Johann Friedrich Gmelin

Johann Friedrich Gmelin (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist, and malacologist.

J. F. Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin (1748–1804)
Born8 August 1748
Died1 November 1804 (aged 56)
NationalityGerman
Alma materUniversity of Tübingen
Known forTextbooks
Scientific career
FieldsNaturalist, botanist and entomologist
InstitutionsUniversity of Göttingen
University of Tübingen
Doctoral advisorPhilipp Friedrich Gmelin
Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger
Doctoral studentsGeorg Friedrich Hildebrandt
Friedrich Stromeyer
Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer
Wilhelm August Lampadius
Author abbrev. (botany)J.F.Gmel.
Notes
He was the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin and the father of Leopold Gmelin.

Education

Johann Friedrich Gmelin was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen. He studied medicine under his father[1] at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1768, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam., defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger,[2] whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus.

Career

In 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen. In 1773, he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen. He was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry, botany, and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen.

Johann Friedrich Gmelin published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy, and botany. He also published the 13th edition of Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus in 1788 and 1789. This contained descriptions and scientific names of many new species, including birds that had earlier been catalogued without a scientific name by John Latham in his A General Synopsis of Birds. Gmelin's publication is cited as the authority for over 290 bird species[3] and also a number of butterfly species. [4]

Legacy

Among his students were Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt, Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, Friedrich Stromeyer, and Wilhelm August Lampadius. He was the father of Leopold Gmelin. He described the redfin pickerel in 1789. In the scientific field of herpetology, he described many new species of amphibians and reptiles.[5] In the field of malacology, he described and named many species of gastropods.

The abbreviation "Gmel." is also found.[7]

Publications

  • Gmelin, Johann Friedrich; Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger (1768). Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam. Thesis Tübingen. OCLC 10717434.
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Gifte, 2 Vol., 1776/77 Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Pflanzengifte, 1777
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der mineralischen Gifte. Nürnberg : Raspe, 1777. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Johann Friedrich Gmelins ... Einleitung in die Chemie zum Gebrauch auf Universitäten. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1780. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Einleitung in die Pharmacie. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1781. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Beyträge zur Geschichte des teutschen Bergbaus, 1783
  • Ueber die neuere Entdeckungen in der Lehre von der Luft, und deren Anwendung auf Arzneikunst, in Briefen an einen Arzt, von J. F. Gmelin., 1784
  • Grundsätze der technischen Chemie, 1786
  • Caroli a Linné, equitis aurati de stella polari, … Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. Lipsiae [Leipzig], Georg Emanuel Beer, 1789-1790
  • Grundriß der Pharmazie, 1792
  • Apparatus Medicaminum tam simplicium quam praeparatorum et compositorum in Praxeos Adiumentum consideratus, Ps. 2, T. 1 - Ps. 2, T. 2., 1795–1796. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Geschichte der Chemie, 1799
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der thierischen und mineralischen Gifte, 1806
Göttingen-Grave.of.Johann.Friedrich.Gmelin
Göttingen, Cheltenhampark, Grave of Johann Friedrich Gmelin

References

  1. ^ Mainz, Vera V.; Gregory S. Girolami (1998). "Genealogy Database Entry: Gmelin, Johann Friedrich" (PDF). School of Chemical Sciences Web Genealogy. University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Retrieved 2019-04-19.
  2. ^ Irritabilitatem vegetabilium in singulis plantarum partibus exploratatam
  3. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David (eds.). "IOC World Bird List Version 5.4". International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  4. ^ Vane-Wright, R. I., 1975. The butterflies named by J. F. Gmelin (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera).Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History),Entomology, 32: 17-64.pdf
  5. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  6. ^ IPNI.  J.F.Gmel.
  7. ^ See for instance: Audubon, John James (1831) - Ornithological Biography : Volume 1, p. 232. Online available at wikisource.
  • Vane-Wright, R. I., 1975. The butterflies named by J. F. Gmelin (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera).Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History),Entomology, 32: 17-64.pdf

External links

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Asian emerald cuckoo

The Asian emerald cuckoo (Chrysococcyx maculatus) is a species of cuckoo in the family Cuculidae. It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross

The Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche chlororhynchos) is a large seabird in the albatross family. The scientific name is from Ancient Greek. Thalassarche is from thalassa, "sea" and arkhe, "command", and chlororhynchos is from khloros, "yellow", and rhunkhos, "bill".This small mollymawk was once considered conspecific with the Indian yellow-nosed albatross and known as the yellow-nosed albatross. Some authorities still consider these taxa to be conspecific, such as the Clements checklist and the SACC, which recognizes that a proposal is needed.

Balistes punctatus

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Blue-crowned lorikeet

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Chestnut-tailed starling

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Chuck-will's-widow

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Grasshopper sparrow

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Spitz

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