, argues that "ethnic groups and nationalities exist because there are traditions of belief and action towards primordial objects such as biological factors and especially territorial location".This argument relies on a concept of kinship, where members of an ethnic group feel they share characteristics, origins or sometimes even a blood relationship. Seen through the Igbos of Nigeria, following what they felt was their origin as descendants of the Jews. "Primordialism assumes ethnic identity as fixed, once it is constructed".Rammenau
Rammenau (Sorbian: Ramnow) is a municipality in the district of Bautzen, in Saxony, Germany.
It is known as the birthplace of the well-known German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
Rammenau Castle was built between 1721 and 1735 by architect Johann Christoph Knöffel for Ernst Ferdinand von Knoch, chamberlain of king Augustus II the Strong. As Knoch went bankrupt with the immense costs of this project, Franz Josef von Hoffmann purchased it in a foreclosure auction in 1744. In 1879 it was sold to the von Posern family, with the last owner, Margarete von Helldorff née von Posern, being expropriated by the communists in 1945. Today it is owned by the State Palaces, Castles and Gardens of Saxony and open to the public, housing a museum with period furniture.The Vocation of Man
The Vocation of Man (German: Die Bestimmung des Menschen) is a work by Johann Gottlieb Fichte. The work was originally published by Fichte in 1799 and translated into English by William Smith in 1848. Fichte identifies three distinct stages in the development of faith: 1. Doubt, 2. Knowledge, 3. Faith.Theodor Schwarz (theologian)
Theodor Schwarz (1 September 1777, in Wiek, Rügen – 10 February 1850, in Wiek) was a German Protestant clergyman and writer. He published novels under the pseudonym Theodor Melas. He was the son of provost Georg Theodor Schwarz.
From 1798 he studied at the University of Jena, where he attended lectures given by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Johann Jakob Griesbach and Friedrich Schiller. In 1800 he traveled with painter Jakob Wilhelm Roux to Saxon Switzerland and to Dresden, where he met with Caspar David Friedrich. In 1801 he returned to Rügen and assisted his father at the parish. Afterwards, he worked for several years as a tutor in Skåne and Stockholm, and after the death of his father in 1814, took over the elder Schwarz's duties at the parish. In 1834 he received his doctorate in theology.He was the father of theologian Karl Schwarz (1812–1885).Thing-in-itself
The thing-in-itself (German: Ding an sich) is a concept introduced by Immanuel Kant. Things-in-themselves would be objects as they are, independent of observation. The concept led to much controversy among philosophers.Xavier Léon
Xavier Léon (21 May 1868, Boulogne-Billancourt - 21 October 1935, Paris) was a French-Jewish philosopher and historian of philosophy.
In 1893 Léon – together with Élie Halévy and others – helped found the French philosophical journal Revue de métaphysique et de morale. Léon remained editor of the journal until his death in 1935, when he was succeeded by Dominique Parodi. In 1900 he founded the International Congress of Philosophy, and in 1901 the Société Française de Philosophie. He wrote extensively on Johann Gottlieb Fichte. He is buried in the Jewish section of Père-Lachaise Cemetery.