Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber (17 January 1739 in Weißensee, Thuringia – 10 December 1810 in Erlangen), often styled J.C.D. von Schreber, was a German naturalist.

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Schreber Johann Christian Daniel von 1739-1810
BornJanuary 17, 1739
DiedDecember 10, 1810 (aged 71)
Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
OccupationNaturalist, professor


He was appointed professor of materia medica at the University of Erlangen in 1769.

In 1774, he began writing a multivolume set of books entitled Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen, which focused on the mammals of the world. Many of the animals included were given a scientific name for the first time, following the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus. From 1791 until his death in 1810, he was the president of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1787. In April 1795, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society [1] Numerous honors were bestowed on him, including the office of an imperial count palatine.[2]

Schreber also wrote on entomology, notably Schreberi Novae Species Insectorvm. His herbarium collection has been preserved in the Botanische Staatssammlung München since 1813.


  • Beschreibung der Gräser (1.1769 - 3.1810)
  • Lithographia Halensis (1758)
  • Schreberi Novae Species Insectorvm (1759)
  • Die Säugetiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen (1.1774 - 64.1804)[3]
  • Theses medicae (1761)


Plates from Die Säugetiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen 1774-1804.


  1. ^ "Library and Archive Catalogue". The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  2. ^ "Schreber, Joh. Christian Daniel (v.)" by Ernst Wunschmann in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, herausgegeben von der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vo. 32 (1891), pp. 465–466, Digital edition in Wikisource, Version from March 8, 2011
  3. ^ "Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber".
  4. ^ IPNI.  Schreb.

External links

Academy of Sciences Leopoldina

The Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (German: Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina – Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften) is the national academy of Germany.

Historically it was known under the German name Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina until 2007, when it was declared a national academy of Germany.

The Leopoldina is located in Halle. Founded in 1652, the Leopoldina claims to be the oldest continuously existing learned society in the world.

American mink

The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America. Because of range expansion, the American mink is classed as a least-concern species by the IUCN. Since the extinction of the sea mink, the American mink is the only extant member of the genus Neovison. The American mink is a carnivore that feeds on rodents, fish, crustaceans, frogs, and birds. In its introduced range in Europe it has been classified as an invasive species linked to declines in European mink, Pyrenean desman, and water vole populations. It is the animal most frequently farmed for its fur, exceeding the silver fox, sable, marten, and skunk in economic importance.


The genus Arctocephalus consists of fur seals. Arctocephalus translates to "bear head."

Black-backed jackal

The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is a canid native to two areas of Africa, separated by roughly 900 km.

One region includes the southernmost tip of the continent, including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. The other area is along the eastern coastline, including Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. It is listed by the IUCN as least concern, due to its widespread range and adaptability, although it is still persecuted as a livestock predator and rabies vector.Compared to other members of the genus Canis, the black-backed jackal is a very ancient species, and has changed little since the Pleistocene, being the most basal wolf-like canine, alongside the closely related side-striped jackal. It is a fox-like animal with a reddish coat and a black saddle that extends from the shoulders to the base of the tail. It is a monogamous animal, whose young may remain with the family to help raise new generations of pups. The black-backed jackal is not a fussy eater, and feeds on small to medium-sized animals, as well as plant matter and human refuse.

Blond capuchin

The blond capuchin (Sapajus flavius) is a species of the capuchin monkeys group, the genus Sapajus. This critically endangered species was rediscovered in 2006. It is endemic to northeastern Brazil, and only an estimated 180 individuals remain.

Botanische Staatssammlung München

The Botanische Staatssammlung München is a notable herbarium and scientific center maintained by the Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns, and located within the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg at Menzinger Straße 67, München, Bavaria, Germany. Its library is open to the public; scientific collections are open to researchers by appointment.

The institution was established in 1813 by King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria to maintain the royal herbarium, which grew to include major collections from the University of München and botanist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, a student of Carl von Linné. In 1817, Maximilian sent botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius on a three-year expedition to Brazil, and upon his return appointed him the herbarium's curator. Martius' collection of South American vascular plants is among the world's foremost at 25,000–30,000 specimens representing 7,300 species.

Today the herbarium contains about 3 million dried specimens of plants and fungi, which is estimated to reflect about 25% of the world's known plant species. It has major strengths in the flora of Bavaria and the Alps, and vascular plants of Brazil, Chile, Central Asia, and regions of Africa, as well as in lichens and fungi. As of 2009, collection sizes were approximately as follows: vascular plants (1,800,000 specimens); bryophytes (350,000 specimens); fungi (350,000 specimens); lichens (300,000 specimens); and algae (150,000 specimens). The herbarium grows at an average rate of 16,000 specimens per year.

The center's research focuses on exploration and study of European, South-East Asian and South American flowering plants as well as of fungi, lichens, and algae. It also offers expert advice and identification services for certain types of plants and fungi.


The caracal (Caracal caracal) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. It is characterised by a robust build, long legs, a short face, long tufted ears, and long canine teeth. Its coat is uniformly reddish tan or sandy, while the ventral parts are lighter with small reddish markings. It reaches 40–50 cm (16–20 in) at the shoulder and weighs 8–18 kg (18–40 lb). It was first scientifically described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1776. Three subspecies are recognised since 2017.

Typically nocturnal, the caracal is highly secretive and difficult to observe. It is territorial, and lives mainly alone or in pairs. The caracal is a carnivore that typically preys upon small mammals, birds, and rodents. It can leap higher than 12 ft (3.7 m) and catch birds in midair. It stalks its prey until it is within 5 m (16 ft) of it, after which it runs it down, the prey being killed by a bite to the throat or to the back of the neck. Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are one year old and breed throughout the year. Gestation lasts between two and three months, resulting in a litter of one to six kittens. Juveniles leave their mothers at the age of nine to ten months, though a few females stay back with their mothers. The average lifespan of captive caracals is nearly 16 years.

Caracals have been tamed and used for hunting since the time of ancient Egypt.

Common pipistrelle

The common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) is a small pipistrelle bat whose very large range extends across most of Europe, North Africa, southwestern Asia, and may extend into Korea. It is one of the most common bat species in the British Isles.

In 1999, the common pipistrelle was split into two species on the basis of different-frequency echolocation calls. The common pipistrelle uses a call of 45 kHz, while the soprano pipistrelle echolocates at 55 kHz. Since the two species were distinguished, a number of other differences, in appearance, habitat and food, have also been discovered.

Franz Körte

Heinrich Friedrich Franz Körte (17 March 1782 – 30 January 1845) was a German natural and agricultural scientist, and for thirty years Professor of Natural Sciences at the Agricultural Academy in Möglin, which was founded by Albrecht Daniel Thaer.

Hairy slit-faced bat

The hairy slit-faced bat (Nycteris hispida) is a species of slit-faced bat widely distributed throughout forests and savannas in Africa. Two recognized subspecies exist: N. h. hispida and N. h. pallida. Various forest populations in western and central Africa may be a separate species, although that has not been positively identified as of 2007.

Jungle cat

The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China. It inhabits foremost wetlands like swamps, littoral and riparian areas with dense vegetation. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, and is mainly threatened by destruction of wetlands, trapping and poisoning.The jungle cat has a uniformly sandy, reddish-brown or grey fur without spots; melanistic and albino individuals are also known. It is solitary in nature, except during the mating season and mother-kitten families. Adults maintain territories by urine spraying and scent marking. Its preferred prey is small mammals and birds. It hunts by stalking its prey, followed by a sprint or a leap; the ears help in pinpointing the location of prey. Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are one year old; females enter oestrus from January to March. Mating behaviour is similar to that in the domestic cat: the male pursues the female in oestrus, seizes her by the nape of her neck and mounts her. Gestation lasts nearly two months. Births take place between December and June, though this might vary geographically. Kittens begin to catch their own prey at around six months and leave the mother after eight or nine months.

The species was first described by Johann Anton Güldenstädt in 1776 based on a specimen caught in a Caucasian wetland. Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber gave the jungle cat its present binomial name and is therefore generally considered as binomial authority. Three subspecies are recognised at present.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1795

Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1795.

List of primates described in the 2000s

This page is a list of species of the order Primates described in the 2000s.

Noctua fimbriata

Noctua fimbriata, the broad-bordered yellow underwing, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found in Europe, North Africa, Anatolia, the Caucasus, Turkey, Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Armenia, Turkmenistan and Novosibirsk Oblast. The border of its southern range is unclear because of the similar looking species Noctua tirrenica.


Schreber is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Daniel Paul Schreber (1842–1911), German judge

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber (1739–1810), German naturalist

Moritz Schreber (1808–1861), German physician and inventor

Schreber's yellow bat

Schreber's yellow bat (Scotophilus nigrita) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Benin, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, dry savanna, and moist savanna. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Serotine bat

The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus), also known as the common serotine bat, big brown bat, or silky bat, is a fairly large Eurasian bat with quite large ears. It has a wingspan of around 37 cm (15 in) and often hunts in woodland. It sometimes roosts in buildings, hanging upside down, in small groups or individually. The name serotine is derived from the Latin serotinus which means "evening", while the generic name derives from the Greek ἔπιεν and οίκος which means "house flyer".

South African giraffe

The South African giraffe or Cape giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) is a subspecies of giraffe ranging from South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique. It has rounded or blotched spots, some with star-like extensions on a light tan background, running down to the hooves.

In 2016, the population was estimated at 31,500 individuals in the wild.

Southeast African cheetah

The Southeast African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) is the nominate cheetah subspecies native to East and Southern Africa. The Southern African cheetah lives mainly in the lowland areas and deserts of the Kalahari, the savannahs of Okavango Delta, and the grasslands of the Transvaal region in South Africa. In Namibia, cheetahs are mostly found in farmlands.The Southern African cheetah was first described by the German zoologist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775 and named Felis jubatus on the basis of a specimen from the Cape of Good Hope. Subpopulations have been called "South African cheetah" and "Namibian cheetah."

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