Johan Christian Dahl

Johan Christian Claussen Dahl (24 February 1788 – 14 October 1857), often known as J. C. Dahl or I. C. Dahl, was a Norwegian artist who is considered the first great romantic painter in Norway, the founder of the "golden age" of Norwegian painting, and, by some, one of the greatest European artists of all time.[1] He is often described as "the father of Norwegian landscape painting"[2] and is regarded as the first Norwegian Painter ever to reach a level of artistic accomplishment comparable to that attained by the greatest European artists of his day. He was also the first to acquire genuine fame and cultural renown abroad.[3] As one critic has put it, "J.C. Dahl occupies a central position in Norwegian artistic life of the first half of the 19th century.[4]

Although Dahl spent much of his life outside of Norway, his love for his country is clear in the motifs he chose for his paintings and in his extraordinary efforts on behalf of Norwegian culture generally. Indeed, if one sets aside his own monumental artistic creations, his other activities on behalf of art, history, and culture would still have guaranteed him a place at the very heart of the artistic and cultural history of Norway. He was, for example, a key figure in the founding of the Norwegian National Gallery and of several other major art institutions in Norway, as well as in the preservation of Norwegian stave churches and the restoration of the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim and Håkonshallen in Bergen.

Johan Christian Dahl
Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein - Johan Christian Clausen Dahl
Portrait of Johan Christian Dahl
Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein (1823)
Born
Johan Christian Claussen Dahl

24 February 1788
Died14 October 1857 (aged 69)
NationalityNorwegian
Known forNorwegian Landscape painting
MovementNorwegian romantic nationalism, German romanticism
AwardsOrder of St. Olav
Order of Vasa
Order of Dannebrog

Life

Early life

Frederiksborg Slot 1814 by J.C. Dahl
Frederiksborg Slot, 1814
Johan Christian Claussen Dahl - Vis Świnoujście
View of Świnoujście

Dahl came from a very simple background – his father was a modest fisherman in Bergen, Norway – and he would later look back at his youth with bitterness. He regretted that he never had a "real teacher" in his childhood and, despite all his spectacular success, he believed that if he had been more fortunate in his birth, he would have achieved even more than he had.

Time at Bergen

Portrait of J.C. Dahl (Christian Albrecht Jensen)
Portrait of J.C. Dahl
Christian Albrecht Jensen
(c 1815)

As a boy, Dahl was educated by a sympathetic mentor at the Bergen Cathedral who at first thought that this bright student would make a good priest, but then, recognizing his remarkably precocious artistic ability, arranged for him to be trained as an artist. From 1803 to 1809 Dahl studied with the painter Johan Georg Müller, whose workshop was the most important one in Bergen at the time. Still, Dahl looked back on his teacher as having kept him in ignorance in order to exploit him, putting him to work painting theatrical sets, portraits, and views of Bergen and its surroundings. Another mentor, Lyder Sagen, showed the aspiring artist books about art and awakened his interest in historical and patriotic subjects. It was also Sagen who took up a collection that made it possible for Dahl to go to Copenhagen in 1811 to complete his education at the academy there.

As important as Dahl's studies at the academy in Copenhagen were his experiences in the surrounding countryside and in the city's art collections. In 1812 he wrote to Sagen that the landscape artists he most wished to emulate were Ruisdahl and Everdingen, and for that reason he was studying “nature above all,” Dahl's artistic program was, then, already in place: he would become a part of the great landscape tradition, but he would also be as faithful as possible to nature itself.

Jacob van Ruisdael - Berglandschap met waterval

Painting by Jacob van Ruisdael in the collection of Adam Gottlob Moltke in 1812

J.C. Dahl after Jacob van Ruisdael - Oslo NG NG.M.00050.jpeg

Dahl's 1812 copy of it, which impressed both Moltke and the Prince

Jacob van Ruisdael - Landscape with waterfall and castle on a mountaintop

Another Ruisdael in Moltke's collection in 1812

J.C. Dahl after Jacob van Ruisdael - Oslo NG NG.M.00049.jpeg

Dahl's 1813 copy of it, which again impressed both Moltke and the Prince

Dahl held that a landscape painting should not just depict a specific view, but should also say something about the land's nature and character – the greatness of its past and the life and work of its current inhabitants. The mood was often idyllic, often melancholy. When he added snow to a landscape he painted in the summer, it was not to show the light and colors of snow; it was to use snow as a symbol of death. As one critic has put it, “Unlike the radically Romantic works also appearing at the time, Dahl softens his landscape, introducing elements of genre painting by imbuing it with anecdotal materials: In the background a wisp of smoke rises from a cabin, perhaps the home of the hunter on the snow-covered field.” Thanks to Sagen's recommendations and to his own personal charm, Dahl soon gained access to the leading social circles in Copenhagen.[5]

Dahl took part in annual art exhibitions in Copenhagen beginning in 1812, but his real breakthrough came in 1815, when he exhibited no fewer than 13 paintings. Prince Christian Frederik of Denmark, who developed an early interest in Dahl's artistic genius and saw to it that his works were purchased for the royal collection, became a lifelong friend and patron of the artist.[3]

Johan Christian Dahl - Megalith Grave in Winter
Megalithic Tomb in Winter, 1824-25, inspired by the artist's friend, Caspar David Friedrich.

In 1816 C. W. Eckersberg returned from abroad with his paintings of Roman settings; Dahl was impressed at once, and they became good friends and exchanged pictures. Dahl's 1817 painting “Den Store Kro i Fredensborg” marked the real beginning of his lifelong production of oil paintings depicting natural subjects.

After his success in Copenhagen, Dahl realized that he wanted to live as an independent, self-supporting artist. One challenge facing him was that the academic preference of the day was for historical paintings with moral messages. Landscapes were considered the lowest kind of art, and perhaps even not as art at all, but as a purely mechanical imitation of nature. The only landscapes that could be considered art, according to the academy, were ideal, imaginary landscapes in pastoral or heroic styles. In accordance with this reigning taste, Dahl attempted to give his Danish themes a certain atmospheric character in order to lift them up above what was considered a merely commercial level. But at the same time it was his deepest wish to provide a more faithful picture of Norwegian nature than were offered by the old-fashioned, dry paintings of Haas and Lorentzen. This desire was partly motivated by homesickness and patriotism, but it was also suited to the public taste of the day for “picturesque” works.

Abroad in Dresden

Johan Christian Dahl, The Nauwerk Family, 1819, NGA 62938
The Nauwerk Family, 1819, National Gallery of Art. Drawn during the artist's time in Dresden.

Dahl traveled to Dresden in September 1818. He arrived with introductions to the city's leading citizens and to major artists such as Caspar David Friedrich, who helped him establish himself there and became his close friend.[3] One critic has written: “Friedrich's still, meticulously executed landscapes - products of an art informed by his strict Protestant upbringing and a seeking for the divine in nature - were justifiably famous by the time he and Dahl became acquainted. We are able to see his Two Men Contemplating the Moon (1819), which ranks among his greatest works, and features two "Rückfiguren," or figures seen from behind, solemnly and companionably gazing at a young sickle moon from the edge of an old forest. 'Greifswald in Moonlight' (1816–17) depicts the artist's birthplace in Pomerania, on the Baltic coast: bathed in an even, gauzy moonlight, the ancient university town assumes an almost ethereal appearance.”[6][7]

Friedrich was fourteen years Dahl's elder and an established artist, but the two found in each other a shared love for nature and a shared enthusiasm for a way of depicting nature that was based on the study of nature itself rather than on the academic cliches that they both profoundly despised. One writer has put it this way:“A warm and sociable character, he soon met and became friendly with the more introverted and reclusive Friedrich, recording how they once walked together in the park of the Grösser Garten among 'many lovely trees of different kinds, and the moon looked beautiful behind the dark fir trees.'”[6]

Together with Friedrich and Carl Gustav Carus, Dahl would become one of the Dresden painters of the period who exerted a decisive influence on German Romantic painting.[4]

In Dresden, as in Copenhagen, Dahl traveled around the area to draw subjects that could be of use to him in larger works that would be painted later in his atelier. He wrote to Prince Christian Frederik in 1818 that “most of all I am representing nature in all its freedom and wildness.” Dahl found enough material in the Dresden area to supply motifs for his paintings, but he continued to paint imaginary landscapes with forests, mountains, and waterfalls. One such painting, completed in 1819, entitled “Norsk fjellandskap med elv” (Mountainous Norwegian landscape with river”), garnered great attention among younger artists who considered the striking natural quality of the painting a breath of fresh air on Dresden's stagnant art scene. Another monumental waterfall painting, completed the next year, was lavished with praised by the critic for Kunstblatt who said that Dahl was greater than Jacob van Ruisdael. Dahl was accepted into the Dresden academy in 1820.

Abroad in Italy

Prince Christian Frederik wrote to Dahl in 1820 from Italy and invited him to join him at the Gulf of Naples. Dahl was at the time courting a young woman named Emilie von Bloch, but felt he should take the prince up on his offer, so he married Emilie quickly and traveled to Italy the next day. He ended up spending 10 months in Italy. Though he missed his bride, the sojourn was a decisive factor in his artistic development. It was in Italy, with its strong southern light, that Dahl's art truly flowered. It forced him to see nature plain, without the mediation of the old masters' renderings of light and color.

Dahl went to Rome in February 1821. He spent a great deal of time visiting museums, meeting other artists, and painting pictures to sell. In addition to painting sights in Rome and pictures of the Gulf of Naples, he painted landscapes inspired by the mountains of Norway. Dahl said that not until he was in Rome did he truly appreciate Norwegian nature. In June 1821 Dahl returned north to Emilie and a quiet life of family and painting.

Johan Christian Dahl, Utsikt mot Vesuvius från Quisisana
Johan Christian Dahl, View towards Vesuvio from Quisisana, 1820, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

Dahl quickly became a member of Dresden's leading circles of poets, artists, and scientists, among them the archeologist C. A. Böttiger, publisher of Artistisches Notizenblatt, who ran a major article on Dahl in 1822.

Mentorship

As a member of the academy, Dahl always dedicated his time to young artists who sought him out. In 1824 he and Friedrich were named “extraordinary professors” who had no chair but who received a regular salary. In 1823 Dahl moved in with Friedrich, so that many of his students, such as Knud Baade, Peder Balke, and Thomas Fearnley, were equally influenced by both artists. “Well before their meeting,” writes one critic, “Dahl had also painted a number of 'moonlights' and, travelling in Europe, he was in the Bay of Naples in 1821 when Mount Vesuvius was active. Here he painted 'Boats on the Beach Near Naples', where fishing crafts lie at anchor in the calm, shimmering waters with the twin peaks of the mountain smoking and flaming behind. Predictably, after his close association with Friedrich began—the two families shared a house in Dresden from 1823—he was considerably influenced by him, but his own more spontaneous and painterly style soon prevailed. Clients sometimes commissioned pictures from them both, a tranquil coastal scene by Friedrich to pair with a more stormy subject from Dahl.”[6]

Dahl never formed a “school” around himself, but rather preferred for his students to cultivate their own styles; it was against his principles and his respect for artistic freedom to try to inhibit his students' individuality. It was this impulse toward individuality that later caused him to turn down an offer of a permanent chair at the academy – he didn't want to feel compelled to show up for class when he was busy working on a painting.

Johan Christian Dahl - View of Dresden by Moonlight - Google Art Project
View of Dresden by Moonlight

Dahl continued his studies of nature in the area around Dresden when he had the time, or on longer trips which provided him with themes for his paintings. But most often he painted the view of the Elbe outside his windows in various kinds of light. Like John Constable, Dahl felt that the sky was an important part of a landscape painting, and he never grew tired of watching the clouds move over the flat plain.[3] One critic has compared two paintings of Friedrich and Dahl: “In...Dahl's 'Mother and Child by the Sea', there are echoes of Friedrich's 'Woman by the Sea' (1818). Whereas in Friedrich's work a woman dressed for the windy weather sits idly watching five fishing boats sailing past, in Dahl's picture, there seems to be a more personal note, with echoes of his own upbringing in a seafaring community, as the mother and small child eagerly await the return of the little ship from the sea.”[6] The same critic has written about one of his paintings of Dresden: “Dahl also commemorated the magnificent Baroque buildings of his adopted city, and a version of his View of Dresden by Moonlight (1838) has travelled from the National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design in Oslo. This small picture, measuring only 18.5 x 34.5 cm, shows the dome of the Frauenkirche and the tower of the Hofkirche dominating the skyline; silvers and deep blue combine to give it a wonderful jewel-like effect, together with a certain elegiac quality, perhaps indicative of the artist's awareness that his long friendship with Friedrich was nearing an end.”[6]

Return home

Johan Christian Claussen Dahl - View of an Approaching Thunderstorm - Hamburger Kunsthalle
Gewitterstimmung bei Dresden, 1830

As Dahl wrote in 1828 to the director of the Dresden academy, he found the area around Dresden useful for nature studies, but the “real thing” was always missing; that was something he could only find in his mountainous homeland. He viewed himself as a “more Nordic painter” with a “love for seacoasts, mountains, waterfalls, sailboats, and pictures of the sea in daylight and moonlight.” He longed to return to Norway, but not until 1826 was he able to make a journey home.

He made subsequent trips to Norway in 1834, 1839, 1844, and 1850, mostly exploring and painting the mountains, leading to the monumental works Fortundalen (1836) and Stalheim (1842).[3] During his visits to Norway he received “an enthusiastic welcome as a painter of renown.”

A critic notes Dahl's late stylistic changes: “In his late 'Fjord at Sunset' (1850), based on studies made earlier, free and adventurous brush strokes represent the cloud-swept sky and broken surface of the water. Here he has moved far away from the purity and intensity of Friedrich's oeuvre.”[6]

Later life

In 1827 Emilie Dahl died in childbirth while having their fourth child, and two years later two of the older children died of scarlet fever. In January 1830 Dahl married his student Amalie von Bassewitz, but she, too, died in childbirth in December of that same year. Dahl was crushed, and many months passed before he was able to paint again. Some years later this youngest child also died, leaving Dahl with two surviving children, Caroline and Siegwald.

Dahl - Copenhagen Harbour by Moonlight
Copenhagen Harbour by Moonlight, 1846

Dahl's trip to Norway in 1850 would be his last. He was aging and weak, but continued to paint landscapes in the mountains. This last journey to his homeland resulted in several magnificent works, including Måbødalen, Fra Stugunøset, and Hjelle i Valdres.

Dahl was also among the founding fathers of the National Gallery of Norway (Norwegian: Nasjonalgalleriet), now the National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, and donated his own art collection to the institution. Together with Johan Sebastian Welhaven, Frederik Stang and Henrik Heftye, he also founded the Art Society in Oslo (Oslo Kunstforening).[8][9]

Death

Johan Christian Dahl Frederiksholms Kanal (1)
Johan Christian Dahl Frederiksholms Chanel

Dahl died lonely and bitter after a brief illness and was buried on 17 October 1857 in Dresden. In 1902, a statue of Dahl by Norwegian sculptor Ambrosia Tønnesen (1859–1948), was erected on the facade of the West Norway Museum of Decorative Art in Bergen. In 1934, his remains brought back to Norway and buried in the cemetery of St. Jacob's Church (Sankt Jakob kirke) in Bergen.[10]

J.C. Dahl occupies a central position in Norwegian artistic life of the first half of the 19th century. His Romantic yet naturalistic interpretations of Norwegian scenery were greatly admired in Norway as well as on the European continent, particularly in Denmark and Germany. His place in the pantheon of European artists is secure and his influence on the course of art history is indelible.

Honors

Dahl had both the Orders of Vasa and St. Olav bestowed on him by the King of Norway and Sweden. He also received the Order of Dannebrog from Denmark. The three honors testify to his extraordinary cultural impact throughout Scandinavia.[3]

Notable works

Many of his works may be seen in Dresden, notably a large picture titled Norway and Storm at Sea.[11] The Bergen Kunstmuseum in Bergen, Norway, contains several of his more prominent works, including Måbødalen (1851), Fra Stedje i Sogn (1836), Hjelle i Valdres (1850), Lysekloster (1827), Stedje i Sogn (1836) and Bjerk i storm (1849).

The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design - The National Gallery, Oslo has a large collection of his works, including Vinter ved Sognefjorden (1827), Castellammare (1828), Skibbrudd ved den norske kyst (1832), Hellefoss (1838), Fra Stalheim (1842), Fra Fortundalen (1842) and Stugunøset på Filefjell (1851).[12] Significant works (with their titles in Norwegian) include the following:

  • Frederiksborg Castle (1817)
  • Vesuv i utbrudd (1826)
  • Vinter ved Sognefjorden (1827)
  • Castellammare (1828)
  • Skibbrudd ved den norske kyst (1832)
  • Fra Stedje i Sogn (1836)
  • Hellefoss (1838)
  • Stalheim (1842)
  • Fra Fortundalen (1842)
  • Bjerk i storm (1849)
  • Hjelle i Valdres (1850)
  • Stugunøset på Filefjell (1851)
  • Måbødalen (1851)

Gallery

Dahl.I.C.1820

Avaldsnes Church (1820)

Indsejlingen til København )J. C. Dahl)

Entrance to Copenhagen, (1830)

Johan Christian Claussen Dahl Der Watzmann

Watzmann (1835)

Johan Christian Claussen Dahl 003

Lyshornet near Bergen (1836)

ICDahl, Bjerk i storm

Bjerk i storm (1836)

Frogner Manor by I. C. Dahl for Benjamin Wegner

Frogner Manor (1842)

DahlHolmestrand

Holmestrand (1843)

I C Dahl by Ambrosia Tonnesen

Statue of J. C. Dahl
Ambrosia Tønnesen (1902)

References

  1. ^ "I.C. Dahl". Online Database. NRK. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  2. ^ Haverkamp, Frode. Hans Fredrik Gude: From National Romanticism to Realism in Landscape (in Norwegian). trans. Joan Fuglesang. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Bang, Marie. "Johan Christian Dahl". Online Database. SNL. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  4. ^ a b "Johan Christian Dahl". Synopsis. The Art of the Landscape blog. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  5. ^ Lederbelle, Thomas. "Johan Christian Dahl (1788- 1857) Winter Landscape. Near Vordinburg 1827". Online Article. Statens Museum. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  6. ^ a b c d e f King, Averil. "Moonrise over Europe JC Dahl and Romantic Landscape".
  7. ^ "Johan Christian Dahl". Store norske leksikon.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-04-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "A Mirror of Nature: Nordic Landscape Painting 1840-1910". artsmia.org.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-04-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2009-06-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
Attribution

Sources

  • Aubert, Andreas (1893) Professor Dahl. Et stykke af Aarhundredets Kunst- og Kulturhistorie
  • Aubert, Andreas (1894) Den Norske Naturfølelse og Professor Dahl. Hans Kunst og dens Stilling i Aarhundredets Utvikling
  • Aubert, Andreas (1920) Maleren Johan Christian Dahl. Et stykke av forrige aarhundres kunst- og kulturhistorie
  • Bang, Marie Lødrup (1988) Johan Christian Dahl 1788-1857: Life and Works Volume 1-3 (Scandinavian University Press Publication)
  • Heilmann, Christoph (1988) Johan Christian Dahl. 1788-1857 Neue Pinakothek Munchen-1988-1989 (Edition Lipp)

External links

1184 (album)

1184 is the third studio album by Windir, released in 2001. Valfar composed this album with the band Ulcus. Departing from the sound Windir is normally known for, it nevertheless kept its folk elements, albeit with inspiration from electronic music. This release provoked divided reactions, with some praising it as a great Windir album which reached new creative heights, while others felt consternation at the departure of the sound for which Windir was recognised and admired in black metal circles. The art used in the album cover is a painting by Norwegian artist Johan Christian Dahl called Winter at the Sognefjord.

1788 in Norway

Events in the year 1788 in Norway.

1857 in Norway

Events in the year 1857 in Norway.

A Seascape. The Coast of the Island of Rügen in Evening Light

A Seascape. The Coast of the Island of Rügen in Evening Light (Danish: Et søstykke. Kysterne af Rügen set i aftenrøden efter en stormfuld dag, literally "A Seascape: The coast of Rügen seen in evening light after a stormy day") is an 1818 oil on canvas marine painting by J.C. Dahl, measuring 37 cm by 58.5 cm and now in the Danish National Gallery, which purchased it at auction in 1975. It was his first marine painting and the first work he produced in Dresden. A signed compositional drawing for it is now in the Bergen Museum of Art.The work is based on his eight-day journey from Denmark to Germany. He noted in his diary that a storm had come out of nowhere and not ceased before reaching Rügen, making him seasick throughout the voyage. The work was commissioned by Prince Christian Frederik in 1818 and Dahl was paid for the work in February 1819. After Christian Frederik's death in 1848 it was inherited by his son Frederik, who immediately gave it to Countess Danner. After Frederik's death in 1863 it was sold at auction to a private collector in 1864.

Anders Sandøe Ørsted Bull

Anders Sandøe Ørsted Bull (13 September 1817 – 15 April 1907) was a Norwegian civil servant and government minister. He served as acting Minister of the Army in 1875 (twice), 1881 and 1884. He also served as mayor of Oslo in 1877 and 1878.

Andreas Aubert (art historian)

Fredrik Ludvig Andreas Vibe Aubert (28 January 1851 – 10 May 1913) was a Norwegian art educator, art historian and art critic.

Birch Tree in a Storm

Birch Tree in a Storm (Norwegian - Bjerk i storm) is an 1849 oil painting by the Norwegian artist Johan Christian Dahl, measuring 92 by 72 cm. It is owned by the Bergen Billedgalleri, now part of the KODE in Bergen. It shows a tree seen by the artist during a descent into Måbøgaldene on the way to Eidfjord.

Cairn in Snow

Cairn in Snow, also known as Dolmen in the snow, (German: Hünengrab im Schnee, literally "Giant's grave in the snow") is a landscape painting by the German painter Caspar David Friedrich. Friedrich is noted for his landscapes depicting features such as trees or Gothic ruins, silhouetted against the sky or in morning mists. The painting depicts leafless trees in the winter snow, with the tops of two of the trees broken off and the third bent by the prevailing wind, giving the work a haunted, spectral air. It is a Romantic allegorical landscape, depicting a stone cairn or dolmen set amid three oak trees on a hilltop, with a contemplative melancholy mood. It was probably painted around 1807, making it among Friedrich's first oil paintings. It measures 61 by 80 centimetres (24 in × 31 in) and has been held by the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden since 1905.

The main elements of the painting are taken from different locations in eastern Germany. The cairn is thought to be based on the Neolithic burial site at Großsteingrab Gützkow, near the town Gützkow in West Pomerania; the megalith was destroyed before 1818, but Friedrich had sketched it since at least 1802. Friedrich sketched the trees at Neubrandenburg, most clearly an 1807 sepia sketch Hünengrab am Meer ("Dolmen by the sea"). Similar oak trees reappear in several works by Friedrich, including Monk in the Snow (1808, also known as Winter), The Abbey in the Oakwood (1818), Monastery graveyard under snow (1818) and Oak tree in snow (1829). The hill is located near Wustrow. The painting also includes four ravens, two above the cairn, one to the right, and a fourth high in the tree to the right.

The painting alludes to Christian and pagan symbolism. Trees and forests were seen as symbols of life endurance, longevity, and immortality. Sacred groves, often a group of trees in ancient times, were associated with secrecy and initiation rites, and they were regarded as untouchable. The main trees depicted in this painting by Friedrich appear to have had most of their old branches chopped off. The three trees around the cairn recalls the three wooden crosses on Golgotha at the crucifixion of Jesus, and the stone chamber where Christ's body was entombed. The painting also alludes to the permanence of the ancient stone landmark, the strength of the oak tree to withstand the storm broken and bowed but not defeated, and the continuity of life in the middle of winter.

Art critics have interpreted the painting as a meditation on life and death, and on the political situation in Germany following the defeats of Prussia by Napoleon's French army at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806. Around the same times, Friedrich was working on his 1807 Tetschen Altar.

The painting was first owned by the Greifswald University professor Karl Schildener. It painting is described in 1828 in the Greifswald academical journal (II, 2, pp. 40–41). The work was sold at auction in Leipzig in 1845 and acquired by Friedrich's friend and fellow painter Johan Christian Dahl. Dahl imitated the work in his own painting, Megalithic Tomb in Winter. It was sold from the estate of Dahl's only surviving son, Johann Siegwald Dahl, and acquired by the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden in 1905.

Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern

Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern (29 September 1805 – 27 February 1867) was a German landscape painter. Morgenstern is regarded as one of the pioneers in Germany of early Realism in painting. He gained this reputation in Hamburg 1826-1829 together with his contemporary Adolph Friedrich Vollmer while both were still studying; from 1830 onwards, Morgenstern, together with Friedrich Wasmann, Johan Christian Dahl and Adolph Menzel, introduced Munich to Realist painting.

Frogner Manor (painting)

Frogner Manor is an 1842 painting by Johan Christian Dahl, now in a private US collection. It shows the eponymous Frogner Manor and its surrounding landscape gardens.

Måbødalen

Måbødalen (English: Måbø Valley) is a narrow valley in the municipality of Eidfjord in Hordaland county, Norway. The 7-kilometre (4.3 mi) long valley begins at the village of Øvre Eidfjord and ends at the Sysendalen valley on the western side of the Hardangervidda plateau. The valley contains one of the most notable waterfalls in the country: Vøringfossen, which is easily accessible via Norwegian National Road 7 (Rv7).

The first road through the Måbødalen valley was built during the period of 1900–1916. Consisting of three tunnels and three bridges, including the Måbø Bridge, it is characterized by its many hairpin turns. The road is widely used by pedestrians and cyclists today and it is regarded as a good example of early 20th century road engineering. This was the first road connection between Eastern and Western Norway over the Hardangervidda plateau when it was finally completed in 1928. A new road through Måbødalen was opened in 1986, and it replaced the old road (which was not removed). The new road is wider and has many more tunnels to replace the narrow, old road and all its hairpin turns. The Måbødalen bus accident occurred in 1988 on the new road.

The Fossli Hotel is situated on top of the mountain, overlooking the Måbødalen valley and the Vøringfossen waterfall, just off Rv7. The hotel owns a Zimmermann piano where Edvard Grieg composed Norwegian Folk Songs, Opus 66 (1896). In 1854, Johan Christian Dahl painted Måbødalen, a landscape painting of the area. The painting is in the art museum in Bergen.

Peder Aadnes

Peder Pedersen Aadnes (10 August 1739 – 20 June 1792) was a Norwegian rural painter.Aadnes was born in Odnes in Fluberg. Unusually for a rural painter, he chose typical upper-class subjects for his repertoire. He decorated churches, farm interiors, and furnishings throughout eastern Norway in the Rococo style. Aadnes also painted portraits. Aadnes's painting are often referred to as a transitional form in Norwegian painting, from more traditional folk art and the new Norwegian painting represented by Johan Christian Dahl.

Aadnes was a pioneering artist in the tradition of Dutch and German painters. His style paved the way for the later traditional floral decorations and floral paintings known as rosemaling in villages in Norway, and also formed a backdrop for Norwegian Romantic nationalism. Because of Aadnes's role between traditional Dutch and German Rococo, and between the new Norwegian painting on the one hand and traditional floral paintings on the other, he is sometimes referred to as the greatest Norwegian artist of the 1700s.

Shipwreck on the Norwegian Coast

Shipwreck on the Norwegian Coast or Shipwreck on the Coast of Norway (Norwegian - Skibbrudd ved den norske kyst) is an 1832 marine painting by Johan Christian Dahl. It is now in the National Gallery of Norway, to which it was left in 1931 by Louise and Johannes G. Heftye.

Heftye had already painted a first version of the work in 1819, and painted several others in his career, inspired by his five long voyages along the coast of Norway. A smaller variant is in the Bergen Billedgalleri.

The Eruption of Vesuvius

The Eruption of Vesuvius is the name of several 1821 paintings by the Norwegian artist Johan Christian Dahl. He travelled to Italy in 1820, spending a short time in Rome before moving on to Naples, arriving in time for the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in December that year. He was one of the first to climb the mountain. There are several versions of the work, two of which are in the Danish National Gallery and one in the National Gallery of Norway.

The Stugunøset in the Filefjeld

The Stugunøset in the Filefjeld (Norwegian - Stugunøset på Filefjeld, Stugunøset på Fillefjell or Stugunøset på Filefjell) is an 1851 painting by JC Dahl, now in the National Gallery of Norway. It shows the Støgonøse mountain in the Filefjell area in the Valdres district and was painted just after the artist's last trip to Valdres in 1850, aged 62. He based it on a sketch he had made on the high mountain ridge north of Utrøvatnet.

In 1852 it was sold to the Christiania Art Society, which sold it the following year to Wilhelm Adelsten Maribo, who left it to its current owner in 1901.

Thomas Fearnley

Thomas Fearnley (27 December 1802 -16 January 1842) was a Norwegian romantic painter, a pupil of Johan Christian Dahl and a leading representative of Norwegian romantic nationalism in painting.

His son Thomas Fearnley (1841–1927) founded the Fearnley dynasty of shipping magnates.

Tvindefossen

Tvindefossen (also written Tvinnefossen; also called Trollafossen) is a waterfall near Voss, Norway. It is 12 km from Voss on the road to Flåm.The many-stranded waterfall, usually said to be 152 m high, but likely only 110 m, is formed by a small stream, the Kroelvi, tumbling over a receding cliff. It is famous for its beauty. Buses sometimes stop for people to admire it. It was painted in 1830 by Johan Christian Dahl.In addition, in the late 1990s the water at Tvindefossen acquired a reputation for rejuvenation and revival of sexual potency that made it one of the most important natural tourist attractions in western Norway, with as many as 200,000 people a year from the U.S., Japan and Russia visiting and filling containers with the water.At one point it was Norway's ninth most visited natural attraction, with 272,000 visitors.

View from Stalheim

View from Stalheim (Norwegian: Fra Stalheim) is an 1842 oil painting by Johan Christian Dahl of the mountainous view from Stalheim, Voss, Hordaland. It is a major work of Romantic nationalism and has become a national icon. It is regarded as one of Dahl's best works.

Winter at the Sognefjord

Winter at the Sognefjord (Norwegian: Vinter ved Sognefjorden) is a painting by the Norwegian artist Johan Christian Dahl from 1827.The picture is painted in oil on canvas and has the dimensions of 61.5 x 75.5 cm.

The picture is part of the collection of the National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design in Oslo, Norway.

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